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phylogenetic classification of trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains based on dna sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions.using internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region ribosomal dna sequences from 37 stock strains and clinical isolates provisionally termed trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in japan, we demonstrated the mutual phylogenetic relationships of these strains. members of this complex were classified into 3 its1-homologous groups and 13 its1-identical groups by their sequences. its1-homologous group i consists of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, t. mentagrophytes human isolates, and several strains of t. ...19989705405
trichophyton mentagrophytes sive interdigitale? a dermatophyte in the course of time.originally, the trichophyton (t.) mentagrophytes complex distinguished between the anthropophilic subspecies t. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, t. mentagrophytes var. nodulare (synonym t. krajdenii), and t. mentagrophytes var. goetzii and the zoophilic subspecies t. mentagrophytes var. granulosum (rodents), t. mentagrophytes var. erinacei (hedgehog), and t. mentagrophytes var. quinckeanum (mice). in addition, two sexual species (teleomorph) of this complex are known. these are arthroderma (a. ...200717338794
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the dermatophyte, trichophyton mentagrophytes: an efficient tool for gene transfer.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was used to facilitate gene transfer into the clinically important dermatophyte, trichophyton mentagrophytes (teleomorph: arthroderma vanbreuseghemii). a binary vector containing a hygromycin b resistance cassette was introduced into a. tumefaciens, and the resultant strain was co-cultivated with fungal small conidia. transformation yielded a large number of hygromycin b-resistant transformants. hybridization analysis showed that most of t ...200918951290
a survey of dermatophytosis in animals in madras, india.two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of madras, india were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of t. rubrum and 2 strains of t. simii were also obtained in culture. a predominance of m. ...19979691501
mating patterns of dermatophytes of diverse origin in india.the mating patterns of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (74 isolates) and the microsporum gypseum complex (17 isolates) of diverse origin and t. rubrum (25 isolates) and t. tonsurans (10 isolates) of clinical origin were studied. the results of the study showed that the teleomorph of the indian isolates of t. mentagrophytes belong to arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, undetermined teleomorphs of t. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (+) mating types, and undetermined teleomorphs of t. men ...19969208476
genetic homogeneity of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolated from geographically distant regions.to evaluate the genetic homogeneity of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial(mt) dna was performed on 29 isolates of t. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolated from belgian or indian patients with dermatophytosis. the restriction enzyme profiles of these mtdnas were compared with those of the teleomorphic members composing the t. mentagrophytes complex. using the restriction enzymes mspi, haeiii, hindiii and bglii the restriction profiles ...19968732360
ultrastructure of the concentric membrane system in asci of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.an ultrastructural study was performed on the ascosporogenesis in arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. young gymnothecia of the fungus were treated with four different schedules: (1) glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide fixation, (2) potassium permanganate fixation, (3) tannic acid, with or without glutaraldehyde, and osmium tetroxide fixation, (4) periodic acid-alkaline bismuth (pabi) staining after glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide fixation. the glutaraldehyde- and osmium tetroxide-fixed asci had a c ...19826810480
wall ultrastructure of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii ascospores.ascospore cell wall formation in arthroderma vanbreuseghemii was investigated ultrastructurally by the freeze substitution method. using this procedure it was confirmed that the mature ascospore cell wall consisted of an inner electron-translucent layer and an outer electron-dense layer, both of which originated as precipitates of electron-dense granules between the double membrane system of the ascospore initial. the outer wall layer showed a mottled appearance between two electron-dense bounda ...19892778578
taxonomy of trichophyton interdigitale (trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) by restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial dna.the relationship between trichophyton interdigitale (trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) and the other members of the t. mentagrophytes complex was studied by restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial dna (mtdna). the mtdna of 22 isolates of t. interdigitale from japanese patients with dermatophytosis was extracted, digested with the restriction enzymes hae iii, msp i, or hind iii, and the restriction profiles obtained compared with those of arthroderma simii, arthroderma benhamia ...19901698960
[growth and sexual reproduction of the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii takashio (trichophyton mentagrophytes (robin blanchard) on a synthetic medium].a synthetic medium without agar is proposed for the growth and the sexual reprpduction of the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (trichophyton mentagrophytes). the determinations of mycelium dry weight showed that this species grew poorly with only one amino-acid as nitrogen source. a. vanbreuseghemii grew weakly on a mixture of glutamic and aspartic acid and serin. a small amount of aromatic amino-acids added to this mixture, increased the growth rate comparable to that obtained on pepton ...19751239664
[review of two japanese cases with tinea faciei identified by molecular biological techniques as arthroderma vanbreuseghemii].a 26-year-old female (case 1) presented with scaly erythema on the left cheek. positive direct microscopic examination results indicated a diagnosis of tinea faciei. colonies were isolated after incubation on mycosel agar medium. trichophyton mentagrophytes was morphologically identified based on giant colony formation and slide culture. furthermore, nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region of the rdna gene identified arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. the patien ...201021060212
molecular analysis and mating behaviour of the trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex.isolates of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex vary phenotypically. whether the closely related zoophilic and anthropophilic anamorphs currently associated with arthroderma vanbreuseghemii have to be considered as members of the same biological species remains an open question. in order to better delineate species in the t. mentagrophytes complex, we performed a mating analysis of freshly collected isolates from humans and animals with a. benhamiae and a. vanbreuseghemii reference strains, ...201120708436
signature polymorphisms in the internal transcribed spacer region relevant for the differentiation of zoophilic and anthropophilic strains of trichophyton interdigitale and other species of t. mentagrophytes sensu lato.dermatophytes are the main cause of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. molecular research has given useful insights into the phylogeny and taxonomy of the dermatophytes to overcome the difficulties with conventional diagnostics.201019886885
arthroderma vanbreuseghemii infection in three family members with kerion and tinea corporis.we present a familial infection caused by arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. the proband is a 4-year-old boy, who had played with rabbits at his rabbit-farm neighbor. he complained of pruritus and pain in his scalp, which displayed redness, alopecia and painful cysts and eventually discharged pus and scabbed. several erythema on his face and abdomen were also presented. he was diagnosed as having impetigo but antibacterial agents were not effective and his clinical condition did not improve. several d ...200919115135
pets as the main source of two zoonotic species of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex in switzerland, arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and arthroderma benhamiae.in cases of highly inflammatory dermatophytosis in humans, it is important to identify the possible source of animal transmission in order to prevent recurrence, family outbreaks or rapidly progressing epidemics. a survey of dermatophytes in pets during a 14-month period in switzerland revealed, in addition to microsporum canis, two different species of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, arthroderma benhamiae and arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, all causing inflammatory dermatophytoses. arthro ...200918699813
changes in frequency of agents of tinea capitis in school children from western china suggest slow migration rates in dermatophytes.tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp of children in western china, with the gray-patch from being the most prevalent. twenty years ago, the most widespread etiologic agent was reported to be trichophyton violaceum, which was later succeeded by microsporum ferrugineum and trichophyton schoenleinii. in the framework of our recent study, 97 isolates were collected from patients with clinically suspected tinea capitis. identification was performed by conventional methods and ...200818608883
impetigo-like tinea faciei around the nostrils caused by arthroderma vanbreuseghemii identified using polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing of crusts.we report a case of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (a teleomorph of trichophyton interdigitale) infection around the nostrils in a 3-year-old girl. the culture was negative, so the pathogenic agent was identified using polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing of the crusts taken from the lesion on the nostril. treatment with oral itraconazole and topical 1% naftifine/0.25% ketoconazole cream after a topical wash with ketoconazole shampoo was effective.201423278484
asymptomatic groin dermatophyte carriage detected during routine gynaecologic examinations.we investigated the epidemiological characteristics of both symptomatic and asymptomatic dermatophytic groin infections in 1970 women (age: 36.2 ± 12.5) during routine gynaecologic examinations. bilateral groin samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs premoistened with sterile physiological saline. the samples were then separately inoculated onto sabouraud glucose agar. fungi were identified by sequencing the rdna internal transcribed spacer region. dermatophytes were recovered from five ...201323006021
rapid detection of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii in rabbit skin specimens by pcr-rflp.three commercial rabbit farms independently reported suspected dermatophyte infections during 2004. cultures confirmed that the infection was caused by the zoophilic tricophyton mentagrophytes, while mating studies and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (its)1/4 polymerase chain reaction products, directly amplified from skin lesions and from pure culture isolates, established its arthroderma vanbreuseghemii lineage. subsequently, the corresponding ddei restriction profiles of the its ...200616961817
identification and subtyping of trichophyton mentagrophytes by random amplified polymorphic dna.trichophyton mentagrophytes is one of the most common pathogens for human and animal dermatophytoses and known as a complex species with variable morphology, and ecologic and genetic backgrounds. we performed random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis on 43 human and 18 animal isolates of t. mentagrophytes along with other 10 anamorphic species of dermatophytes and three teleomorphic species of t. mentagrophytes. using rapd analysis with primer 5'-atggatc(g,c)(g,c)c-3' (atgs), all t. menta ...200111486453
the taxonomic status of trichophyton quinckeanum and t. interdigitale revisited: a multigene phylogenetic approach.trichophyton quinckeanum, known as the causative agent of mouse favus, has been a subject of controversy since its discovery, 125 years ago. the purpose of this study was to examine the phylogenetic relationships between this fungus and related taxa. to achieve this objective, the its rdna region, as well as actin and β-tubulin gene regions of various isolates were sequenced. bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses were conducted with t. rubrum as outgroup. our study showed that strai ...201222587727
[two cases of trichophyton mentagrophytes infection contracted from a hamster and a chinchilla].we report two cases of trichophyton mentagrophytes infection. case 1: a 10-year-old girl visited tokyo electric power hospital in june 1994 for evaluation of an erythematous lesion on her head. three months of topical steroid therapy exacerbated the lesion with pustular formation. histopathological and mycological examination revealed that the patient had tinea capitis caused by t. mentagrophytes. t. mentagrophytes was also isolated from her pet, a hamster. case 2: a-14-year-old girl was referre ...200011064327
rrna gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to trichophyton rubrum.the ribosomal region spanning the two internal transcribed spacer (its) regions and the 5.8s ribosomal dna region was sequenced for asexual, anthropophilic dermatophyte species with morphological similarity to trichophyton rubrum, as well as for members of the three previously delineated, related major clades in the t. mentagrophytes complex. representative isolates of t. raubitschekii, t. fischeri, and t. kanei were found to have its sequences identical to that of t. rubrum. the its sequences o ...199910565922
a random comparative study of terbinafine versus griseofulvin in patients with tinea capitis in western china.objective: to compare the efficacy and safety of terbinafine with griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis in western china. methods: children (2-14-áyears of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized into three groups: group gri4 received 4-áweeks of griseofulvin; group tbf2 received 2-áweeks of terbinafine; and group tbf4 received 4-áweeks of terbinafine. clinical and mycological evaluations were done in 0, 2, 4, and 8-áweek ...201121701791
soil dermatophytes in madras, india, in relation to human ringworm.a total of 269 soil samples collected from different habitats in madras, india, were screened for the presence of dermatophytes by the hair-baiting technique. three strains of trichophyton mentagrophytes and 16 strains of microsporum gypseum complex were isolated. these strains were subjected to the mating experiment. 2/3 soil isolates of trichophyton mentagrophytes belonged to arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (+) mating type, and 1/3 was arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (-) mating type. similarly 6/70 cl ...19979476517
Genetic relationship between Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.Thirty-nine Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii isolates identified by mating behavior were assayed to determine their ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region genotypes. Twenty-two isolates of mating type (+) and 4 of (-) showed the genotype of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, 9 isolates of mating type (+) and 4 of (-) showed the genotype of A. vanbreuseghemii. Nine of 14 isolates with granular or asteroid colony morphology showed the genotype of T. mentagrophytes var. ...201121891984
molecular characterization of strains of the trichophyton verrucosum complex from tunisia.trichophyton verrucosum is the most frequent etiologic agent of cattle dermatophytosis. throughout the world, it was the second most common agent of zoophilic dermatophytes in human. the aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the pcr- rflp and pcr-sequencing methods for the identification and differentiation of t. verrucosum strains.thirty-six clinical strains identified by morphological characteristics as t. verrucosum were isolated from patients referred to parasitology-mycology labo ...201627364650
trichophyton mentagrophytes skin infections in laboratory animals as a cause of zoonosis.recent sporadic distribution in japan of trichophyton mentagrophytes skin infections among laboratory rats or guinea pigs is reported. six cases of laboratory infection by the fungus in humans who came in direct contact with the affected animals are also presented. mating experiments with the causative fungi isolated from the animal and human skin lesions revealed that all but one sexually reactive strains belonged to the "+" mating type of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. a retrospective epidemiolo ...19817219511
kerion and tinea corporis caused by rabbit-derived trichophyton interdigitale in three siblings and one consulting doctor using β-tubulin gene to identify the pathogen.trichophyton interdigitale is generally deemed as an anamorph of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii based on internal transcribed spacer (its) sequencing, but recently their anamorph/teleomorph connection should be cautioned based on β-tubulin phylogeny. we report three siblings and one consulting doctor who developed kerion and tinea corporis after contact with domestic rabbits. seven same strains were isolated from four patients and three regions of a sick rabbit. the its and d1/d2 sequences of our i ...201627115611
histochemical localization of thiamine pyrophosphatase in the lomasomes in asci of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.thiamine pyrophosphatase localization in asci of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii was investigated histochemically by electron microscopy. the reaction product of this enzyme was demonstrated in some paramural membranous structures that are believed to represent lomasomes. this observation suggests that at least a certain number of lomasomes might be involved in cell wall synthesis and thus behave in a manner similar to the golgi apparatus in higher eukaryotic cells.19846145221
genetic and phenotypic analyses of calcineurin a subunit in arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.calcineurin is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase that consists of catalytic (calcineurin a) and regulatory (calcineurin b) subunits. the conserved protein plays important roles in various biological processes. drug combination of fluconazole and the calcineurin inhibitor (fk506) showed synergistic effects against dermatophytes. in the current study, we identified the calcineurin a homologous gene (tmcana) in the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (anamorph: trichophyton mentagrophytes ...201626483437
isoelectric focusing applied to taxonomic differentiation of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and the related trichophyton interdigitale.somatic extracts from dermatophytes of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and of trichophyton interdigitale grown on trypticase soy broth were prepared for analytical isoelectric focusing in thin layer polyacrylamide gels over the ph range 4-6.5. a total of 44 strains were studied: 8 arthroderma benhamiae (4 americano-european and 4 african races), 4 arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, 6 trichophyton mentagrophytes and 26 trichophyton interdigitale. laser densitometric analysis revealed two outsta ...19892622478
ultrastructure of the pseudo-cleistothecia produced by the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.the internal structure and the formation processes of pseudo-cleistothecia in arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, a member of the trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, were observed by light and electron microscopy. the structure of pseudo-cleistothecia, obtained by single spore culture of a. vanbreuseghemii, developed as a clump of hyphae producing microconidia which increased gradually in size. echinulations appeared on the surrounding hyphae, which developed into peridial hyphae with characteristic c ...19911941430
clinical and laboratory features of six cases of candida and dermatophyte folliculitis and a review of published studies.although some studies have investigated the epidemiological characteristics of malassezia folliculitis (mf), little is known about the clinical features and laboratory characteristics of folliculitis caused by other fungi. in this prospective study, 158 patients with folliculitis were identified, and cytological and mycological examinations were performed. the positive fungal cultures were confirmed using conventional methods, its sequencing and hwp1 analysis. additionally, an in vitro antifunga ...201626337525
which fungus originally was trichophyton mentagrophytes? historical review and illustration by a clinical case.several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called trichophyton mentagrophytes. among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species arthroderma benhamiae, arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and arthroderma simii, and other species such as trichophyton interdigitale, trichophyton erinacei and trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. confusion exists about which fungus should be really called t. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name ...201525912796
an outbreak of arthroderma vanbreuseghemii dermatophytosis at a veterinary school associated with an infected horse.we report a case of an outbreak of inflammatory dermatophytoses caused by arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (formally trichophyton mentagrophytes pro parte) that involved an infected horse, the owner and at least 20 students, staff and stablemen at a veterinary school in bern (switzerland) that presented highly inflammatory dermatitis of the body and the face. transmission from human to human was also recorded as one patient was the partner of an infected person. both the phenotypic characteristics an ...201525676308
mating type gene for isolates of trichophyton mentagrophytes from guinea pigs.trichophyton mentagrophytes were isolated from 19 of 20 guinea pigs in a children’s corner of a zoo. the nucleotide sequence identity of the internal transcribed spacer region among 19 guinea pig isolates was 99%, including the reference strain of animal type 3 of t. mentagrophytes. the genomic dna of all isolates were investigated for the mating (mat) gene by specific polymerase chain reaction. the alpha-box gene was detected in all 19 isolates, while the high-mobility-group (hmg) gene was dete ...201425237703
flippase (flp) recombinase-mediated marker recycling in the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.biological processes can be elucidated by investigating complex networks of relevant factors and genes. however, this is not possible in species for which dominant selectable markers for genetic studies are unavailable. to overcome the limitation in selectable markers for the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (anamorph: trichophyton mentagrophytes), we adapted the flippase (flp) recombinase-recombination target (frt) site-specific recombination system from the yeast saccharomyces cerevisi ...201424996827
frequent isolation of arthroderma benhamiae from dogs with dermatophytosis.molecular analysis methods have led to many changes in the taxonomy of dermatophyte species.201424267472
involvement of serine protease and proteinase-activated receptor 2 in dermatophyte-associated itch in mice.we investigated the involvement of serine protease and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (par(2)) in dermatophyte-induced itch in mice. an intradermal injection of an extract of the dermatophyte arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (adv) induced hind-paw scratching, an itch-related behavior. adv extract-induced scratching was inhibited by the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naltrexone, the serine protease inhibitor nafamostat mesylate, and the par(2) receptor antagonist fsllry-nh(2). adv extract-i ...201222761302
occurrence of pathogenic fungi in soil of burrows of rats and of other sites in bamboo plantations in india and nepal.this study examined 215 samples of soil from burrows of rats, other sites in bamboo plantations in different parts of india and nepal by dilution plating and mouse passage technique for occurrence of penicillium marneffei and other pathogenic fungi. none of the samples including 25 collected from the burrows of a bamboo rat (cannomys badius) known to be a carrier of p. marneffei, was positive for the fungus. among the pathogenic fungi recovered were four isolates of pseudallescheria boydii (incl ...200717944715
development of a tightly regulatable copper-mediated gene switch system in dermatophytes.targeted gene deletion is now available for molecular genetic research of dermatophytes, and the physiological roles of several genes have been elucidated. however, this method cannot be applied to essential genes, which can be potential drug targets. to overcome this limitation, we have developed a conditional gene knockdown system using a copper-responsive promoter. the promoter sequence of the copper transporter gene ctr4 (p(ctr4)) and that of the copper efflux pump gene crp1 (p(crp1)) derive ...201222610431
a survey of dermatophytosis in animals in madras, india.two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of madras, india were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of t. rubrum and 2 strains of t. simii were also obtained in culture. a predominance of m. ...199716284812
phylogenetic classification and species identification of dermatophyte strains based on dna sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions.the mutual phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes of the genera trichophyton, microsporum, and epidermophyton were demonstrated by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (its1) region ribosomal dna sequences. trichophyton spp. and microsporum spp. form a cluster in the phylogenetic tree with epidermophyton floccosum as an outgroup, and within this cluster, all trichophyton spp. except trichophyton terrestre form a nested cluster (100% bootstrap support). members of dermatophytes in the cluster ...199910074502
sequence-based identification of a zoophilic strain of trichophyton interdigitale in a rare case of tinea blepharo-ciliaris associated with tinea barbae.impaired hair at blepharo-ciliaris area by dermatophytes is a rare clinical entity. this infection is often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, being mistakenly referred to as an infection of bacterial origin. herein, we present a rare case of tinea blepharo-ciliaris associated with tinea barbae in an adult male. considering the two lesions of the patient, mycological examination was performed by phenotypic methods, including environmental electronic scanning microscopy. trichophyton interdigitale z ...201526162645
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