morphometrics of the neandertal talus.a number of morphometric analyses of neandertal tali since the turn of the century have failed to reach a consensus on the functional affinities of these fossil foot bones. to clarify the problem a univariate and multivariate analysis of the available neandertal and skhūl tali in relation to those of modern humans was performed using nine linear dimensions and four angles. our analysis indicates that neandertal tali are indistinguishable from modern human tali in the implied locomotor capabiliti ...1977319682
[reconstruction of the postcranial skeleton of an infant of neanderthal man from kiik-koba (the soviet union) (author's transl)].the first study concerning the postnatal skeleton of neanderthal man gives us information about the development of the skeleton of neanderthal man in the earliest stage of postnatal ontogenetic development. the very good state of preservation of the postcranial skeleton of the infant of neanderthal man from kiik-koba in the crimea made it possible to carry out for the first time a graphic reconstruction of the entire skeleton in norma frontalis and norma lateralis, in natural size. in this way w ...1977333881
right-left asymmetrics in the brain.structural asymmetries between the hemispheres are found in the human brain. asymmetries in the auditory regions and in the sylvian fissures are present even in the fetus. the sylvian asymmetries may have existed in neanderthal man and are found consistently in some apes. they may relate to right-left differences infunction. thus, the striking auditory asymmetries could underlie language lateralization. the asymmetries in the frontal and occipital lobes and the lateral ventricles are correlated ...1978341314
rudolf virchow and neanderthal man. 1977341731
metric dental change in the european upper paleolithic and mesolithic.evolutionary trends for dental reduction are presented for european upper paleolithic and mesolithic samples. the analysis demonstrates that the greatest decrease in tooth size occurs between the two divisions of the upper paleolithic, while little and insignificant change characterizes the late upper paleolithic/mesolithic transition. trends for tooth size over this period indicate that (1) human evolution does not stop with the appearance of "anatomically modern homo sapiens," (2) changes in t ...1977402080
the formation of nasal septum deviation in human evolution.the purpose of this research is to determine when in the process of human evolution nasal septal deviation first occurred. there is a higher incidence of nasal septal deviations in man, while the septum of anthropoid ape is vertical and has not been found to have nasal septal deviations. it is said that our ancestors evolved respectively from ape like primates through australapithecus, pithecanthropus, neanderthal man and finally modern man. i concluded from my observations that the nasal septal ...1977414345
poor old neanderthal man: response to a response. 1979487072
the vermiculate surface pattern of brow ridges in neandertal and modern crania.a convoluted surface pattern of ridges and grooves characterizes the frontal torus in adult neandertal fossils. modern human skulls rarely have the pattern well developed. it is not observed in postcranial bones, nor in skulls of neandertal children. this vermiculate bone is resistant to oriented cracking from weathering or fractures. structural characteristics of the bone give evidence on the problem of the function of hominid brow ridges.1978677288
[impacted incisor by neanderthal man]. 1976802519
biomechanical appraisal of some skeletal features associated with head balance and posture in the hominoidea.the condylar position index, condylar angle and the area of insertion of the nuchal musculature corrected for condylar position, direction of muscle pull and skull size were determined in homo sapiens, gorilla, pan and the casts of two neanderthal and two australopithecine crania. in all three attributes, the values of h. sapiens exceeded, by statistically significant amounts, those for the ape genera. the greater value for the condylar position index indicates a better balance of the head, that ...1975811073
[the postcranial remains of the neanderthal man from le moustier]. 1977930235
the language capability of neanderthal man.considerable publicity has been given a recent article by lieberman and crelin ('71) which argues that neanderthal man lacked the physical features necessary for speech. this present paper presents statistics on some modern men with normal speech who show physical features in common with neanderthal man. the brain of neanderthal man was as large as, or larger than, that of modern man. the brain reflected by endocranial cast of the la chapelle-aux-saints skull resembles that of modern man in an a ...19751090188
metrical analysis of fontechevade ii.the fontéchevade pi calotte is analyzed by principal coordinates on the basis of 12 measurements. it most closely resembles classic neandertals and the steinheim cranium in shape, showing no special similarity to modern man.19751090190
comparative anatomy of the larynx in man and the chimpanzee: implications for language in neanderthal.using the larynges of the newborn human and chimpanzee as models, lieberman and crelin ('71) and lieberman, crelin and klatt ('72) have reconstructed the larynx of the "classic" neanderthal la chapelle aux saints. the authors used their reconstructed vocal tract to generate linguistic functions which led them to conclude that neanderthal lacked the ability to produce fully articulate human speech. in this paper, it is shown that their reconstruction of the larynx of neanderthal is based on a pla ...19751098478
archeology, population genetics and studies of human racial ancestry.using traditional classification, many people have tried to determine the place and time of origin of the major human races. two basically conflicting views have prevailed, one asserting that races developed as local variations in a species evolving phyletically over much of the old world for up to one million years, and the other view holding that present races are local variations on populations recently expanding into most areas and replacing the previous hominid inhabitants, this occurring s ...19761247111
[the first peopling of europe: the extraordinary history of neanderthal man]. 19921303297
recent human evolution in northwestern africa.the first modern humans in the maghreb are said to be associated with the aterian industries which appeared at least 40 ka bp in the northwest. their predecessors are mainly represented by the jebel irhoud (morocco) specimens. palaeontological evidence, as well as electron spin resonance (esr) dating, suggests that this series is older than previously published, and should belong to oxygen isotope stage 5 or even 6. there is no evidence of any neanderthal apomorphy in this group which can no lon ...19921357693
reconstructing recent human evolution.the two most distinct models of recent human evolution, the multiregional and the recent african origin models, have different retrodictions concerning specific archaic-recent population relationships. the former model infers multiple regional archaic-modern connections and the ancient establishment of regional characteristics, whereas the latter model implies only an african archaic-all modern relationship, with recent (late pleistocene) development of regionality. in this paper, four late arch ...19921357696
archaeology and the population-dispersal hypothesis of modern human origins in europe.the transition from anatomically 'archaic' to 'modern' populations would seem to have occurred in most regions of europe broadly between ca. 40 and 30 ka ago: much later than in most other areas of the world. the archaeological evidence supports the view that this transition was associated with the dispersal of new human populations into europe, equipped with a new technology ('aurignacian') and a range of radical behavioural and cultural innovations which collectively define the 'middle-upper p ...19921357697
[hermann schaaffhausen (1816-1893) and the early history of the profession of anthropology].the most important and best-known merit of hermann schaaffhausen is the correct explanation of the neanderthal man as a fossil human being. considering his work in the field of paleoanthropology one can designate him as the founder of this anthropological discipline in germany. beyond that he was also very active in the "deutsche anthropologische gesellschaft" of the 19th century and played an important role as an editor of the journal "archiv für anthropologie". thus, hermann schaaffhausen can ...19921476422
a comparison of tooth structure in neanderthals and early homo sapiens sapiens: a radiographic study.tooth components of 1st and 2nd erupted permanent molars were measured from standardised radiographs of homo sapiens sapiens and homo sapiens neanderthalensis. enamel height was greater in homo sapiens sapiens but pulp height and width and the height of the enamel to floor of the pulp chamber were greater in homo sapiens neanderthalensis. dentine height, crown width and enamel width showed similar results in the two groups. unerupted first molars were measured to analyse the influence of functio ...19921487432
sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis, with a consideration of the neandertal pelvis from kebara cave, israel.sexual dimorphism of the human pelvis is inferentially related to obstetrics. however, researchers disagree in the identification and obstetric significance of pelvic dimorphisms. this study addresses three issues. first, common patterns in dimorphism are identified by analysis of pelvimetrics from six independent samples (whites and blacks of known sex and four amerindian samples of unknown sex). second, an hypothesis is tested that the index of pelvic dimorphism (female mean x 100/male mean) i ...19921510108
tooth components of mandibular deciduous molars of homo sapiens sapiens and homo sapiens neanderthalensis: a radiographic study.tooth components of deciduous molars were measured from standardized radiographs of homo sapiens sapiens and homo sapiens neanderthalensis. enamel height and width were greater in deciduous teeth of homo sapiens sapiens than in homo sapiens neanderthalensis and the differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.01). dentin height showed no significant differences between the two groups, but enamel to floor of pulp chamber and pulp height and width dimensions were significantly greater ...19921562057
metrical reconsideration of the skhul iv and ix and border cave 1 crania in the context of modern human origins.the "out-of-africa" models for origins of modern homo sapiens incorporate skhul as one site documenting that early origination. however, only skhul v is usually considered in the comparative craniology of the question, neglecting the other substantial crania, skhul iv and ix. craniometric comparison demonstrates that iv and ix amplify the picture of continuous gradations of neandertal-to-modern variations throughout the levant; much variation is thus represented within this one site, raising ser ...19921580351
speech and the neanderthals.the ability to communicate by speech was a crucial step in human evolution and there has been much controversy concerning the point at which it occurred. the recent discovery at kebara of a well-preserved hyoid bone some 60,000 years old suggests that neanderthal man had developed the anatomical structures necessary to articulate words. this in itself does not prove that such articulation occurred. but contributory evidence, such as endocranial casts indicates that the necessary brain differenti ...19911710561
thermoluminescence dating of neanderthal and early modern humans in the near east.archaeological excavations in europe provide no evidence for the first modern humans pre-dating neanderthal man. in the near east, however, a quite different sequence seems to have pertained. thermoluminescence dating indicates that at some sites the modern humans were settled some 30,000 years before the neanderthals. this raises the possibility of two lines of descent from a common ancestor.19911720086
[neanderthal markers of the frontal bone--a conspicuous hallstatt cranium of the burial field dietfurt/oberpfalz].between the skulls from early iron age cemeteries of the hallstatt period (beilngries, dietfurt, schirndorf and some other localities) in the upper palatinate (bavaria) the skull dietfurt 13/1 attracted attention because of its archaic traits at the viscerocranium and because of its extraordinarily large cranial capacity (1654 cm3). such large cranial capacities were well known from neandertals. therefore this skull was examined for other neandertaloid traits: it was shown that the values for th ...19911859196
aquatic ape theory and fossil hominids.while most older palaeo-anthropological studies emphasise the similarities of the fossil hominids with modern man, recent studies often stress the unique and the apelike features of the australopithecine dentitions, skulls and postcranial bones. it is worth reconsidering the features of australopithecus, homo erectus and homo neanderthalensis in the light of the so-called aquatic ape theory (aat) of hardy and morgan, and to compare the skeletal parts of our fossil relatives with those of (semi)a ...19911909768
analytical morphies on mid-sagittal craniograms glabella-opisthocranion of homo erectus and homo sapiens neanderthalensis: fourier parameters and synthesis of mean craniograms.among mathematic procedures used in morphological description, fourier analysis was indicated as extremely effective in obtaining numerical representations of shape. in order to fully exploit its potentiality in morphology the worked data have to be referred exclusively to the shape of the investigated object and the application of suitable procedures of dimensional normalization are necessary, moreover the significance of the parameters obtained from the analysis must be referable univocally to ...19911930897
analytical morphies on mid-sagittal craniograms glabella-opisthocranion of homo erectus and homo sapiens neanderthalensis: fourier parameters and multivariate discriminant analysis.the analytical description of complicated morphologies offers the possibility to define patterns of parameters characterizing the investigated groups. these patterns must be considered as morphies useful in performing classification and comparison. fourier parameters are extremely effective in describing and comparing complex irregular forms and since they are statistically independent we can use them in performing multivariate discriminant analysis. two groups of mid-sagittal craniograms glabel ...19911930898
neandertal scapular glenoid morphology.analysis of neandertal and recent human scapular glenoid fossae reveals that the former had long, narrow, and flat glenoid articular surfaces relative to those of modern humans. comparison of glenoid length, breadth, and curvature to humeral articular dimensions demonstrates that neandertal glenoid length and curvature scale to proximal and distal humeral articular dimensions in the same manner as those of modern humans. the remaining contrast is in the relatively greater glenoid fossa width see ...19902248374
femur/stature ratio and estimates of stature in mid- and late-pleistocene fossil previous limited investigations of the human femur/stature ratio we (feldesman and lundy: journal of human evolution 17:583-596, 1988; feldesman et al.: american journal of physical anthropology 79:219-220, 1989) have shown it to be remarkably stable across ethnic and gender boundaries. in this study we evaluate the femur/stature ratio in 51 different "populations" of contemporary humans (n = 13,149) sampled from all over the world. we find that the mean ratio of femur length to stature in th ...19902252082
esr dates for the hominid burial site of es skhul in israel.the middle east has been critical to our understanding of recent human evolution ever since the recovery of neanderthal and early anatomically modern fossils from the caves of tabun and skhul (mount carmel) over 50 years ago. it was generally believed, on archaeological and morphological grounds, that middle eastern neanderthals (such as those from tabun, amud and kebara) probably dated from more than 50,000 years ago, whereas the earliest anatomically modern specimens (from skhul and qafzeh) pr ...19892541339
incidence and patterning of dental enamel hypoplasia among the enamel hypoplasia (deh), as an indicator of nonspecific stress during development, provides an assessment of the relative morbidity of past human populations. an investigation of 669 neandertal dental crowns yielded an overall deh frequency of 36.0% by tooth (41.9% for permanent teeth; 3.9% for deciduous teeth) and about 75% by individual. these incidences place the neandertals at the top of recent human ranges of variation in deh frequencies, indicating high levels of stress during devel ...19892665513
[the most ancient case of synostosis of the carpal bones: pyramido-lunate synostosis in la ferrassie man].re-examining the neandertal skeleton la ferrassie ii, the authors found a synostosis of the right carpus with fusion of the lunate and the triquetrum. this congenital abnormality had never been noticed before. reconstruction of the right carpus of the man of la ferrassie ii is now complete.19892684063
a middle palaeolithic human hyoid bone.the origin of human language, and in particular the question of whether or not neanderthal man was capable of language/speech, is of major interest to anthropologists but remains an area of great controversy. despite palaeoneurological evidence to the contrary, many researchers hold to the view that neanderthals were incapable of language/speech, basing their arguments largely on studies of laryngeal/basicranial morphology. studies, however, have been hampered by the absence of unambiguous fossi ...19892716823
mechanical effect of vocalization on human brain and meninges.vibrations of human skull, as produced by loud vocalisation, exert a massaging effect on the brain and facilitate elution of metabolic products from the brain into the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). in addition, these vibrations, through their effect on arachnoid villi, speed up the flow of csf from the subarachnoid space into the blood within the superior sagittal sinus and lacunae lateralis. in this way, the speed of renewal of csf is increased, which again contributes to a faster cleaning process ...19882893971
thermoluminescence dating of loess deposits at plaidter hummerich and its implications for the chronology of neanderthal man. 19863086751
mortuary practices at the krapina neandertal has often been reported that the krapina neandertal remains bear incised linear striations which appear to be cutmarks. here, the plausibility of the striations as cutmarks is tested by comparing them to mousterian butchery marks on large fauna and to cutmarks on modern human skeletons known to have been defleshed with stone tools. the anatomical location, gross appearance, and frequency of occurrence of the striations on the krapina material do not resemble mousterian butchery marks on reind ...19873107399
human remains of homo sapiens neanderthalensis from the pleistocene deposit of santa [corrected] croce cave, bisceglie (apulia), italy.the paper deals with a neanderthal human femur, recovered during excavations in santa [corrected] croce cave, bisceglie. the cave also yielded mousterian lithic industry and fauna indicating a paleoclimate condition with dry-warm tendency and savannah landscape. metrical, morphometrical, and morphological analysis, and the comparison with neanderthal specimens show that the femur belonged to an adult individual. it particularly shows great affinities with the analogous specimens from la ferrassi ...19873111268
relationship between the mandibular condyle and the occlusal plane during hominid evolution: some of its effects on jaw mechanics.a selection of mandibles from recent higher primates, fossil hominids, and hominoids has been studied from photographs of skulls, reproductions, and material published by others, all viewed in the sagittal plane. tracings of each mandible were constructed so that the dentitions were all scaled to the same length (d) and superimposed. the (scaled) positions of the articular surfaces of the condyles (j = joint point) were compared. the height of each j point above the scaled dentition (h = effecti ...19873113263
kebara 2 neanderthal pelvis: first look at a complete inlet.the renewed excavations at the kebara cave revealed a neanderthal skeleton dated at about 50-55,000 years b.p. the pelvis of this individual is the most intact neanderthal pelvis yet discovered, presenting for the first time a complete inlet. although the superior pubic ramus is extremely long, as typically seen in the neanderthals, the size of the pelvic inlet is comparable to that of modern homo sapiens. the length of the superior pubic ramus is found to stem from a more externally rotated inn ...19873113264
the third metacarpal styloid process in humans: origin and functions.the development, mechanics, and pathology of the third carpometacarpal joint have been investigated in order to explain the unique presence in humans of a styloid process on the third metacarpal. structure and functions of the joint are compared in a large series of old world anthropoid hand skeletons, cadavers, and x-rays, and shown to differ in the three groups. developmental anomalies reveal the source of the human styloid in a group of cells which fuse with the capitate in other old world an ...19873116852
neandertal radial tuberosity orientation.examination of adult and immature neandertal radii demonstrates that the medial versus anterior orientations of their radial tuberosities fall within recent human ranges of variation, but on the average their radial tuberosities are significantly more medially, as opposed to anteromedially, oriented. this more posterior positioning of their radial tuberosities implies a maintenance of an effective moment arm for m. biceps brachii through the full range of supination, an interpretation which fits ...19883124631
reconstruction of human evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data.the genetic information for this work came from a very large collection of gene frequencies for "classical" (non-dna) polymorphisms of the world aborigines. the data were grouped in 42 populations studied for 120 alleles. the reconstruction of human evolutionary history thus generated was checked with statistical techniques such as "boot-strapping". it changes some earlier conclusions and is in agreement with more recent ones, including published and unpublished dna-marker results. the first spl ...19883166138
[contribution of radiological technics to the study of the mandibular canal. application to human fossils and comparison with modern man and pongidae].fossil mandibles from the "la chapelle-aux-saints" man and cro-magnon "old man" are considered to be representative of neanderthal and cro-magnon era. radiographic studies of such mandibles - including c. t. scan and panoramic views in common use in maxillofacial surgery - allowed the authors to make useful comments: the mandibular canals are nearly similar to those in modern man and quite different from those in pongidae; the imaging was of adequate quality for a good evaluation of fossil inter ...19863330671
neanderthal parietal, vertebrate fauna, and stone artifacts from the upper pleistocene deposits of contrada ianní di san calogero (catanzaro, calabria, italy).human skeletal remains recovered at a new archaeological site, dating back to the italian mousterian age are analyzed. the finds consist of a left parietal of a child about 2-3 years old. the metrical, morphometrical, and morphological traits of this parietal are compared to those of other neanderthal children. the geological features of the site, its fauna, and stone artifacts recovered there during quarry operations are also analyzed.19863740249
age at death of the neanderthal child from devil's tower, gibraltar and the implications for studies of general growth and development in neanderthals.this study combines traditional methods of assessing dental developmental status based upon modern human standards with new techniques based upon histological observations in order to reassess the age at death of the gibraltar child from devil's tower. the results indicate that the most likely age of this individual at death was 3 years of age. this result is in agreement with an independent assessment of the age of the temporal bone of this specimen (tillier, am [1982] z. morphol. anthropol. 73 ...19863752228
the dentition of the "old man" of la chapelle-aux-saints and inferences concerning neandertal has been suggested that the fossil neandertal from la chapelle-aux-saints was so toothless that he would have had to have his food pre-chewed or otherwise prepared for him. this has also led to the inference that a high level of altruistic social behavior was characteristic of neandertals. this appears to be in keeping with a current trend among anthropologists to upgrade the cultural and evolutionary status of neandertals. close examination of the recovered teeth and the condition of the alv ...19853904472
additional upper pleistocene human remains from vindija cave, croatia, yugoslavia.this report presents a morphological description of ten hominid skeletal fragments found at vindija cave, northwestern yugoslavia, in 1980-1981. eight of the specimens (seven cranial fragments and one complete hand proximal phalanx) were excavated from level g3, a stratum correlated to the lower würm stadial and containing mousterian lithic elements. the salient morphological features of these new specimens are similar to those of previously described hominids from this same stratum, indicating ...19853933362
syphilis and neanderthal man. 19714926992
was neanderthal man rickety? 19704939066
how dextrous was neanderthal man? 19714939978
[human paleontology. dental age determination in the neandertal child of pech-de-1'aze]. 19705271876
[sketch of the problem of dental evolution in neanderthal man. recent details on the fossils of homo sapiens]. 19665333746
immunological reactions from fossil material.genetic relations among living species can be deduced from biochemical as well as morphological similarities, but our understanding of fossil species has depended entirely on their morphology. residual proteins in fossils might provide genetic information, but their small quantity and chemical alterations due to time and environmental agents have prevented the obtaining of species-specific analysis. this report describes a radioimmunoassay capable of detecting extremely small amounts of fossil p ...19816167997
the lake ndutu cranium and early homo sapiens in africa.the partial cranium from lake ndutu, near olduvai gorge in northern tanzania, has generally been viewed as homo erectus, although points of similarity to h. sapiens have also been recognized. bones of the vault are in fact quite thick, and the cranium is small. length and breadth dimensions are comparable to those of earlier h. erectus from koobi fora and ileret, and the ndutu individual is more similar in size to o.h. 12 than to o.h. 9. unfortunately, the facial skeleton and frontal bone are ve ...19836410925
[wearing of the teeth in australopithecus afarensis: microscopic examination of the superior canine/lower first premolar complex].microwear details on teeth of the complex c/p3 of australopithecus afarensis from hadar have been found on other hominids like homo erectus from java and homo sapiens neanderthalensis. the description provides valuable information about occlusal mechanics and diets of fossil species.19836416619
a well-preserved cranium of an archaic type of early homo sapiens from dali, china.this paper deals with a well-preserved human cranium of late middle pleistocene, belonging to a young male individual. it has many characters identical to those of early homo sapiens or intermediate between homo erectus and modern man. it possesses also some features similar to those of modern man, and close to homo erectus in some respects. so it probably belongs to an archaic type to early homo sapiens. taken with other chinese human fossils it is on the continuous human evolutionary line in c ...19816789450
volumetric and asymmetry determinations on recent hominid endocasts: spy i and ii, djebel ihroud i, and the sale homo erectus specimens, with some notes on neanderthal brain size.full brain endocast reconstructions of the neanderthals, spy i and ii, djebel ihroud i, and the homo erectus specimen from sale, morocco have yielded accurate volumes. spy i = 1,305 ml; spy ii = 1,553 ml; djebel ihroud i = 1,305 ml; sale = 880 ml. while there are no remarkable gyral and sulcal patterns one can delineate, the brain endocasts do show evidence of left-occipital, right-frontal petalias, suggesting right-handedness, and possibly human cognitive specialization, involving symbol proces ...19816791506
paleoclimatic setting for homo sapiens neanderthalensis.a paleoclimatic hypothesis is presented to account for the evolution and eventual replacement of homo sapiens neanderthalensis. neandertal populations in the european late pleistocene were largely isolated by geographic barriers. populations of modern homo sapiens replaced neandertals at 34000 years ago, near the end of the relatively cold oxygen isotope stage 3. these population were pushed into europe by conditions brought on by increasing aridity affecting north africa and southwestern asia, ...19826799843
brain endocast asymmetry in pongids and hominids: some preliminary findings on the paleontology of cerebral dominance.observations on petalial asymmetry for 190 hominoid endocasts are reported, and their statistical differences assessed. while all taxa of hominoids show asymmetries to various degrees, the patterns or combinations of petalial asymmetries are very different, with fossil hominoids and modern homo sapiens showing an identical pattern of left-occipital, right-frontal petalias, which contrasts with those found normally in pongids. of the pongids, gorilla shows the greater degree of asymmetry in left- ...19826812430
[comparison of the enamel structure of the incisor of the genay (cote-d'or) neanderthal to those of homo sapiens]. 19826820617
subvertical grooves of interproximal facets in neandertal posterior teeth.subvertical grooves, located on the interproximal facets of most neandertal posterior teeth, are less frequently noted on the teeth of other hominids, including modern humans. these grooves, 0.1-0.5 mm in width, are strictly localized within the facet area. scanning electron microscopic (sem) examination of grooves present on neandertal teeth from caverna delle fate (liguria, italy) and genay (côte d'or, france) demonstrated that they were produced during the life of these individuals. character ...19957726295
pattern profile analysis of hominid and chimpanzee hand a study designed to complement morphological research on hominid hand bones, length and width measurements of the thumb, index, and middle rays were obtained from radiographs of modern human hands. these rays are primary in precision-gripping postures and are therefore the ones most relevant for investigating evolutionary changes in fine manipulation. pattern profile analysis allows individuals or samples to be plotted against a reference sample in standard deviation units, or z-scores. it pr ...19957785726
mtdna and the origin of caucasians: identification of ancient caucasian-specific haplogroups, one of which is prone to a recurrent somatic duplication in the d-loop region.mtdna sequence variation was examined in 175 caucasians from the united states and canada by pcr amplification and high-resolution restriction-endonuclease analysis. the majority of the caucasian mtdnas were subsumed within four mtdna lineages (haplogroups) defined by mutations that are rarely seen in africans and mongoloids. the sequence divergence of these haplogroups indicates that they arose early in caucasian radiation and gave raise to modern european mtdnas. although ancient, none of thes ...19947942855
patterns of dental development in homo, australopithecus, pan, and gorilla.smith ([1986] nature 323:327-330) distinguished patterns of development of teeth of juvenile fossil hominids as being "more like humans" or "more like apes" based on statistical similarity to group standards. here, this central tendency discrimination (ctd) is tested for its ability to recognize ape and human patterns of dental development in 789 subadult hominoids. tooth development of a modern human sample (665 black southern africans) was scored entirely by an outside investigator; pongid and ...19947943188
postcranial robusticity in homo. ii: humeral bilateral asymmetry and bone plasticity.the analysis of humeral asymmetry in recent human skeletal samples and an extant tennis-player sample documents minimal asymmetry in bone length, little asymmetry in distal humeral articular breadth, but pronounced and variable asymmetry in mid- and distal diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric parameters. more specifically, skeletal samples of normal modern euroamericans, prehistoric and early historic amerindians, and prehistoric japanese show moderate (ca. 5-14%) median asymmetry in diaphyseal ...19948141238
reexamination of the immature hominid maxilla from tangier, morocco.reexamination of the immature upper pleistocene hominid maxilla from mugharet el-'aliya (tangier), morocco is undertaken in light of new evidence on the growth and development of upper pleistocene hominids. metric and qualitative comparisons were made with 17 immature upper pleistocene maxillae, and with a recent homo sapiens sapiens sample. no unambiguous criteria for aligning the maxilla with neandertals were found, although one character, the degree of maxillary flexion on the zygoma, strongl ...19938296874
zuttiyeh face: a view from the east.we analyze the phylogenetic position of the frontofacial fragment from zuttiyeh, israel. this specimen is dated to the middle pleistocene (the latest estimate is between 250 and 350 kyr) and is associated with the acheulo-yabrudian, which makes it the oldest cranium from the region. it has been previously regarded as a neandertal, and early "anatomically modern homo sapiens," and a generalized specimen ancestral to both. these different phylogenetic interpretations of its features have a histori ...19938333489
mass-spectrometric u-series dates for israeli neanderthal/early modern hominid sites.the nature of the relationship between neanderthals and early modern homo sapiens is controversial, yet it is fundamental to our understanding of early human evolution. the middle palaeolithic sites of israel are critical to this debate, because unlike those of western europe and africa they contain both neanderthal (at tabun and kebara for example) and anatomically modern hominids (as at skhul and qafzeh). here we present new mass spectrometric 230th/234u dates for dental fragments from the mid ...19938387643
three new human skulls from the sima de los huesos middle pleistocene site in sierra de atapuerca, spain.three important fossil hominids were found in july 1992 in the middle pleistocene cave site called sima de los huesos (sierra de atapuerca, burgos, northern spain). one is a complete calvaria (cranium 4), the second a virtually complete cranium (cranium 5), the third represents a more fragmentary cranium of an immature individual (cranium 6). there is a large difference in size between the two adult specimens (for example endocranial volume 1,125 cm3 versus 1,390 cm3). the atapuerca human remain ...19938464493
biomechanical analysis of masticatory system configuration in neandertals and inuits.considerable debate has surrounded the adaptive significance of neandertal craniofacial morphology. numerous unique morphological features of this form have been interpreted as indicating an adaptation to intense anterior tooth use. conversely, it has been argued that certain features related to muscle position imply a reduced mechanical advantage for producing bite forces on the incisors and canines. in this study, hypotheses about morphological specializations for anterior tooth use have been ...19938512051
dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper pleistocene human fossils.buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (inuit, fueguians, bushmen, australian aborigines, andamanese, indians from vancouver, veddahs, tasmanians, lapps, and hindus), preserved at museum collections. molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (sem). the length and orientation of each stri ...19968798994
chin morphology and sexual dimorphism in the fossil hominid mandible sample from klasies river mouth.the site of klasies river mouth (krm) in south africa has produced a small sample of early upper pleistocene hominid remains that have been a focus for discussions of the origins of modern humans. despite certain primitive characteristics exhibited by these fossils, proponents of a single recent origin have attributed them to early modern humans. critics of this hypothesis have emphasized the significance of the archaic features evident in this sample, including the absence of pronounced chins a ...19968842327
particulate versus integrated evolution of the upper body in late pleistocene humans: a test of two models.evolutionary biologists are largely polarized in their approaches to integrating microevolutionary and macroevolutionary processes. neo-darwinians typically seek to identify population-level selective and genetic processes that culminate in macroevolutionary events. epigeneticists and structuralists, on the other hand, emphasize developmental constraints on the action of natural selection, and highlight the role of epigenetic shifts in producing evolutionary change in morphology. accordingly, th ...19968842328
significance of some previously unrecognized apomorphies in the nasal region of homo neanderthalensis.for many years, the neanderthals have been recognized as a distinctive extinct hominid group that occupied europe and western asia between about 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. it is still debated, however, whether these hominids belong in their own species, homo neanderthalensis, or represent an extinct variant of homo sapiens. our ongoing studies indicate that the neanderthals differ from modern humans in their skeletal anatomy in more ways than have been recognized up to now. the purpose of thi ...19968855270
geographic variation in human mitochondrial dna control region sequence: the population history of turkey and its relationship to the european populations.the hypervariable segment i of the control region of the mtdna (positions 16024-16383) was amplified from hair roots by pcr and sequenced in 45 unrelated individuals from anatolia (asian turkey). forty different sequences were found, defined by 56 variable positions, of which only one involves a transversion. the neighbor-joining tree of kimura's distance matrix for all sequences shows four main clusters. cluster d was found to be the most statistically robust of the four, and all the sequences ...19968865661
relative dental development of upper pleistocene hominids compared to human population variation.the relative development of permanent teeth in samples of neandertal/archaic homo and early modern/upper paleolithic hominids is compared to the range of variability found in three recent human samples. both fossil hominid samples are advanced in relative m2 and m3 development compared to white french-canadians, but only the neandertal/archaic homo m3 sample is advanced when compared to black southern africans. both fossil hominid samples are delayed in relative i1 and p3 development compared to ...19968928714
cladistic analysis of dental traits in recent humans using a fossil outgroup.the relationships between a range of modern human samples are assessed from cladistic analyses of the published population frequencies of tooth crown characters, using new data on the krapina neanderthal sample as an outgroup. all of the most parsimonious trees show an early divergence of african and australasian groups. this result is compared with an alternative dendrogram proposed by turner (1992). reconstruction of a hypothetical dental ancestor suggests that the similarities between the afr ...19979085188
genetic factors in reproduction and their evolutionary significance.the reproductive process is a major driving force in human evolution. an evolutionary perspective was brought to bear on some aspects of reproduction and its aberrations, and, conversely, some of the insights of modern reproductive genetics were used to investigate problems in evolution.19979138455
developmental age and taxonomic affinity of the mojokerto child, java, increasing number of claims place hominids outside africa and deep in southeast asia at about the same time that homo erectus first appears in africa. the most complete of the early specimens is the partial child's calvaria from mojokerto (perning i), java, indonesia. discovered in 1936, the child has been assigned to australopithecus and multiple species of homo, including h. modjokertensis, and given developmental ages ranging from 1-8 years. this study systematically assesses mojokerto rel ...19979140541
a hominid from the lower pleistocene of atapuerca, spain: possible ancestor to neandertals and modern humans.human fossil remains recovered from the td6 level (aurora stratum) of the lower pleistocene cave site of gran dolina, sierra de atapuerca, spain, exhibit a unique combination of cranial, mandibular, and dental traits and are suggested as a new species of homo-h. antecessor sp. nov. the fully modern midfacial morphology of the fossils antedates other evidence of this feature by about 650, 000 years. the midfacial and subnasal morphology of modern humans may be a retention of a juvenile pattern th ...19979162001
neandertal incisor discussions of the neandertals, there has been repeated emphasis on the accelerated rate of attrition and the frequent presence of labial beveling of their incisors. interpretations of this dental attrition have related it to paramasticatory and dietary uses of their anterior teeth as well as to aspects of their facial morphology. in light of this, we examined the rate of beveling (the angle between the labial and incisal surfaces) of central incisors relative to tooth wear in samples of nean ...19979169991
body proportions in late pleistocene europe and modern human origins.body proportions covary with climate, apparently as the result of climatic selection. ontogenic research and migrant studies have demonstrated that body proportions are largely genetically controlled and are under low selective rates; thus studies of body form can provide evidence for evolutionarily short-term dispersals and/or gene flow. following these observations, competing models of modern human origins yield different predictions concerning body proportion shifts in late pleistocene europe ...19979169992
a multivariate analysis of pleistocene hominids: testing hypothesis of european origins.multivariate analysis of intra- and inter-group variability in middle and upper pleistocene human remains, based on facial traits, show close affinities between upper palaeolithic and mesolithic samples, which are clearly distinct from lower palaeolithic and neanderthal samples. the between-group differences observed were significant, although no sexual differentiation was considered. this allowed the classification of the fossil remains by discriminant analysis. a modern metrical pattern can be ...19979169993
neandertal capitate-metacarpal articular morphology.neandertal capitate-metacarpal 2 and 3 articulations have been observed to differ in orientation and shape from those of more recent humans. to evaluate this, we tested for differences in capitate-metacarpal 2 (mc2) and mc2-capitate facet orientations and mc2 and mc3 robusticity indices, and for multivariate shape equivalence of the capitate-mc2/mc3 facets and the mc3 diaphysis and styloid process between samples of neandertals and recent humans. canonical discriminant functions of log size- and ...19979209579
chronological changes in stone tool assemblages from krapina (croatia).this study presents the results of the first recent analysis of stone tool assemblages from krapina (croatia). all assemblages are pleistocene in age and many are associated with human remains, the krapina neandertals. the assemblages are described typologically and technologically, and subtle chronological changes in raw material selection and technology of tool blank production are observed. these changes involve increasingly sophisticated and selective use of lithic materials. changing artefa ...19979210018
neandertal dna sequences and the origin of modern humans.dna was extracted from the neandertal-type specimen found in 1856 in western germany. by sequencing clones from short overlapping pcr products, a hitherto unknown mitochondrial (mt) dna sequence was determined. multiple controls indicate that this sequence is endogenous to the fossil. sequence comparisons with human mtdna sequences, as well as phylogenetic analyses, show that the neandertal sequence falls outside the variation of modern humans. furthermore, the age of the common ancestor of the ...19979230299
the archaeological attributes of behaviour: difference or variability?did the neanderthals evolve into anatomically modern humans, or were they replaced by incoming populations of homo sapiens sapiens? this is perhaps the most well-known question debated by palaeoanthropologists and archaeologists interested in the period from roughly 250,000 to 30,000 years ago in eurasia. but while this debate may have attracted most of the media attention, there are other research questions that are at least as worthy of public interest as biological origins.19979237429
an adolescent female neandertal mandible from montgaudier cave, charente, 1974, an incomplete human mandible was discovered in the site of montgaudier cave, along the tardoire (charente), france. the mandible was found in association with stone tools and animal bones in geological deposits referable to the very end of the middle pleistocene or the beginning of the upper pleistocene. the mandible preserves much of the anterior part of the body and three permanent teeth: left lateral incisor, canine and first molar. estimates based on tooth eruption of modern humans, ...19979292168
palaeodemography of the atapuerca-sh middle pleistocene hominid sample.we report here on the palaeodemographic analysis of the hominid sample recovered to date from the sima de los huesos (sh) middle pleistocene cave site in the sierra de atapuerca (burgos, spain). the analysis of the mandibular, maxillary, and dental remains has made it possible to estimate that a minimum of 32 individuals, who probably belonged to the same biological population, are represented in the current sh human hypodigm. the remains of nine-individuals are assigned to males, and nine to fe ...19979300346
postcranial evidence of cold adaptation in european neandertals.the low brachial and crural indices of the european neandertals have long been considered indicative of cold adaptation. recent work has documented lower limb/trunk ratios and deeper chests (anterior-posterior diameter) in european neandertals than among their successors. the present study uses variables reflective of limb length, body mass and trunk height, and compares european neandertals to 15 globally diverse recent human samples (1 "eskimo," 3 north african, 4 sub-saharan african and 7 eur ...19979386830
[variation of sphenoidal angle of human skull in the course of aging].the degree of the cranial base flexion is a major parameter in the study of the evolution of verbal communication in mankind. the variability of this area among modern humans has received little attention. in the present study, a sample of 330 modern human skulls have been used to characterize the changes in the angle of the cranial base flexion with age, and its possible relationships with gender and ethnic origin. statistical analysis of the results show significant changes with age. two concl ...19979499941
new uses for old dna.several years have elapsed since the last report of million-year-old dna, coinciding with increased standards for experimental procedures in ancient dna research. whereas many earlier studies are now regarded as erroneous, the recent successful characterisation of neanderthal dna has set new standards for the field. researchers continue to find new ways to exploit preserved genetic information in studies of more recent remains, widening the utility of ancient dna.19989503587
the dna revolution in population genetics.unprecedental clarity has come to our understanding of genetic variation by the analysis of dna sequences. it is not surprising that the new dna technologies are leading to a resurgence of interest in population genetics. in this review, i discuss recent progress and future directions towards reconstructing the history of human populations. there is increasing consensus on a recent 'out of africa' origin of modern humans, which explains why the greatest fraction of genetic diversity is found wit ...19989520599
the hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior.the mammalian hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the muscles of the tongue. this canal is absolutely and relatively larger in modern humans than it is in the african apes (pan and gorilla). we hypothesize that the human tongue is supplied more richly with motor nerves than are those of living apes and propose that canal size in fossil hominids may provide an indication about the motor coordination of the tongue and reflect the evolution of speech and language. canals of gracile ...19989560291
intrapopulational body size variation and cranial capacity variation in middle pleistocene humans: the sima de los huesos sample (sierra de atapuerca, spain).a sexual dimorphism more marked than in living humans has been claimed for european middle pleistocene humans, neandertals and prehistoric modern humans. in this paper, body size and cranial capacity variation are studied in the sima de los huesos middle pleistocene sample. this is the largest sample of non-modern humans found to date from one single site, and with all skeletal elements represented. since the techniques available to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism in small palaeontologi ...19989590522
sphenoid shortening and the evolution of modern human cranial shape.crania of 'anatomically modern' homo sapiens from the holocene and upper pleistocene epochs differ from those of other homo taxa, including neanderthals, by only a few features. these include a globular braincase, a vertical forehead, a dimunitive browridge, a canine fossa and a pronounced chin. humans are also unique among mammals in lacking facial projection: the face of the adult h. sapiens lies almost entirely beneath the anterior cranial fossa, whereas the face in all other adult mammals, i ...19989603517
discrete trait and dental morphometric affinities of the tabun 2 mandible.evolutionary scenarios of near eastern middle paleolithic hominids depend to an extent upon whether the terminal middle pleistocene tabun 2 mandible has its primary affinities with the late archaic (neandertal sensu lato) or early modern (qafzeh-skhul) human lineage in the region. since the specimen has been assigned to each group or seen as bridging them, we have re-examined its morphological affinities relative to these two samples, as well as to european samples of later pleistocene hominids. ...19989614633
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