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equine morbillivirus pneumonia: susceptibility of laboratory animals to the virus. 19958534238
ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus.the ultrastructure of the equine morbillivirus (emv) which was implicated in the death of one human and fourteen horses in queensland, australia during september 1994 and a 36 year old man from queensland in october 1995 is described. the ultrastructure of the virus and the intracellular virus-specific structures are characteristic for the family paramyxoviridae. cytoplasmic nucleocapsids were observed within the infected cells monolayers, endothelial cells (lung) of infected horses and the neur ...19968822630
comparison of the deduced matrix and fusion protein sequences of equine morbillivirus with cognate genes of the paramyxoviridae.the nucleotide sequence of the matrix protein of equine morbillivirus (emv) was determined to be 1062 nucleotides and coded for a deduced protein of m(r) 40148 having a net charge of + 19 at neutral ph. the matrix protein gene was separated from the p and f genes by intercistronic regions of 546 and 469 nucleotides, respectively. the nucleotide sequence which coded for the f protein was 1641 nucleotides and coded for a deduced protein of 546 amino acids having an m(r) of 60,447 and a charge + 4 ...19968822631
susceptibility of cats to equine morbillivirus.to assess the susceptibility of cats to equine morbillivirus (emv) by direct administration of the virus by subcutaneous, intra-nasal or oral routes, and following exposure to infected cats.19968894019
the evolving story of the equine morbillivirus. 19968894036
negative findings from serological studies of equine morbillivirus in the queensland horse population. 19968894042
investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal queensland. 19968894043
the retrospective diagnosis of a second outbreak of equine morbillivirus infection. 19968894044
serologic evidence for the presence in pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. 19968903239
another human case of equine morbillivirus disease in australia. 19968964059
fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses.in september, 1994, an outbreak of severe respiratory disease affected 18 horses, their trainer, and a stablehand in queensland, australia. fourteen horses and one human being died. a novel virus was isolated from those affected and named equine morbillivirus (emv). we report a case of encephalitis caused by this virus.19978996421
zoonoses control. equine morbillivirus in queensland. 19969238415
lesions of experimental equine morbillivirus pneumonia in horses.laboratory examinations of equine morbillivirus included experimental reproductions of the disease caused by the virus by transmission of mixed lung and spleen taken from two field equine cases into two horses and by inoculating tissue culture virus into a further two horses. the most distinctive gross lesions of the diseases that developed in three of the horses was that of pulmonary edema characterized by gelatinous distension of subpleural lymphatics. histologically, the lesions in the lungs ...19979240840
the lesions of experimental equine morbillivirus disease in cats and guinea pigs.nine cats and four guinea pigs became affected with severe disease during experiments on the infectivity of equine morbillivirus, a newly recognized cause of respiratory disease in horses and humans. four of the cats were challenged by subcutaneous inoculation, two by intranasal installation, two by oral dosage, and one by direct contact with a cat previously infected by subcutaneous inoculation. all four guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously. gross pathology seen in all affected cats was c ...19979240841
a novel p/v/c gene in a new member of the paramyxoviridae family, which causes lethal infection in humans, horses, and other animals.in 1994, a new member of the family paramyxoviridae isolated from fatal cases of respiratory disease in horses and humans was shown to be distantly related to morbilliviruses and provisionally called equine morbillivirus (k. murray et al., science 268:94-97, 1995). to facilitate characterization and classification, the virus was purified, viral proteins were identified, and the p/v/c gene was cloned and sequenced. the coding strategy of the gene is similar to that of sendai and measles viruses, ...19989445051
emerging infections in australia.over the last 10 years, novel infectious agents including equine morbillivirus, lyssavirus, barmah forest virus, rickettsia honei and two as-yet-unnamed bunyaviruses have been identified as causes of human disease in australia. previously described agents, such as japanese b encephalitis virus, dengue virus, ross river virus, orientia tsutsugamushi, rickettsia australis, burkholderia pseudomallei, mycobacterium ulcerans and trichinella pseudospiralis, have increased their geographical distributi ...19979494666
expression of equine morbillivirus (emv) matrix and fusion proteins and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents.full-length cdna clones coding for the matrix (m) and fusion (f) proteins of equine morbillivirus (emv) were isolated by rt-pcr, and expressed in escherichia coli using two different expression systems. western blot analysis indicated that the m and f proteins, expressed either by itself or as fusion proteins with glutathione s-transferase (gst), were insoluble and degraded after expression. analysis of the degradation pattern of recombinant m protein suggested that the n-terminus of the matrix ...19979672592
sequence analysis of the hendra virus nucleoprotein gene: comparison with other members of the subfamily paramyxovirinae.the nucleoprotein (n) gene of hendra virus (hev), an unclassified member of subfamily paramyxovirinae in the family paramyxoviridae previously known as equine morbillivirus, was cloned and sequenced. the majority of the deduced amino acid sequence was further confirmed by direct sequencing of peptide fragments of the n protein derived from purified virions. the 3' untranslated sequence of the hev n gene mrna was 568 nt and was much longer than that observed in other paramyxovirinae. the n protei ...19989680142
the attachment protein of hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology compared with viruses in the genus paramyxovirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the attachment protein gene of hendra virus, a new member of the subfamily paramyxovirinae, has been determined from cdna clones derived from viral genomic rna. the deduced mrna is 2565 nucleotides long with one open reading frame encoding a protein of 604 amino acids, which is similar in size to the attachment protein of the members of the subfamily. however, the mrna transcript is >600 nucleotides longer than others in the subfamily due to the presence of lo ...19989837786
transmission studies of hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats.to determine the infectivity and transmissibility of hendra virus (hev).19989972433
transmissibility from horses to humans of a novel paramyxovirus, equine morbillivirus (emv).determination of potential infectivity of a new paramyxovirus equine morbillivirus (emv) from horses to humans and humans to humans as a result of two outbreaks in queensland which involved 23 horses and three humans.199910090501
outbreak of hendra-like virus--malaysia and singapore, 1998-1999.during september 29, 1998-april 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the malaysian ministry of health (moh). during march 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in singapore. tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. this report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these ...199910227800
isolation and molecular characterization of a novel cytopathogenic paramyxovirus from tree shrews.a cytopathic infectious agent was isolated from the kidneys of an apparently healthy tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) that had been captured in the area around bangkok. the infectivity was propagated in tupaia fibroblast and kidney cell cultures. paramyxovirus-like pleomorphic enveloped particles and helical nucleocapsids were observed by electron microscopy and accordingly the infectious agent was termed tupaia paramyxovirus (tpmv). however, no serological cross-reactions were detected between tpm ...199910366580
[emergence of "new" viral zoonoses].in the last two to three decades a significant increase of viral zoonotic infections was observed. these zoonoses are not only newly (or previously unrecognized) emerging diseases, but also due to the reappearance of diseases thought to have been defeated (re-emerging diseases). "new" viral diseases can arise when viruses broaden their host-range (monkey poxvirus; equine morbillivirus), or can be a consequence of intrinsic properties of the virus itself, such as high mutation rates (influenza a ...199910488638
newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order mononegavirales, namely hendra virus (hev), menangle virus and australian bat lyssavirus (abl). early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. in 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in queensland. the virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (emv) and has since been renamed hev. inve ...199910501164
immunohistochemistry in the identification of a number of new diseases in australia.immunohistochemistry plays an important part in the diagnosis of some viral diseases. demonstration of viral antigen in a lesion is an important contribution to diagnosis, either at the time of investigation or retrospectively. at the csiro australian animal health laboratory, the most frequent use of immunohistochemistry has been in the diagnosis of the important avian diseases, highly pathogenic avian influenza and newcastle disease. the technology took key roles in the diagnoses of hendra vir ...199910501165
fatal encephalitis due to nipah virus among pig-farmers in malaysia.between february and april, 1999, an outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred among pig-farmers in malaysia. we report findings for the first three patients who died.199910520635
clinical features of nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in malaysia.between september 1998 and june 1999, there was an outbreak of severe viral encephalitis due to nipah virus, a newly discovered paramyxovirus, in malaysia.200010781618
identification and phylogenetic comparison of salem virus, a novel paramyxovirus of horses.a virus that could not be identified as a previously known equine virus was isolated from the mononuclear cells of a horse. electron microscopy revealed enveloped virions with nucleocapsid structures characteristic of viruses in the paramyxoviridae family. the virus failed to hemabsorb chicken or guinea pig red blood cells and lacked neuraminidase activity. two viral genes were isolated from a cdna expression library. multiple sequence alignments of one gene indicated an average identity of 45% ...200010793001
nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus.a paramyxovirus virus termed nipah virus has been identified as the etiologic agent of an outbreak of severe encephalitis in people with close contact exposure to pigs in malaysia and singapore. the outbreak was first noted in late september 1998 and by mid-june 1999, more than 265 encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, had been reported in malaysia, and 11 cases of encephalitis or respiratory illness with one death had been reported in singapore. electron microscopic, serologic, and genetic ...200010827955
a fatal case of hendra virus infection in a horse in north queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. 200010840578
identification and molecular characterization of hendra virus in a horse in queensland. 200010840579
isolation of hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of hendra virus.since it was first described in australia in 1994, hendra virus (hev) has caused two outbreaks of fatal disease in horses and humans, and an isolated fatal horse case. our preliminary studies revealed a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to hev in bats of the genus pteropus:, but it was unclear whether this was due to infection with hev or a related virus. we developed the hypothesis that hev excretion from bats might be related to the birthing process and we targeted the reproductive tr ...200010900029
[update in infectious diseases. part i: epidemiology].a number of infectious agents has been newly detected in the last 10 years. climatic changes and migration have been the most important factors in the emergence of new and old infections. additionally, new methods for the detection of dna and rna have played an important role in the detection of agents difficult to culture. relevant new bacterial pathogens are bartonella henselae (cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis), tropheryma whippeli (whipple's disease) and new rickettsiae. newly det ...200010935415
the exceptionally large genome of hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family paramyxoviridae.an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in hendra, a suburb of brisbane, australia, in september 1994 resulted in the deaths of 14 racing horses and a horse trainer. the causative agent was a new member of the family paramyxoviridae. the virus was originally called equine morbillivirus but was renamed hendra virus (hev) when molecular characterization highlighted differences between it and members of the genus morbillivirus. less than 5 years later, the closely related nipah virus (niv) emerged ...200011024125
hendra virus: a highly lethal zoonotic agent. 200011061952
hendra (equine morbillivirus)hendra has been recognized in australia as a new zoonotic disease of horses since 1994/5 and subsequent work has shown that the viral agent is endemic in certain species of fruit bat. the hendra virus is the type species of a new genus within the sub-family paramyxovirinae, which also contains another newly identified zoonotic bat virus, namely nipah. it is assumed that contact with bats has led to the hendra virus being transferred to horses on each of the three separate incidents that have bee ...200011061954
diagnosis of nipah virus encephalitis by electron microscopy of cerebrospinal fluid.between 1998 and 1999, an outbreak of potentially fatal viral encephalitis erupted among pig farm workers in west malaysia, and later spread to singapore where abattoir workers were afflicted. although japanese encephalitis virus was initially suspected, the predominant aetiologic agent was subsequently confirmed to be nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus related to but distinct from hendra virus.200011090749
hendra virus disease in horses.the author provides an account of the discovery of a previously undescribed disease of horses and a description of the studies involved in determining the aetiology of the disease. the causative virus, now named hendra virus (hev), is the reference virus for a proposed new genus within the virus family paramyxoviridae. the virus is a lethal zoonotic agent able to cause natural disease in humans and horses and experimentally induced disease in cats, guinea-pigs and mice. the virus also naturally ...200011189712
nipah virus infection of pigs in peninsular malaysia.between late 1998 and 1999, the spread of a new disease of pigs, characterized by a pronounced respiratory and neurological syndrome, sometimes accompanied by the sudden death of sows and boars, was recorded in pig farms in peninsular malaysia. the disease appeared to have a close association with an epidemic of viral encephalitis among workers on pig farms. a previously unrecognised paramyxovirus was later identified from this outbreak; this virus was related to, but distinct from, the hendra v ...200011189713
emergence of nipah virus in malaysia.a pig-borne virus causing viral encephalitis amongst human beings in malaysia was detected in 1997 by the ministry of health. initially, the disease was considered to be japanese encephalitis. subsequently, it was thought to be a hendra-like viral encephalitis, but on 10th april, 1999 the minister of health announced this mysterious and deadly virus to be a new virus named nipah virus. the virus was characterized at cdc, atlanta, georgia. the gene sequencing of the enveloped virus revealed that ...200011193645
hendra and nipah virus infections.the most important clinical and pathological manifestation of hendra virus infection in horses and humans is that of severe interstitial pneumonia caused by viral infection of small blood vessels. the virus is also capable of causing nervous disease. hendra virus is not contagious in horses and is spread by close contact with body fluids, such as froth from infected lungs. diagnosis should be based on the laboratory examination of blood, lung, kidney, spleen, and, if nervous signs are present, a ...200011219352
laboratory diagnosis of nipah and hendra virus infections.although hendra and nipah viruses emerged to cause novel zoonotic infections only recently, there now exists a strong but poorly documented diagnostic capability for both. this review gives an overview of the development of the tests, the tests currently recommended, their shortcomings and the perceived priorities for needed test improvements.200111334746
ultrastructure of hendra virus and nipah virus within cultured cells and host animals.the ultrastructure of hendra and nipah viruses is described in cultured cells, pigs, horses and humans. differences in ultrastructure between the viruses are evident within infected cell cultures and lungs from infected amplifier hosts. these differences are important in viral identification and differentiation and understanding the pathogenesis of disease.200111334747
molecular characterization of menangle virus, a novel paramyxovirus which infects pigs, fruit bats, and humans.menangle virus (menv), isolated in august 1997 following an outbreak of reproductive disease in a piggery in new south wales, is the second previously unclassified member of the family paramyxoviridae to be identified in australia since 1994. similar to hendra virus (hev), menv appears to be a virus of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the genus pteropus. no serological cross-reactivity was detected between menv and other known paramyxoviruses and to facilitate virus classification a cdna subtraction ...200111336561
nipah virus infection in bats (order chiroptera) in peninsular malaysia.nipah virus, family paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular malaysia in 1998-99. because nipah virus appears closely related to hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder megachiroptera), a natural host of hendra virus in australia. we collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular malaysia. neutralizing antibodies to nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular mal ...200111384522
a guinea-pig model of hendra virus encephalitis.subcutaneous inoculation, but not intradermal (footpad) or intranasal inoculation, with high doses of hendra virus (hev) consistently produced disease in guinea-pigs. of 15 subcutaneously inoculated animals, 14 developed vascular disease with positive hev immunohistochemical labelling in a range of tissues. a new observation was the presence of lesions, including syncytial cells, with immunolabelling in the transitional epithelium of the bladder. virus isolation from the urine rather than from n ...200111437503
emerging viral diseases of southeast asia and the western pacific.over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in southeast asia and the western pacific. vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include japanese encephalitis, barmah forest, ross river, and chikungunya viruses. however, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. the first of these disease agents to emerge was hendra virus, forme ...200111485641
serological examination for evidence of infection with hendra and nipah viruses in queensland piggeries.to examine piggeries in queensland for evidence of infection with hendra virus and nipah virus.200111491222
molecular characterization of the polymerase gene and genomic termini of nipah virus.in 1998, nipah virus (nv) emerged in peninsular malaysia, causing fatal encephalitis in humans and a respiratory disease in swine. nv is most closely related to hendra virus (hv), a paramyxovirus that was identified in australia in 1994, and it has been proposed that hv and nv represent a new genus within the family paramyxoviridae. this report describes the analysis of the sequences of the polymerase gene (l) and genomic termini of nv as well as a comparison of the full-length, genomic sequence ...200111504554
[zoonoses caused by new viruses in the paramyxoviridae family].based on the literature data, the outbreaks of new zoonoses caused by new members of the family paramyxoviridae are briefly presented. some characteristics of hendra and nipah virus, epidemiological aspects, clinical picture and pathology are described. fruit bats are mentioned as the key to the epidemiology of hendra virus. the virus was isolated from affected humans, horses, and from the uterine fluids of a grey-headed fruit bat (pteropus poliocephalus). new morbillivirus designated nipah viru ...200111554115
identification and molecular characterization of 18 paramyxoviruses isolated from snakes.viral agents from 18 different snake species (families colubridae, viperidae, and crotalidae) showing respiratory symptoms and neuronal disease were identified as paramyxoviruses by typical cytopathogenic effect (cpe), electron microscopy, and hemagglutination inhibition. detailed molecular characterization of the viruses was performed by partial l- and f-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and sequencing, nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment, and phylo ...200111597749
molecular evolution of viral fusion and matrix protein genes and phylogenetic relationships among the paramyxoviridae.phylogenetic relationships among the paramyxoviridae, a broad family of viruses whose members cause devastating diseases of wildlife, livestock, and humans, were examined with both fusion (f) and matrix (m) protein-coding sequences. neighbor-joining trees of f and m protein sequences showed that the paramyxoviridae was divided into the two traditionally recognized subfamilies, the paramyxovirinae and the pneumovirinae. within the paramyxovirinae, the results also showed groups corresponding to t ...200111603943
functional expression and membrane fusion tropism of the envelope glycoproteins of hendra virus.hendra virus (hev) is an emerging paramyxovirus first isolated from cases of severe respiratory disease that fatally affected both horses and humans. understanding the mechanisms of host cell infection and cross-species transmission is an important step in addressing the risk posed by such emerging pathogens. we have initiated studies to characterize the biological properties of the hev envelope glycoproteins. recombinant vaccinia viruses encoding the hev f and g open reading frames were generat ...200111882997
nipah virus encephalitis outbreak in malaysia.emerging infectious diseases involving zoonosis have become important global health problems. the 1998 outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis among pig farmers in malaysia caused by a newly emergent paramyxovirus, nipah virus, is a good example. this disease has the potential to spread to other countries through infected animals and can cause considerable economic loss. the clinical presentation includes segmental myoclonus, areflexia, hypertension, and tachycardia, and histologic evidence incl ...200211938496
emerging viral infections in australia.hendra virus infection should be suspected in someone with close association with horses or bats who presents acutely with pneumonia or encephalitis (potentially after a prolonged incubation period). australian bat lyssavirus infection should be suspected in a patient with a progressive neurological illness and a history of exposure to a bat. rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin should be strongly considered after a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure to a bat. japanese encephalitis vaccine s ...200212088481
virus safety of human blood, plasma, and derived products.the reconstitution of blood and its components is hampered by factors of compatibility, availability, and the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. protozoal agents such as plasmodium malariae and trypanosoma cruzi are only regionally relevant. bacterial transmissions are easy to prevent and treat. antibody, antigen, and nucleic acid screening have been implemented to prevent transmission of blood-borne viruses. transfusion-relevant viruses include hepatitis b and c virus (hbv and hcv), h ...200212379292
induction of apoptosis by paramyxovirus simian virus 5 lacking a small hydrophobic gene.simian virus 5 (sv5) is a member of the paramyxovirus family, which includes emerging viruses such as hendra virus and nipah virus as well as many important human and animal pathogens that have been known for years. sv5 encodes eight known viral proteins, including a small hydrophobic integral membrane protein (sh) of 44 amino acids. sv5 without the sh gene (rsv5deltash) is viable, and growth of rsv5deltash in tissue culture cells and viral protein and mrna production in rsv5deltash-infected cel ...200312610112
the australian paralysis tick may be the missing link in the transmission of hendra virus from bats to horses to humans.hendra virus is a new virus of the family paramyxoviridae. this virus was first detected in queensland, australia, in 1994; although, it seems that the virus has infected fruit-eating bats (flying-foxes) for a very long time. at least 2 humans and 15 horses have been killed by this virus since it first emerged as a virus that may infect mammals other than flying-foxes. hendra virus is thought to have moved from flying-foxes to horses, and then from horses to people. there is a reasonably strong ...200312615503
nipah encephalitis outbreak in malaysia.between september 1998 and june 1999, there was a severe outbreak of viral encephalitis among the pig farm workers in malaysia.200312625108
hendra virus v protein inhibits interferon signaling by preventing stat1 and stat2 nuclear accumulation.the v protein of the recently emerged paramyxovirus, nipah virus, has been shown to inhibit interferon (ifn) signal transduction through cytoplasmic sequestration of cellular stat1 and stat2 in high-molecular-weight complexes. here we demonstrate that the closely related hendra virus v protein also inhibits cellular responses to ifn through binding and cytoplasmic sequestration of both stat1 and stat2, but not stat3. these findings demonstrate a v protein-mediated ifn signal evasion mechanism th ...200314557668
nipah virus. 200415038065
identification of the nuclear export signal and stat-binding domains of the nipah virus v protein reveals mechanisms underlying interferon evasion.the v proteins of nipah virus and hendra virus have been demonstrated to bind to cellular stat1 and stat2 proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes that inhibit interferon (ifn)-induced antiviral transcription by preventing stat nuclear accumulation. analysis of the nipah virus v protein has revealed a region between amino acids 174 and 192 that functions as a crm1-dependent nuclear export signal (nes). this peptide is sufficient to complement an export-defective human immunodeficiency vi ...200415113915
emerging encephalitogenic viruses: lyssaviruses and henipaviruses transmitted by frugivorous bats.three newly recognized encephalitogenic zoonotic viruses spread from fruit bats of the genus pteropus (order chiroptera, suborder megachiroptera) have been recognised over the past decade. these are: hendra virus, formerly named equine morbillivirus, which was responsible for an outbreak of disease in horses and humans in brisbane, australia, in 1994; australian bat lyssavirus, the cause of a severe acute encephalitis, in 1996; and nipah virus, the cause of a major outbreak of encephalitis and p ...200415119765
novel viral encephalitides associated with bats (chiroptera)--host management strategies.several novel viruses recently described in bats of the genus pteropus (sub-order megachiroptera) in australia and southeast asia cause encephalitic disease in animals and humans. these viruses include hendra virus and nipah virus (genus henipavirus, family paramyxoviridae) and australian bat lyssavirus (ablv; genus lyssavirus, family rhabdoviridae). broadly, strategies for disease prevention and control in the spillover host are directed at minimising direct or indirect contact with the natural ...200415119766
henipaviruses: recent observations on regulation of transcription and the nature of the cell receptor.hendra virus (henv) and nipah virus (nipv) are classified in the new genus henipavirus, within the subfamily paramyxovirinae, family paramyxoviridae. the genetic and biological characteristics that differentiate henipaviruses from other members of the subfamily are summarized. although they do not display neuraminidase and hemagglutination activities and in that regard resemble viruses in the genus morbillivirus, several recent observations highlight similarities between henipaviruses and respir ...200415119767
[occupational bio hazards: current issues].over the last decade, there was noted a large advancement of knowledge on living organisms and their products posing a potential occupational risk. novel risk factors, often new to science, were identified, the role and significance of already known factors better comprehended, and occupational groups endangered by biological hazards more thoroughly recognized. novel viruses and prions, emerging in different parts of the world, may pose a particular threat to health and life of health care worke ...200415156765
host evasion by emerging paramyxoviruses: hendra virus and nipah virus v proteins inhibit interferon signaling.interferon (ifn) can activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat) proteins to establish a cellular antiviral response and inhibit virus replication. many viruses have evolved strategies to inhibit this antiviral mechanism, but paramyxoviruses are unique in their abilities to directly target the ifn-responsive stat proteins. hendra virus and nipah virus (henipaviruses) are recently emerged paramyxoviruses that are the causative agents of fatal disease outbreaks in australia an ...200415279700
specific detection of nipah virus using real-time rt-pcr (taqman).nipah and hendra viruses belong to the novel henipavirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family. its zoonotic circulation in bats and recent emergence in malaysia with fatal consequences for humans that were in close contact with infected pigs, has made the reinforcement of epidemiological and clinical surveillance systems a priority. in this study, taqman rt-pcr of the nipah nucleoprotein has been developed so that nipah virus rna in field specimens or laboratory material can be characterized rapi ...200415288966
subcellular localization and calcium and ph requirements for proteolytic processing of the hendra virus fusion protein.proteolytic cleavage of the hendra virus fusion (f) protein results in the formation of disulfide-linked f1 and f2 subunits, with cleavage occurring after residue k109 in the sequence gdvk/l. this unusual cleavage site and efficient propagation of hendra virus in a furin-deficient cell line indicate that the hendra f protein is not cleaved by furin, the protease responsible for proteolytic activation of many viral fusion proteins. to identify the subcellular site of hendra f processing, vero cel ...200415308711
novel and re-emerging respiratory infections.over the last decade a number of novel viral respiratory pathogens have appeared or been recognized. most of these are zoonoses, which have the capacity to infect humans directly or via an intermediate host. all but metapneumovirus are known to have caused epidemics of severe disease and at least two (the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and influenza h5n1) have the potential to cause global pandemics. possible preventive measures and treatment options against these new diseases are ...200415482205
reactivity of anti-nipah virus monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental nipah and hendra virus infections.the immunohistochemical reactivity of seven clones of mouse monoclonal antibodies raised to nipah virus antigens were investigated using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded porcine and equine lung tissues from experimental nipah and hendra virus infection, respectively. either microwave irradiation or enzymatic digestion effectively unmasked the viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. four clones showed positive reaction to both nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue ...200415528861
conservation medicine and a new agenda for emerging diseases.the last three decades have seen an alarming number of high-profile outbreaks of new viruses and other pathogens, many of them emerging from wildlife. recent outbreaks of sars, avian influenza, and others highlight emerging zoonotic diseases as one of the key threats to global health. similar emerging diseases have been reported in wildlife populations, resulting in mass mortalities, population declines, and even extinctions. in this paper, we highlight three examples of emerging pathogens: nipa ...200415604464
[advances in comparative pathology: some zoonoses threatening man].the last major human epidemics of infectious diseases have arisen from animals. some of them are especially threatening. the authors call attention to the danger of spread of avian influenza, either directly or indirectly through genetic rearrangements. they underline the role of animals in the epidemiology of sars, west nile virus, hepatitis e, nipa and hendra virus, ehrlichiosis and lyme disease. the authors recommend health surveillance not only in humans but also in animals; the teaching of ...200415656242
hendra and nipah viruses: new zoonotically-acquired human pathogens.some of the key features of hendra and nipah viruses are summarized in table 1. the appearance of these new viruses over the last 10 years emphasizes a number of issues. (1) epidemics of human infectious diseases can occur unexpectedly and with high impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. (2) we do not know what epidemiologic factors conspire to allow these viruses to stray out of their bat reservoirs into the two different intermediate hosts (horses and pigs) and then into humans. (3) we do ...200515763222
completion of the full-length genome sequence of menangle virus: characterisation of the polymerase gene and genomic 5' trailer region.menangle virus (menv), isolated in 1997 from stillborn piglets during an outbreak of reproductive disease at a large commercial piggery, is the only new paramyxovirus to be identified in australia since hendra virus in 1994. following partial characterisation of the menv genome, we previously showed that menv is a novel member of the genus rubulavirus. here we report the characterisation of the large (l) polymerase gene and the adjacent 5' trailer region of menv, which completes the full-length ...200515906105
[emerging respiratory infections caused by pneumotropic viruses]. 200515915382
role of n-linked glycosylation of the hendra virus fusion protein.the hendra virus fusion (f) protein contains five potential sites for n-linked glycosylation in the ectodomain. examination of f protein mutants with single asparagine-to-alanine mutations indicated that two sites in the f(2) subunit (n67 and n99) and two sites in the f(1) subunit (n414 and n464) normally undergo n-linked glycosylation. while n-linked modification at n414 is critical for protein folding and transport, f proteins lacking carbohydrates at n67, n99, or n464 remained fusogenically a ...200515919949
hendra virus under the microscope. 200515971804
novel innate immune functions for galectin-1: galectin-1 inhibits cell fusion by nipah virus envelope glycoproteins and augments dendritic cell secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.galectin-1 (gal-1), an endogenous lectin secreted by a variety of cell types, has pleiotropic immunomodulatory functions, including regulation of lymphocyte survival and cytokine secretion in autoimmune, transplant disease, and parasitic infection models. however, the role of gal-1 in viral infections is unknown. nipah virus (niv) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe, often fatal, febrile encephalitis. the primary targets of niv are endothelial cells. niv infection of endothelial cells res ...200515972675
membrane fusion tropism and heterotypic functional activities of the nipah virus and hendra virus envelope glycoproteins.nipah virus (niv) and hendra virus (hev) are novel paramyxoviruses from pigs and horses, respectively, that are responsible for fatal zoonotic infections of humans. the unique genetic and biological characteristics of these emerging agents has led to their classification as the prototypic members of a new genus within the paramyxovirinae subfamily called henipavirus: these viruses are most closely related to members of the genus morbillivirus and infect cells through a ph-independent membrane fu ...200212388678
endocytosis plays a critical role in proteolytic processing of the hendra virus fusion protein.the hendra virus fusion (f) protein is synthesized as a precursor protein, f(0), which is proteolytically processed to the mature form, f(1) + f(2). unlike the case for the majority of paramyxovirus f proteins, the processing event is furin independent, does not require the addition of exogenous proteases, is not affected by reductions in intracellular ca(2+), and is strongly affected by conditions that raise the intracellular ph (c. t. pager, m. a. wurth, and r. e. dutch, j. virol. 78:9154-9163 ...200516188966
cathepsin l is involved in proteolytic processing of the hendra virus fusion protein.proteolytic processing of paramyxovirus fusion (f) proteins is essential for the generation of a mature and fusogenic form of the f protein. although many paramyxovirus f proteins are proteolytically processed by the cellular protease furin at a multibasic cleavage motif, cleavage of the newly emerged hendra virus f protein occurs by a previously unidentified cellular protease following a single lysine at residue 109. we demonstrate here that the cellular protease cathepsin l is involved in conv ...200516188974
virology. researchers tie deadly sars virus to bats. 200516195440
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against binary ethylenimine inactivated nipah virus.nipah virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus which emerged recently was chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine (bei). the inactivated virus was concentrated and purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. the gradient fractions were examined by electron microscopy and western immunoblot, and gradient fraction containing mainly nipah matrix (m) and nucleocapsid (n) proteins was used for immunizing balb/c mice to generate hybridomas. screening of the resultant hybridoma clones identified five ...200616226320
hendra and nipah viruses: different and dangerous.hendra virus and nipah virus are highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses that have recently emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in humans and livestock in australia, malaysia, singapore and bangladesh. their unique genetic constitution, high virulence and wide host range set them apart from other paramyxoviruses. these features led to their classification into the new genus henipavirus within the family paramyxoviridae and to their designation as biosafety level 4 pathogens. t ...200616357858
hendra and nipah viruses: pathogenesis and therapeutics.within the past decade a number of new zoonotic paramyxoviruses emerged from flying foxes to cause serious disease outbreaks in man and livestock. hendra virus was the cause of fatal infections of horses and man in australia in 1994, 1999 and 2004. nipah virus caused encephalitis in humans both in malaysia in 1998/99, following silent spread of the virus in the pig population, and in bangladesh from 2001 to 2004 probably as a result of direct bat to human transmission and spread within the human ...200516375714
molecular characterization of nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus.recently, a new paramyxovirus, now known as nipah virus (nv), emerged in malaysia and singapore, causing fatal encephalitis in humans and a respiratory syndrome in pigs. initial studies had indicated that nv is antigenically and genetically related to hendra virus (hv). we generated the sequences of the n, p/c/v, m, f, and g genes of nv and compared these sequences with those of hv and other members of the family paramyxoviridae. the intergenic regions of nv were identical to those of hv, and th ...200010860887
developments towards effective treatments for nipah and hendra virus infection.hendra and nipah virus are closely related emerging viruses comprising the henipavirus genus of the subfamily paramyxovirinae and are distinguished by their ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. in particular, the high mortality and person-to-person transmission associated with the most recent nipah virus outbreaks, as well as the very recent re-emergence of hendra virus, has confirmed the importance and necessity of developing effective therapeutic interventions. much r ...200616441208
going to bat. 200616502604
nipah/hendra virus outbreak in siliguri, west bengal, india in 2001.the viral encephalitides caused by animal or human viruses are characterized by sudden outbreaks of neurological disease in both tropical and temperate regions. an outbreak of acute encephalitis occurred in siliguri (west bengal) town of india between january 31 and february 23, 2001. this outbreak was investigated by a team of scientists from four major institutions, and the findings are presented here.200616783047
the neurological manifestations of nipah virus encephalitis, a novel paramyxovirus.a novel hendra-like paramyxovirus named nipah virus (niv) was the cause of an outbreak among workers from one abattoir who had contact with pigs. two patients had only respiratory symptoms, while 9 patients had encephalitis, 7 of whom are described in this report. neurological involvement was diverse and multifocal, including aseptic meningitis, diffuse encephalitis, and focal brainstem involvement. cerebellar signs were relatively common. magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain showed sca ...199910482278
conserved cysteine-rich domain of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 v protein plays an important role in blocking apoptosis.the paramyxovirus family includes many well-known human and animal pathogens as well as emerging viruses such as hendra virus and nipah virus. the v protein of simian virus 5 (sv5), a prototype of the paramyxoviruses, contains a cysteine-rich c-terminal domain which is conserved among all paramyxovirus v proteins. the v protein can block both interferon (ifn) signaling by causing degradation of stat1 and ifn production by blocking irf-3 nuclear import. previously, it was reported that recombinan ...200415113888
inhibition of hendra virus fusion.hendra virus (hev) is a recently identified paramyxovirus that is fatal in humans and could be used as an agent of bioterrorism. the hev receptor-binding protein (g) is required in order for the fusion protein (f) to mediate fusion, and analysis of the triggering/activation of hev f by g should lead to strategies for interfering with this key step in viral entry. hev f, once triggered by the receptor-bound g, by analogy with other paramyxovirus f proteins, undergoes multistep conformational chan ...200616973588
functional properties of the fusion and attachment glycoproteins of nipah virus.nipah virus (nv) and hendra virus (hv) are recently emergent, related viruses that can cause severe disease in humans and animals. the goal of this study was to investigate the immunogenic and functional properties of the fusion (f) and attachment (g) glycoproteins of nv. vaccination of mice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvvs) expressing either the f (rvv/nv-f) or g (rvv/nv-g) proteins of nv induced neutralizing antibody responses to nv, with higher titers produced after vaccination with rv ...200212036330
hendra virus infection in a veterinarian.a veterinarian became infected with hendra virus (hev) after managing a terminally ill horse and performing a limited autopsy with inadequate precautions. although she was initially only mildly ill, serological tests suggested latent hev infection. nevertheless, she remains well 2 years after her initial illness. recently emerged zoonotic viruses, such as hev, necessitate appropriate working procedures and personal protective equipment in veterinary practice.200617115969
a rapid immune plaque assay for the detection of hendra and nipah viruses and anti-virus antibodies.rapid immune plaque assays have been developed to quantify biohazard level 4 agents hendra and nipah viruses and detect neutralising antibodies to both viruses. the methods rely on the fact that both viruses rapidly generate large syncytia in monolayers of vero cells within 24 h and that monospecific antiserum to the hendra virus phosphoprotein (p) detects that protein in both hendra and nipah virus-induced syncytia after methanol fixation of virus-infected cells. the p protein is a constituent ...200211684302
risk factors for nipah virus transmission, port dickson, negeri sembilan, malaysia: results from a hospital-based case-control study.a hospital-based case-control study of viral encephalitis was carried out at port dickson hospital, in the state of negeri sembilan, malaysia. between march and may 1999, 69 clinically diagnosed viral encephalitis cases and 31 controls were interviewed. job histories on pig farming activities were assessed by a group of epidemiologists and veterinary surgeons. results show that among clinical cases of viral encephalitis, 52 (75.4%) cases were diagnosed to have nipah virus infection based on posi ...200011127330
emerging viruses: coming in on a wrinkled wing and a prayer.the role that bats have played in the emergence of several new infectious diseases has been under review. bats have been identified as the reservoir hosts of newly emergent viruses such as nipah virus, hendra virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses. this article expands on recent findings about bats and viruses and their relevance to human infections. it briefly reviews the history of chiropteran viruses and discusses their emergence in the context of geography, phylogeny ...200717278066
neutralization assays for differential henipavirus serology using bio-plex protein array systems.hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv) are related emerging paramyxoviruses classified in the genus henipavirus. both cause fatal disease in animals and humans and are classified as biosafety level 4 pathogens. here we detail two new multiplexed microsphere assays, one for antibody detection and differentiation and another designed as a surrogate for virus neutralization. both assays utilize recombinant soluble attachment glycoproteins (sg) whereas the latter incorporates the cellular receptor ...200717292974
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