agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) transformation using phosphinothricin selection results in a high frequency of single-copy transgene integration.genetic transformation of creeping bentgrass mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens has been achieved. embryogenic callus initiated from seeds (cv. penn-a-4) was infected with an a. tumefaciens strain (lba4404) harboring a super-binary vector that contained an herbicide-resistant bar gene driven either by the camv 35s promoter or a rice ubiquitin promoter. plants were regenerated from 219 independent transformation events. the overall stable transformation efficiency ranged from 18% to 45%. south ...200414615907
thermotolerance and antioxidant systems in agrostis stolonifera: involvement of salicylic acid, abscisic acid, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylene.this study investigated whether pre-treating plants with specific putative signaling components and heat acclimation would induce tolerance of a cool-season grass, creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera var. palustris), to subsequent heat stress and whether thermotolerance induction of those pretreatments was associated with the regulation of antioxidant regenerating enzymes. the treatments included foliar application of salicylic acid (sa), abscisic acid (aba), calcium chloride (cacl2), hydro ...200415128028
root-associated n(2) fixation (acetylene reduction) by enterobacteriaceae and azospirillum strains in cold-climate spodosols.n(2) fixation by bacteria in associative symbiosis with washed roots of 13 poaceae and 8 other noncultivated plant species in finland was demonstrated by the acetylene reduction method. the roots most active in c(2)h(2) reduction were those of agrostis stolonifera, calamagrostis lanceolata, elytrigia repens, and phalaris arundinacea, which produced 538 to 1,510 nmol of c(2)h(4).g (dry weight). h when incubated at po(2) 0.04 with sucrose (ph 6.5), and 70 to 269 nmol of c(2)h(4). g (dry weight).h ...198116345687
rts, a rice anther-specific gene is required for male fertility and its promoter sequence directs tissue-specific gene expression in different plant species.a tapetum-specific gene, rts, has been isolated by differential screening of a cdna library from rice panicles. rts is a unique gene in the rice genome. rna blot analysis and in situ hybridization indicates that this gene is predominantly expressed in the anther's tapetum during meiosis and disappears before anthesis. rts has no introns and encodes a putative polypeptide of 94 amino acids with a hydrophobic n-terminal region. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene do not show ...200616897470
breeding for disease resistance in the major cool-season turfgrasses.over the past several decades, breeding cool-season turfgrasses for improved disease resistance has been the focus of many turfgrass breeding programs. this review article discusses the dramatic improvements made in breeding kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) for resistance to leaf spot (caused by drechslera poae), stem rust (caused by puccinia graminis), and stripe smut (caused by ustilago striiformis); perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne) for resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by pyricularia ...200617061916
the dispersal of vascular plants in a forest mosaic by a guild of mammalian herbivores.endozochorous seed dispersal by herbivores can affect plant spatial dynamics and macroecological patterns. we have investigated the number and species composition of viable seeds deposited in faeces of a full guild of macroherbivores (four deer and two lagomorph species) in a forest in eastern britain. one hundred and one plant species germinated from faecal pellet material, 85 of which were among the 247 vascular plant species recorded in the forest. however, three species - chenopodium album, ...200717661087
development of antibiotic marker-free creeping bentgrass resistance against herbicides.herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass plants (agrostis stolonifera l.) without antibiotic-resistant markers were produced by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. embryogenic callus tissues were infected with agrobacterium tumefaciens eha105, harboring the bar and the cp4-epsps genes for bialaphos and glyphosate resistance. phosphinothricin-resistant calli and plants were selected. soil-grown plants were obtained at 14-16 weeks after transformation. genetic transformation of the selected, rege ...201121173055
isolation and identification of soil bacteria growing at the expense of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.soil-microorganism symbioses are of fundamental importance for plant adaptation to the environment. research in microbial ecology has revealed that some soil bacteria are associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf). however, these interactions may be much more complex than originally thought. to assess the type of bacteria associated with amf, we initially isolated spores of glomus irregulare from an agrostis stolonifera rhizosphere. the spores were washed with sterile water and plated on ...201121219415
expression in grasses of multiple transgenes for degradation of munitions compounds on live-fire training ranges.the deposition of toxic munitions compounds, such as hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine (rdx), on soils around targets in live-fire training ranges is an important source of groundwater contamination. plants take up rdx but do not significantly degrade it. reported here is the transformation of two perennial grass species, switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera), with the genes for degradation of rdx. these species possess a number of agronomic trait ...201627862819
antiprotozoal and antimicrobial compounds from the plant pathogen septoria pistaciarum.four new 1,4-dihydroxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridinone alkaloids, 17-hydroxy-n-(o-methyl)septoriamycin a (1), 17-acetoxy-n-(o-methyl)septoriamycin a (2), 13-(s)-hydroxy-n-(o-methyl)septoriamycin a (3), and 13-(r)-hydroxy-n-(o-methyl)septoriamycin a (4), together with the known compounds (+)-cercosporin (5), (+)-14-o-acetylcercosporin (6), (+)-di-o-acetylcercosporin (7), lumichrome, and brassicasterol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of a culture medium of septoria pistaciarum. methylation of s ...201222530813
the detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators.field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in march and april to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail galba truncatula. seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded in the 7709 positive sites studied. the most frequent habitats were located at the peripheral extremities of open drainage furrows. ...201121524858
new pesticidal diterpenoids from vellozia gigantea (velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered brazilian biome rupestrian grasslands.vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the brazilian rupestrian grasslands. the dichloromethane extract of v. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against lactuca sativa, agrostis stolonifera, and lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti. phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo- ...201728117710
development of binomial sequential sampling plans for forecasting listronotus maculicollis (coleoptera: curculionidae) larvae based on the relationship to adult counts and turfgrass damage.binomial sequential sampling plans were developed to forecast weevil listronotus maculicollis kirby (coleoptera: curculionidae), larval damage to golf course turfgrass and aid in the development of integrated pest management programs for the weevil. populations of emerging overwintered adults were sampled over a 2-yr period to determine the relationship between adult counts, larval density, and turfgrass damage. larval density and composition of preferred host plants (poa annua l.) significantly ...200919610454
production of purple-colored creeping bentgrass using maize transcription factor genes pl and lc through agrobacterium-mediated transformation.purple-colored transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) plants were developed for ornamental purpose by means of agrobacterium-mediated transformation. embryogenic creeping bentgrass calli were transformed with the pcambia 3301 vector harboring maize (zea mays) flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway transcription factor genes, lc (leaf color) and pl (purple leaf), individually and in combination, and three types of putative transgenic plants (lc, pl, and lc + pl) were generate ...200919050897
dead spot severity, pseudothecia development, and overwintering of ophiosphaerella agrostis in creeping bentgrass.abstract dead spot (ophiosphaerella agrostis) is a damaging disease of young </=6 years old) creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) golf greens. the objectives of this 3-year field study were to determine the peak periods of dead spot activity based on increasing patch diameter and pseudothecia development, and to determine where o. agrostis overwinters. patch diameter generally increased at a linear rate between mid-june and early august. increases in pseudothecia production closely followed ...200618944439
heritability of dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass.abstract the dollar spot disease incited by sclerotinia homoeocarpa is an important disease of creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera). genetic resistance is an important control strategy and could reduce fungicide use. despite recent research, the genetic mechanism of dollar spot resistance in turfgrasses is still not fully understood. the objectives of this study were to (i) determine narrow-sense heritability and predicted gain from selection for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass ...200618943744
environmental influences on the release of ophiosphaerella agrostis ascospores under controlled and field conditions.abstract ophiosphaerella agrostis, the causal agent of dead spot of creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera), can produce prodigious numbers of pseudothecia and ascospores throughout the summer. the environmental conditions and seasonal timings associated with o. agrostis ascospore release are unknown. the objectives of this research were to (i) determine the influence of light and relative humidity on ascospore release in a controlled environment, (ii) document the seasonal and daily discharge ...200518943368
overexpression of barley hva1 gene in creeping bentgrass for improving drought tolerance.the objectives of this study were to test the feasibility of introducing barley hva1 gene, a lea3 member, into perennial grass species using the agrobacterium-mediated transformation technique and to determine whether heterologous expression of hva1 would alleviate water-deficit injury in grass species. creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera var. palustris), a drought-intolerant grass species, was transformed transiently or stably using three different promoters in conjunction with the downstr ...200717106681
mapping qtl for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.).dollar spot caused by sclerotinia homoeocarpa f. t. bennett is the most economically important turf disease on golf courses in north america. dollar spot resistance in a creeping bentgrass cultivar would greatly reduce the frequency, costs, and environmental impacts of fungicide application. little work has been done to understand the genetics of resistance to dollar spot in creeping bentgrass. therefore, qtl analysis was used to determine the location, number and effects of genomic regions asso ...200616969681
flp-mediated site-specific recombination for genome modification in develop molecular strategies for gene containment in genetically modified (gm) turfgrass, we have studied the feasibility of using the flp/frt site-specific dna recombination system from yeast for controlled genome modification in turfgrass. suspension cell cultures of creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) and kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) were co-transformed with a flp recombinase expression vector and a recombination-reporter test plasmid containing beta-glucuronidase (gusa) gen ...200616912917
effect of a copper gradient on plant community structure.vegetation data including plant cover, biomass, species richness, and vegetation height was sampled on a copper-contaminated field with total copper contents varying from 50 to almost 3,000 mg/kg soil. the field was covered by early succession grassland dominated by agrostis stolonifera. plant cover, biomass, species richness, and vegetation height generally decreased with increasing copper content, although the highest biomass was reached at intermediate copper concentrations. multivariate stat ...200616566159
linkage map construction in allotetraploid creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.).creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) is one of the most adapted bentgrass species for use on golf course fairways and putting greens because of its high tolerance to low mowing height. it is a highly outcrossing allotetraploid species (2n=4x=28, a(2) and a(3) subgenomes). the first linkage map in this species is reported herein, and it was constructed based on a population derived from a cross between two heterozygous clones using 169 rapd, 180 aflp, and 39 heterologous cereal and 36 hom ...200515981010
evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with cp4 epsps as a marker.sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. this study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direct ...200415448206
efficacy of different fungicides against rhizoctonia brown patch and pythium blight on turfgrass in italy.brown patch, incited by rhizoctonia solani kuhn, and pythium blight, caused by pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. in such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in italy. the results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and pyt ...200315151284
headspace solid-phase microextraction--comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of wound induced plant volatile organic compound emissions.plant emissions of volatile organic compounds from mechanically wounded agrostis stolonifera, pennisetum clandestinum, eucalyptus leucoxylon and trifolium repens have been sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (hs-spme) and analysed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (gcxgc) for measurement of the plant emissions. gcxgc produces a fingerprint of the volatile organic compounds in a 2d separation space that may be approximately interpreted as a boiling point-polar ...200212537367
Expression of a novel antimicrobial peptide Penaeidin4-1 in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) enhances plant fungal disease resistance.Turfgrass species are agriculturally and economically important perennial crops. Turfgrass species are highly susceptible to a wide range of fungal pathogens. Dollar spot and brown patch, two important diseases caused by fungal pathogens Sclerotinia homoecarpa and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively, are among the most severe turfgrass diseases. Currently, turf fungal disease control mainly relies on fungicide treatments, which raises many concerns for human health and the environment. Antimicrobia ...201121931807
characterization of chloroplast dna microsatellites from saccharum spp and related species.microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (ssrs), and their flanking regions in chloroplast genomes (plastomes) of some species of the family poaceae were analyzed in silico to look for dna sequence variations. comparison of the complete chloroplast dna sequences (cpdnas) of sugarcane (saccharum hybrid cv. sp-80-3280 and s. officinarum cv. nco310) and related species, agrostis stolonifera, brachypodium distachyon, hordeum vulgare subsp vulgare, lolium perenne, oryza nivara, o. sativa sub ...201121948764
candidate genes and molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in colonial bentgrass.elevated temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting the growth of cool-season grasses during the summer months. the objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variation in the expression patterns of selected genes involved in several major metabolic pathways regulating heat tolerance for two genotypes contrasting in heat tolerance to confirm their status as potential candidate genes, and to identify pcr-based markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance in a ...201728187136
responses of poa annua and three bentgrass species (agrostis spp.) to adult and larval feeding of annual bluegrass weevil, listronotus maculicollis (coleoptera: curculionidae).the annual bluegrass weevil (abw), listronotus maculicollis kirby, is an economically important pest of short-cut turfgrass in eastern north america. wide spread insecticide resistance warrants the development of alternative management strategies for this pest. abw damage typically occurs in areas with a high percentage of annual bluegrass, poa annua l., the preferred abw host. damage to bentgrasses, agrostis spp., is much rarer and usually less severe. to aid the implementation of host plant re ...201627353253
chlorophyll loss associated with heat-induced senescence in bentgrass.heat stress-induced leaf senescence is characterized by the loss of chlorophyll from leaf tissues. the objectives of this study were to examine genetic variations in the level of heat-induced leaf senescence in hybrids of colonial (agrostis capillaris)×creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) contrasting in heat tolerance, and determine whether loss of leaf chlorophyll during heat-induced leaf senescence was due to suppressed chlorophyll synthesis and/or accelerated chlorophyll degradation in t ...201627297985
an evaluation of the use of individual grass species in retaining polluted soil and dust particulates in vegetated sustainable drainage devices.a sustainable means of preventing polluted particulates carried in urban storm water entering rivers, groundwater and lakes is by employing vegetated sustainable drainage system (suds) devices, or best management practices to trap or biodegrade them. in the uk, a mixture of grass species is recommended for use in devices such as swales or filter strips. however, there is little evidence in support of the efficiency of the individual grasses or mixtures to deal with such contaminated material. a ...201626753553
pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic perennial creeping bentgrass and hybridization at the landscape level.the planting of 162 ha of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) near madras, or, usa, allowed a unique opportunity to study gene flow over time from a perennial outcrossing species at the landscape level. while conducting a four year in situ survey, we collected panicles and leaf tissue samples from creeping bentgrass and its sexually compatible species. seeds from the panicles were planted, and seedlings were tested in the greenhouse for expression of the tra ...201728257488
differentially expressed genes associated with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass overexpressing a gene for cytokinin biosynthesis.transformation with an isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene controlling cytokinin (ck) synthesis has been shown to enhance plant drought tolerance. the objective of this study was to identify differentially-expressed genes (degs) in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) overexpressing ipt compared to non-transgenic plants. the ipt transgene was controlled by a senescence-activated promoter (sag12). both a null transformed line (nt) and sag12-ipt plants were exposed to drought stress in an envi ...201627855226
cloning and expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic oxidase gene from agrostis stolonifera.a gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic oxidase (aco), which catalyzes the terminal step in ethylene biosynthesis, was isolated from agrostis stolonifera. the asaco gene is composed of 975 bp, encoding 324 amino acids. three exons interspersed by two introns form asaco gdna. a blast search of the nucleotide sequence revealed a high level of similarity (79-91%) between asaco and aco genes of other plants. a phylogenetic tree was constructed via blast in the ncbi, and revealed the highest ...201627820649
ectopic expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin in creeping bentgrass impacts plant development and confers broad abiotic stress tolerance.flavodoxin (fld) plays a pivotal role in photosynthetic microorganisms as an alternative electron carrier flavoprotein under adverse environmental conditions. cyanobacterial fld has been demonstrated to be able to substitute ferredoxin of higher plants in most electron transfer processes under stressful conditions. we have explored the potential of fld for use in improving plant stress response in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.). overexpression of fld altered plant growth and develo ...201727638479
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/metribuzin formulations: characterization, controlled release properties, herbicidal activity, and effect on soil microorganisms.slow-release formulations of the herbicide metribuzin (met) embedded in the polymer matrix of degradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [p(3hb)] in the form of microparticles, films, microgranules, and pellets were developed and tested. the kinetics of polymer degradation, met release, and accumulation in soil were studied in laboratory soil microecosystems with higher plants. the study shows that met release can be controlled by using different techniques of constructing formulations and by varying met ...201627628924
metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera).abscisic acid (aba), salicylic acid (sa) and γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. this study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by aba, sa and gaba that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera). plants were foliar sprayed with aba (5 μm), gaba (0.5 mm) and sa (10 μm) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. applicat ...201727507681
the dynamics of leaf extension in plants with diverse altitudinal ranges : i. field observations on temperature responses at one altitude.rates of leaf extension have been studied with electronic auxanometers at mid-altitude in the austrian alps, where both low and high altitude species co-occur. the results demonstrate a clear differentiation in the temperature responses of extension between these two groups of species. for the low or mid-altitude species of achillea millefolium, agrostis stolonifera, poa alpina and rumex arifolius, the average rate of leaf extension increases from 0.1 to 0.4 mm h(-1) between 10 and 20° c. for th ...198628311661
enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ros-scavenging systems in agrostis stolonifera.drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (ck) production. increases in ck production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. the objective of this study was to investigate whether ck-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ros) production and ros scavenging capacity under drought stress. wild-type (wt) creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l. 'penncross') and a transgenic ...201626889010
fungal planet description sheets: 371-399.novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from australia: neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from eucalyptus radiata leaves, phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of theobroma cacao fruit, diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of psidium guajava, magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of agrostis stolonifera and semifissispora natalis from eucalyptus leaf litter. furthermore, neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is desc ...201526823636
biodegradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate as a fertiliser carrier.increasing use of mineral fertilisers can lead to accumulation of fertilisers in soil, water and foodstuffs. one of the approaches to preventing these problems is to develop controlled release forms of fertilisers.201626763527
[heat-responsive mechanisms in plants revealed by proteomic analysis: a review].heat stress is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and productivity. in recent years, proteomic investigations provide more information for understanding the sophisticated heat-responsive molecular mechanism in plants at systematic biological level. the heat-responsive proteomic patterns in several plants, i. e., model plants (arabidopsis thaliana), staple food crops (soybean, rice and wheat), heat-tolerant plants (agrostis stolonifera, portulaca oleracea, and carissa spinarum), grap ...201526685622
ashsp17, a creeping bentgrass small heat shock protein modulates plant photosynthesis and aba-dependent and independent signalling to attenuate plant response to abiotic stress.heat shock proteins (hsps) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. small hsps (shsps) belong to the most ubiquitous hsp subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kda. we have cloned a new shsp gene, ashsp17 from creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. ashsp17 encodes a protein of 17 kda. its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by s ...201626610288
suitability of creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass cultivars for black cutworms and fall armyworms (lepidoptera: noctuidae).the black cutworm, agrotis ipsilon hufnagel, and fall armyworm, spodoptera frugiperda smith (lepidoptera: noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern united states. heat-tolerant bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. the goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutw ...201526470340
limited transpiration under high vapor pressure deficits of creeping bentgrass by application of daconil-action.first observation that chemical spray can induce limited-transpiration rate under high vapor pressure deficit. it appears that acibenzolar may be key in inducing this water conservation trait. irrigation and water use have become major issues in management of turfgrasses. plant health products that have been introduced into the turfgrass market have been observed to improve plant performance in water stress conditions. in this study, we evaluated whether a selection of common plant health produc ...201626438219
root antioxidant mechanisms in relation to root thermotolerance in perennial grass species contrasting in heat tolerance.mechanisms of plant root tolerance to high temperatures through antioxidant defense are not well understood. the objective of this study was to investigate whether superior root thermotolerance of heat-tolerant agrostis scabra relative to its congeneric heat-sensitive agrostis stolonifera was associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. a. scabra 'ntas' and a. stolonifera 'penncross' plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30°c, day/nigh ...201526382960
the importance of ph and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.a partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. saline non-waterlogged slopes of ∼5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. three ro ...201526301685
constitutive expression of rice microrna528 alters plant development and enhances tolerance to salinity stress and nitrogen starvation in creeping bentgrass.microrna528 (mir528) is a conserved monocot-specific small rna that has the potential of mediating multiple stress responses. so far, however, experimental functional studies of mir528 are lacking. here, we report that overexpression of a rice (oryza sativa) mir528 (osa-mir528) in transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) alters plant development and improves plant salt stress and nitrogen (n) deficiency tolerance. morphologically, mir528-overexpressing transgenic plants display short ...201526224802
suitability of various turfgrass species and cultivars for development and survival of black cutworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae).black cutworm, agrotis ipsilon (hufnagel) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), feeding bioassays were conducted on young and mature turfgrass species to determine their potential resistance. measures of resistance included larval weight, survival rate, instar development, pupal weight, duration of pupation, and days to pupation and adult emergence. black cutworm reared on poa pratensis 'midnight', poa arachnigera 'tejas', and poa pratensis x poa arachnigera 'reveille' exhibited slower development, lower we ...200616813321
metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera).γ-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. the objectives of this study were to examine whether increased gaba could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by gaba through metabolic profiling. plants were pretreated with 0.5 mm gaba or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °c) or heat stress (35/30 °c) in controlled growth chambers fo ...201627455877
constructing slow-release formulations of metribuzin based on degradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate).experimental formulations of herbicide metribuzin embedded in matrices of degradable natural polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (p3hb) and its composites with poly(ethylene glycol) (peg), poly-ε-caprolactone (pcl), and wood powder have been prepared in the form of pressed pellets containing 75% polymeric basis (pure p3hb or its composite with a second component at a ratio of 7:3) and 25% metribuzin. incubation of formulations in soil laboratory systems led to the degradation of the matrix and herbi ...201627356030
synonymous mutation gene design to overexpress accase in creeping bentgrass to obtain resistance to accase-inhibiting herbicides.overexpression of a native gene can cause expression of both introduced and native genes to be silenced by posttranscriptional gene silencing (ptgs) mechanisms. ptgs mechanisms rely on sequence identity between the transgene and native genes; therefore, designing genes with mutations that do not cause amino acid changes, known as synonymous mutations, may avoid ptgs. for proof of concept, the sequence of acetyl-coa carboxylase (accase) from creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) was altere ...201627116460
effects of cytokinin and nitrogen on drought tolerance of creeping bentgrass.cytokinin (ck) is a vital plant hormone that controls many aspects of growth and development in plants. nitrogen (n) is the indispensable macronutrient needed in plants and also one of the most important limiting factors for plant growth. this study was designed to investigate the simultaneous effects of ck and n on the visual turf quality and antioxidant metabolism of drought-stressed creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.). 'penna-4' creeping bentgrass treated with trans-zeatin riboside a ...201627099963
cytochrome p450 inhibitors reduce creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) tolerance to topramezone.creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) is moderately tolerant to the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide topramezone. however, the contribution of plant metabolism of topramezone to this tolerance is unknown. experiments were conducted to determine if known cytochrome p450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (abt) and malathion alone or in combination with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl influence creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone. creeping ...201526186714
role of microrna319 in creeping bentgrass salinity and drought stress response.the microrna319 family (mir319) is one of the most conserved and ancient microrna (mirna) families in plants. transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) overexpressing a rice mir319, osa-mir319a, exhibited enhanced salt and drought tolerance. a comprehensive hypothetical model about the role of mir319 in creeping bentgrass response to salinity and drought stress was proposed. salinity and drought stress induces elevated expression of mir319, resulting in downregulation of at least 4 pu ...201425764437
physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.the objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ala), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. a salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mm nacl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ala (0.5 mg l-1) week ...201425551443
elevated cytokinin content in ipt transgenic creeping bentgrass promotes drought tolerance through regulating metabolite accumulation.increased endogenous plant cytokinin (ck) content through transformation with an adenine isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant drought tolerance. the objective of this study is to determine metabolic changes associated with elevated ck production in ipt transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) with improved drought tolerance. null transformants (nts) and plants transformed with ipt controlled by a stress- or senescence-activated promoter (sag12-i ...201222131157
influence of host and geographic locale on the distribution of colletotrichum cereale lineages.colletotrichum cereale is an ascomycete inhabitant of cool-season pooideae grasses. the fungus has increased in frequency over the past decade as a destructive pathogen of poa annua and agrostis stolonifera turfgrass. colletotrichum cereale exists as two lineages, designated clades a and b, but little is known about the distribution of these clades in natural environments, or what role these subdivisions may play in the trajectory of disease outbreaks. in this study, our objective was to determi ...201424842654
bioassay-directed isolation and identification of phytotoxic and fungitoxic acetylenes from conyza canadensis.conyza canadensis (l.) cronquist syn. (horseweed) is a problematic and invasive weed with reported allelopathic properties. to identify the phytotoxic constituents of the aerial parts, a systematic bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract was performed. three active enyne derivatives, (2z,8z)-matricaria acid methyl ester, (4z,8z)-matricaria lactone, and (4z)-lachnophyllum lactone, were identified. the lactones inhibited growth of the monocot agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass ...201222612410
heat tolerance and aging of the anhydrobiotic seed gall nematode with sem observations.the seed gall nematode, anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. these dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. in this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°c) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. survival decreased ...201323589659
photosynthesis, water use, and root viability under water stress as affected by expression of sag12-ipt controlling cytokinin synthesis in agrostis stolonifera.water stress reduces endogenous cytokinin (ck) content and may inhibit ck production. maintenance of endogenous ck levels by genetic transformation with ipt in leaves and roots undergoing senescence may promote stress tolerance. this study was designed to determine the physiological effects of ipt expression on immature and mature leaves and in roots for plants exposed to different levels of water stress for creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera). plants containing the ipt gene, encoding the ...201120841349
phytotoxic activity of flavonoids from dicranostyles ampla.crude extracts from over 16 species of plants from the family convolvulaceae were evaluated for phytotoxic activity against agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) and lactuca sativa (lettuce) at 1000 microg/ml. ethanol extracts of dicranostyles ampla ducke were among the most active of those species tested. systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts from this species was performed to identify specifically the phytotoxic compounds. two phytotoxic flavonoids, dih ...201020839625
microbial control of black cutworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in turfgrass using agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (family baculoviridae, genus nucleopolyhedrovirus, agipmnpv), a naturally occurring baculovirus, was found infecting black cutworm, agrotis ipsilon (hufnagel) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), on central kentucky golf courses. laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies investigated the potential of agipmnpv for managing black cutworms in turfgrass. the virus was highly active against first instars (lc50 = 73 occlusion bodies [obs] per microl with 2-microl dos ...200616937664
evaluating a naturally occurring baculovirus for extended biological control of the black cutworm (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in golf course courses are a potential market for microbial insecticides, but how intensive management of such sites interacts with efficacy of entomopathogens is poorly known. we evaluated agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus (agipmnpv) for suppressing black cutworms, agrotis ipsilon hufnagel (lepidoptera: noctuidae), in turf representative of golf course habitats and on whole tees under actual play. in independent trials on sand- or soil-based putting greens and surrounds, or fairway-height creeping ben ...201021061953
photo-biotechnology as a tool to improve agronomic traits in crops.phytochromes are photosensory phosphoproteins with crucial roles in plant developmental responses to light. functional studies of individual phytochromes have revealed their distinct roles in the plant's life cycle. given the importance of phytochromes in key plant developmental processes, genetically manipulating phytochrome expression offers a promising approach to crop improvement. photo-biotechnology refers to the transgenic expression of phytochrome transgenes or variants of such transgenes ...201525532679
proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. the objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera). plants (cv. penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mm carbonyldiamide (n source), 25 μm aminoethoxyvinylglycine (avg, ethylene inhibitor), 25 μm zeatin riboside (zr, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15° ...201525407697
heat shock proteins in relation to heat stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass at different n levels.heat stress is a primary factor causing summer bentgrass decline. changes in gene expression at the transcriptional and/or translational level are thought to be a fundamental mechanism in plant response to environmental stresses. heat stress redirects protein synthesis in higher plants and results in stress protein synthesis, particularly heat shock proteins (hsps). the goal of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of major hsps in creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) during di ...201425050702
heterologous expression of arabidopsis h+-pyrophosphatase enhances salt tolerance in transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.).the arabidopsis vacuolar h(+)-pyrophosphatase (avp1), when over-expressed in transgenic (tg) plants, regulates root and shoot development via facilitation of auxin flux, and enhances plant resistance to salt and drought stresses. here, we report that tg perennial creeping bentgrass plants over-expressing avp1 exhibited improved resistance to salinity than wild-type (wt) controls. compared to wt plants, tgs grew well in the presence of 100 mm nacl, and exhibited higher tolerance and faster recove ...201019930128
phytotoxicity of constituents of glandular trichomes and the leaf surface of camphorweed, heterotheca subaxillaris.camphorweed, heterotheca subaxillaris (lam.) britt. & rusby, has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. borneol (1), the phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (2-5, 9-11), and methylated flavones (12-15) were isolated from the dichloromethane rinsate of camphorweed aerial tissues. the strongest plant growth inhibitor against agrostis stolonifera and lactuca sativa seedlings, as well as d ...200919054533
transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass ppexp1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. the in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. the objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial gra ...201425003197
role of microrna319 in creeping bentgrass salinity and drought stress response.the microrna319 family (mir319) is one of the most conserved and ancient microrna (mirna) families in plants. transgenic creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) overexpressing a rice mir319, osa-mir319a, exhibited enhanced salt and drought tolerance. a comprehensive hypothetical model about the role of mir319 in creeping bentgrass response to salinity and drought stress was proposed. salinity and drought stress induces elevated expression of mir319, resulting in downregulation of at least 4 pu ...201424698809
turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in new zealand. in a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably leptinella dio ...201424669734
molecular community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of geothermal soils in yellowstone national park (usa).to better understand adaptation of plants and their mycorrhizae to extreme environmental conditions, we analyzed the composition of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) in roots from geothermal sites in yellowstone national park (ynp), usa. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were identified using molecular methods including seven specific primer pairs for regions of the ribosomal dna that amplify different subgroups of amf. roots of dichanthelium lanuginosum, a grass only occurring in geo ...200818449467
growth and physiological responses of creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera) to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.the atmospheric carbon dioxide level has increased and is predicted to continue increasing, which may affect various aspects of plant growth. the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of doubling the carbon dioxide level on the growth and physiological activities of a widely utilized cool-season turfgrass species, creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l. 'penncross'). 'penncross' plants were established in fritted clay medium and maintained under well-irrigated and well-ferti ...201426504537
identification and characterization of an expansin gene asexp1 associated with heat tolerance in c3 agrostis grass species.plant tolerance of heat stress involves various changes at physiological and molecular levels. the objective of this study was to examine the expression of a gene encoding expansin protein in relation to heat tolerance in two c(3) grass species and genotypes differing in heat tolerance. heat-tolerant, thermal agrostis scabra, adapted to high temperatures in geothermal areas in yellowstone national park, was subjected to 20 degrees c (control) or 40 degrees c (heat stress) for 7 d in a growth cha ...200717928368
complete chloroplast genome sequences of hordeum vulgare, sorghum bicolor and agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes. 200727520091
comparative genome analysis between agrostis stolonifera and members of the pooideae subfamily, including brachypodium distachyon.creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera, allotetraploid 2n = 4x = 28) is one of the major cool-season turfgrasses. it is widely used on golf courses due to its tolerance to low mowing and aggressive growth habit. in this study, we investigated genome relationships of creeping bentgrass relative to the triticeae (a consensus map of triticum aestivum, t. tauschii, hordeum vulgare, and h. spontaneum), oat, rice, and ryegrass maps using a common set of 229 est-rflp markers. the genome comparisons b ...201324244501
[cu and pb absorption and tolerance of agrostis stolonifera and festuca arundinacea].this paper studied the seed germination rate, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, sod activity, and cu and pb absorption of agrostis stolonifera and festuca arundinacea under cu and pb pollution. the results showed that cu and pb pollution had a significant effect on the seed germination rate of f. arundinacea. the chlorophyll content of f. arundinacea decreased dramatically under pb and cu-pb pollution, while decreased slightly under cu pollution. no significant effect of cu and pb wa ...200717552204
the first linkage map of the plant-pathogenic basidiomycete typhula ishikariensis.speckled snow mold, caused by the basidiomycete typhula ishikariensis imai, is one of the most prominent winter diseases on perennial grasses and cereal crops in the northern hemisphere. the first linkage map of t. ishikariensis was constructed using a population of 93 sibling monokaryons derived from a single dikaryotic hybrid isolate that was created by a hyphal fusion of two monokaryotic parental isolates. the parental isolates were produced from a pathogenic dikaryotic isolate collected from ...200818356947
establishment of transgenic herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) in nonagronomic habitats.concerns about genetically modified (gm) crops include transgene flow to compatible wild species and unintended ecological consequences of potential transgene introgression. however, there has been little empirical documentation of establishment and distribution of transgenic plants in wild populations. we present herein the first evidence for escape of transgenes into wild plant populations within the usa; glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) plants expressing cp4 e ...200617054516
identity of schizaphis species (hemiptera: aphididae) in the united kingdom: are they a threat to crops?the greenbug, schizaphis graminum (rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. in the uk, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (schizaphis holci and schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, holcus lanatus and agrostis stolonifera. since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling t ...201323458881
assimilation and allocation of carbon and nitrogen of thermal and nonthermal agrostis species in response to high soil temperature.we studied whether changes in the assimilation and allocation of carbon and nitrogen are associated with plant tolerance to high soil temperatures. two agrostis species, thermal agrostis scabra, a species adapted to high-temperature soils in geothermal areas in yellowstone national park (usa), and two cultivars of a cool-season species, agrostis stolonifera, l-93 and penncross, were exposed to soil temperatures of 37 or 20 degrees c, while shoots were exposed to 20 degrees c. net photosynthesis ...200616626470
trace element availability and plant growth in a mine-spill-contaminated soil under assisted natural remediation ii. this second part, we evaluated the effects of different amendments on plant growth (agrostis stolonifera l.), and trace element accumulation and removal by plants in a trace element (as, cd, cu, pb and zn) contaminated soil. description of the various treatments is given in part i of this work. the plants were grown for consecutive periods (2002, 2003, 2004), 5 months each and harvested twice in each period. results showed that plant growth was enhanced and trace element concentrations in pla ...200616600330
constitutive expression of a mir319 gene alters plant development and enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic creeping bentgrass.microrna319 (mir319) is one of the first characterized and conserved microrna families in plants and has been demonstrated to target tcp (for teosinte branched/cycloidea/proliferating cell factors [pcf]) genes encoding plant-specific transcription factors. mir319 expression is regulated by environmental stimuli, suggesting its involvement in plant stress response, although experimental evidence is lacking and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. this study investigates the role that mir319 ...201323292790
plant-specific responses to zinc contamination in a semi-field lysimeter and on hydroponics.the species agrostis stolonifera, brassica napus and trifolium repens representing different ecological strategies, were selected to study the effect of zn contamination on zn tolerance, uptake and accumulation patterns. parallel tests were carried out with increasing concentrations of zn in a semi-field lysimeter and hydroponics in the climate chamber. a significant reduction in biomass production or root length and an increase in shoot zn concentration was observed for all species at increasin ...200515939514
chloroplast small heat-shock proteins protect photosynthesis during heavy metal stress.plants can accumulate heavy metals when exposed to them at high levels. these metals can interfere with photosynthesis. limited evidence suggests that increased synthesis of some heat-shock proteins (hsps) may be a general plant response to metal stress, but the specific functions or structures protected by hsps remain unidentified. chloroplast small hsps (smhsps) protect photosynthetic electron transport (ph(et)) during heat, oxidative, and photoinhibitory stress, but it is not known if chlorop ...200421652363
crossing the divide: gene flow produces intergeneric hybrid in feral transgenic creeping bentgrass population.gene flow is the most frequently expressed public concern related to the deregulation of transgenic events (snow 2002; ellstrand 2003). however, assessing the potential for transgene escape is complex because it depends on the opportunities for unintended gene flow, and establishment and persistence of the transgene in the environment (warwick et al. 2008). creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.), a turfgrass species widely used on golf courses, has been genetically engineered to be resista ...201222625177
heat sensitivity in a bentgrass variant. failure to accumulate a chloroplast heat shock protein isoform implicated in heat tolerance.two variants of creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera cv palustris), developed using tissue culture, have been used to determine the roles of chloroplast-localized small heat shock proteins (cp-shsps) in heat tolerance. results from previous research indicate that the heat-tolerant variant expressed two additional cp-shsp isoforms not expressed in the heat-sensitive variant, that accumulation of the additional cp-shsp isoforms was genetically linked to thermotolerance, and that the presence o ...200312970497
neozygites abacaridis sp. nov. (entomophthorales), a new pathogen of phytophagous mites (acari, eriophyidae).a new entomopathogenic fungus, described here as neozygites abacaridis n. sp. (zygomycetes: entomophthorales), has been found on the mites abacarus hystrix, aculodes dubius, and a. mckenziei (acari: eriophyidae). it differs from other neozygites species affecting mites by its small, globose primary conidia, short-ovoid, smoky coloured capilliconidia, and very short capillary conidiophores-which are usually not longer than the spore length. this pathogen infected mite individuals in autumn (from ...200312877829
heterologous expression of ossiz1, a rice sumo e3 ligase, enhances broad abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic creeping bentgrass.sumoylation is a posttranslational regulatory process in higher eukaryotes modifying substrate proteins through conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (sumos). sumoylation modulates protein stability, subcellular localization and activity; thus, it regulates most cellular functions including response to environmental stress in plants. to study the feasibility of manipulating sumo e3 ligase, one of the important components in the sumoylation pathway in transgenic (tg) crop plants for im ...201323231430
risk assessment of pesticide runoff from turf.the turfpq model was used to simulate the runoff of 15 pesticides commonly applied to creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) fairways and greens on golf courses in the northeastern usa. simulations produced 100-yr daily records of water runoff, pesticide runoff, and pesticide concentration in runoff for three locations: boston, ma, philadelphia, pa, and rochester, ny. results were summarized as annual and monthly means and annual maximum daily loads (amdls) corresponding to 10- and 20-yr r ...200612708667
selectivity of florasulam in 4 grass species during the seed harvest year.results from one year indicated that florasulam (primus) and its combination with fluorxypyr applied in spring of the seed harvest year, were completely selective in seed crops of 4 grass species; namely agrostis stolonifera, festuca rubra rubra, koeleria macrantha and lolium multiflorum. experimental treatments also included a reference product i.e. bentazone + dichlorprop-p and an untreated control; in total 7 treatments were involved. the prime objective of this study was to investigate not o ...200112425099
root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance.extensive past efforts have been taken toward understanding heat tolerance mechanisms of the aboveground organs. root systems play critical roles in whole-plant adaptation to heat stress, but are less studied. this review discusses recent research results revealing some critical physiological and metabolic factors underlying root thermotolerance, with a focus on temperate perennial grass species. comparative analysis of differential root responses to supraoptimal temperatures by a heat-adapted t ...201222328905
effect of turfgrass cover and irrigation on soil mobility and dissipation of mefenoxam and propiconazole.irrigation effects on pesticide mobility have been studied, but few direct comparisons of pesticide mobility or persistence have been conducted on turfgrass versus bare soil. the interaction of irrigation practices and the presence of turfgrass on the mobility and dissipation of mefenoxam [n-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-n-(methoxyacetyl)-d-alanine methyl ester] and propiconazole (1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1h-1,2,4-triazole) was studied. sampling cylinders (20-cm diam. ...201611577867
phytotoxic furanocoumarins from the shoots of semenovia transiliensis.discovery of novel, natural herbicides has become important to manage increasing weed resistance to synthetic herbicides and environmental issues. the systematic bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the shoots of semenovia transiliensis led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds. lactuca sativa l. (lettuce, a dicot) and agrostis stolonifera l. (bentgrass, a monocot) bioassays were used to identify and isolate the phytotoxic fracti ...201223157001
comparison of early development of three grasses: lolium perenne, agrostis stolonifera and poa improve the management of grass communities, early plant development was compared in three species with contrasting growth forms, a caespitose (lolium perenne), a rhizomatous (poa pratensis) and a caespitose-stoloniferous species (agrostis stolonifera).200515932884
illegal gene flow from transgenic creeping bentgrass: the saga continues.ecologists have paid close attention to environmental effects that fitness-enhancing transgenes might have following crop-to-wild gene flow (e.g. snow et al. 2003). for some crops, gene flow also can lead to legal problems,especially when government agencies have not approved transgenic events for unrestricted environmental release.creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera), a common turf grass used in golf courses, is the focus of both areas of concern. in 2002, prior to expected deregulation (s ...201223009646
phylogenetic relationships of turfgrasses as revealed by restriction fragment analysis of chloroplast dna.chloroplast dnas (cpdnas) were analyzed in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among turfgrasses. physical maps of cpdnas from agrostis stolonifera and zoysia japonica, which are representative species of cool (c3 type) and warm (c4 type) season turfgrasses, respectively, were constructed with four restriction enzymes, i.e., psti, sali, saci, and xhoi. the genome structures of these cpdnas were found to be similar to each other in terms of genome size and gene orders, showing thereby ...199324190204
manipulating expression of tonoplast transporters.plant vacuoles have multifaceted roles including turgor maintenance, cytosolic ph and ionic homeostasis, plant protection against environmental stress, detoxification, pigmentation, and cellular signaling. these roles are achieved through the coordinated activities of many proteins in the tonoplast (vacuolar membrane), of which the proton pumps and ion transporters have been modified for improved abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. here we describe a method to manipulate vacuolar h(+) ...201222895772
overexpression of phytochrome a and its hyperactive mutant improves shade tolerance and turf quality in creeping bentgrass and zoysiagrass.phytochrome a (phya) in higher plants is known to function as a far-red/shade light-sensing photoreceptor in suppressing shade avoidance responses (sars) to shade stress. in this paper, the avena phya gene was introduced into creeping bentgrass (agrostis stolonifera l.) and zoysiagrass (zoysia japonica steud.) to improve turf quality by suppressing the sars. in addition to wild-type phya, a hyperactive mutant gene (s599a-phya), in which a phosphorylation site involved in light-signal attenuation ...201222644765
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