investigations on seasonal rhythms and the effect of melatonin in the alpine hare (lepus timidus timidus l.). 1979575803
on dermatoxys hispaniensis n.sp. (nematoda: oxyuridea), from oryctolagus cuniculus and lepus timidus of spain. 19695383602
mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the variable hare (lepus timidus l.), the common hare (lepus europaeus pall.) and their hybrids. 19724680627
a review of wildlife diseases from scandinavia.the epidemiological and historical aspects of some important and representative wildlife diseases from scandinavia are discussed. in noninfectious diseases, examples include cataract in moose (alces alces), atherosclerosis in hybrid hares (lepus timidus x l. europaeus), and ethmoid tumors in moose. the epizootiological and historical aspects of the recent epizootics of myxomatosis in european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) and rabies and sarcoptic mange in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) are reviewed ...19873316719
do intestinal helminths affect condition and fecundity of adult mountain hares?the abundance of the intestinal helminth trichostrongylus retortaeformis in adult mountain hares (lepus timidus) from a moor in northeastern scotland was assessed monthly. weight and fatness of each hare was measured and the reproductive output of females was estimated by sectioning ovaries. abundance of the parasite was lower in december and january than at other times of year, and there was no difference in abundance between male and female hares. there was no correlation between intensity of ...19883193553
detection of toxoplasma gondii in liver tissue sections from brown hares (lepus europaeus p.) and mountain hares (lepus timidus l.) using the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (pap) technique as a complement to conventional histopathology. 19883055758
host substitution by ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) larvae in the years of deep depression in the abundance of small mammals.a phenomenon of host substitution by the taiga tick (ixodes persulcatus) larvae was observed by the authors in the western part of the soviet far east. in the mountain forests where the highest abundance of i. persulcatus was found, larvae usually fed on small mammals (primarily on clethrionomys rufocanus, c. rutilus and apodemus speciosus). numerous larvae were found, however, on the mountain hare (lepus timidus) in the years of deep depression in the abundance of small mammals. the host substi ...19921644364
blood chemistry and endoparasites of the mountain hare (lepus timidus l.) in high and low density order to study the effect of high population density on the condition, blood characteristics and helminth parasitism of mountain hares (lepus timidus), 12 specimens were shot in december 1982 and 12 more in february 1983 on the west coast of central finland (group 1, dense population). in addition 14 hares were shot in december 1982 about 100 km from group 1 (group 2, dense population). group 3 consists of 15 hares from stable, rather low density populations shot in southern finland during th ...19921602575
sarcoptic mange in swedish wildlife.mange caused by sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in scandinavia (south-west finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. the disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the gulf of finland from estonia. the mange epizootic spread northwards through finland and reached sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. in 1984, mange was observed in most parts of sweden. the disease was observed to spread ra ...19921305857
[mosquito-borne arboviruses in the baikal region].a total of 20 virus strains were isolated from arthropods and rodents in the baikal region in 1992. thirteen of these were california serogroup viruses, 4 batai virus strains (bunyaviridae, bunyavirus), and 3 gheta virus strains (togaviridae, alphavirus, semliki complex). the rates of mosquito infection with california, batai, and gheta viruses were 1:6500, 1:24000, and 1:24000, respectively. the results of the neutralization test indicate the similarity of the isolated california complex strain ...19957483568
an endemic case of tularemia in the mountain hare (lepus timidus) on the island of stora karlsö.in september 1983, an epizootic of unknown cause broke out among the mountain hares on the island of stora karlsö, which is located outside the coast of gotland. one hare was sent in the national veterinary institute for post-mortem examination. the hare showed lesions in liver, spleen, and bone-marrow typical for tularemia. the specimens were positive for francisella tularensis with fluorescent-antibody test. tularemia has not been observed earlier in this part of sweden. it is supposed that th ...19846393050
clonal nature of atherosclerotic plaques.the clonal nature of atherosclerotic plaques has been examined in diet-induced atherosclerosis of interspecies hybrid hare females (lepus timidus (female) x lepus europaeus (male], which exhibit genetic mosaicism with respect to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6p-d). four diet groups have been used: control pellet diet, hyperlipemic (hl) diet, and hl diet supplemented with two different concentrations of 25-hydroxycholesterol. lesion and nonlesion tissue samples and primary cultures develope ...19883371461
morphologic and immunohistochemical characterization of the hepatic lesions associated with european brown hare syndrome.liver lesions were studied in 40 free-living adult european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and varying hares (lepus timidus) of both sexes that had died in sweden with the viral infection european brown hare syndrome (ebhs). the lesions were characterized by their histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings. periportal to massive coagulation necrosis was a distinctive feature of ebhs. lytic necrosis, inflammation, fatty degeneration, and cholangitis occurred variably. ...19948053127
the epidemiology of louping-ill, a tick borne infection of red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).the epidemiology of louping-ill in red grouse was studied in northern britain concentrating on the possible role of other species and mechanisms of disease persistence. this tick borne viral disease caused heavy mortality in red grouse, particularly chicks. louping-ill induced mortality reduced the strength of the density dependence that generates the tendency of grouse populations to cycle and in some populations may cause population sinks. four routes of transmission were examined and non-vira ...19979802086
infections with francisella tularensis biovar palaearctica in hares (lepus timidus, lepus europaeus) from sweden.the occurrence of tularemia was studied in 1,500 hares submitted to the national veterinary institute, uppsala, sweden for postmortem examination during 1973 through 1985. a total of 109 tularemia cases was recorded based on the fluorescent antibody (fa) test for francisella tularensis and on the gross and microscopic pathology. tularemia was diagnosed only in the varying hare (lepus timidus) and not in the european brown hare (lepus europaeus). the geographical distribution of the 109 cases ind ...19882900904
toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus). i. pathology.mountain hares and domestic rabbits infected experimentally with toxoplasma gondii were compared in respect of pathological changes and distribution of organisms in the tissues. seven hares and nine rabbits were each inoculated orally with 50 oocysts of the t. gondii tg-swef1 isolate and killed after one week to avoid adverse clinical effects. the only clinical sign observed was respiratory distress in a single hare. at necropsy, gross lesions, which occurred only in the hares, were found in the ...19979502271
toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus). ii. early immune already reported, the mountain hare is much more susceptible than the domestic rabbit to oral inoculation with toxoplasma gondii, as judged by pathological changes and dissemination of parasites within the body. in the present paper, further interspecies variations are reported. concentrations of the acute phase reactant haptoglobin were raised in hares but not in rabbits one week post-infection (pi), probably reflecting the severe tissue damage present. no difference in the early humoral imm ...19979502272
the occurrence and abundance of helminth parasites of the mountain hare lepus timidus (l.) and the wild rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus (l.) in aberdeenshire, scotland.mountain hares were collected each month between april 1984 and march 1985 and their intestines examined for helminths. 26 rabbits were also collected between july and december 1984 and examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. three nematode and two cestode species were found in the hares while only two nematode and one cestode species were found in the rabbits. trichostrongylus retortaeformis was recorded from 88% of the 193 hares and 92% of the rabbits while comparable figures for passalurus ...19863734402
[the mountain hare--host of the taiga tick in cisbaikal]. 19872960879
the potential role of habitat on intestinal helminths of mountain hares, lepus timidus.over the last century in the uplands of scotland, the extent of heather moorland which supports high densities of mountain hares lepus timidus has diminished and has gradually been replaced by large-scale commercial forestry plantations or expanding natural woodlands. the potential impact of such a change in land use on host-parasite interactions was investigated by comparing the intensity and prevalence of infection of hares by parasites in two separate habitats: a large hare-fenced young fores ...200111818051
[double malformations in lepus timidus l]. 19695813308
mosaicism in female hybrid hares heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. v. the recovery of dna synthesis of hare fibroblasts after ultraviolet irradiation.the effect of uv irradiation on the recovery of dna synthesis is examined in a population of hare fibroblasts exhibiting heterozygosity with reference to the x-linked enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (g-6-pd). these cells have been grown from skin explants of a hybrid female cross between lepus timidus (female) and l. europaeus (male), the former carrying the g-6-pd gene for the slow-moving "t" variant and the latter with the fast-moving "e" variant gene. the hybrid, therefore, exhibits ...19846510508
coronary arterial heart disease in hybrid hares fed alternating cholesterol-enriched and normal one-week intervals hybrid hares (lepus europaeus x lepus timidus) were fed supplemented or nonsupplemented commercial pellets. supplements were 1% cholesterol (usp-grade) and 6% peanut oil. in addition, the normal nonsupplemented diet was fed for a month when they appeared weak or when serum cholesterol values exceeded 1,000 mg/dl at monthly examinations. at the end of 1 year on such an alternating regimen, the hares appeared well nourished. atherosclerotic lesions were severe and involved th ...19827159493
molecular phylogeny of japanese leporidae, the amami rabbit pentalagus furnessi, the japanese hare lepus brachyurus, and the mountain hare lepus timidus, inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences.we determined mitochondrial 12s ribosomal rna (rrna) and cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences in three leporid species of japan, the amami rabbit pentalagus furnessi from the ryukyu islands, the japanese hare lepus brachyurus from honshu, and a japanese form of the mountain hare lepus timidus ainu from hokkaido. we compared the sequences with those of other taxa of leporids available in databases. phylogenetic trees of the 12s rrna gene sequences indicated that the lineage of p. furnessi diversif ...200212087193
biochemical genetic relationships among tunisian hares (lepus sp.), south african cape hares (l. capensis), and european brown hares (l. europaeus).tunisian hares (n = 45), currently assigned to lepus capensis, were assayed for allelic variation at 40 allozyme loci, and allele frequencies at 32 loci were directly compared with earlier data of south african cape hares (l. capensis, n = 9) and european brown hares (l. europaeus, n = 244) to reveal genetic relationships among them. european mountain hares (l. timidus, n = 200) were used for outgroup comparison. in the tunisian hares 27.5% of the loci were polymorphic with 2-4 alleles. among al ...200516382363
ancient introgression of lepus timidus mtdna into l. granatensis and l. europaeus in the iberian peninsula.a 587 bp fragment of cytochrome b sequences from 90 individuals of 15 hare (lepus) species and two outgroups were phylogenetically analysed and compared to an analysis derived from 474 bp sequences of the nuclear transferrin gene. mountain hare (lepus timidus) type mtdna was observed in l. granatensis and l. europaeus from the iberian peninsula, far away from the extant distributional range of l. timidus. in addition to these two hare species, other hare species may also contain mtdna from l. ti ...200312679072
descriptive epizootiological study of european brown hare syndrome in sweden.a study on descriptive epizootiology of the viral necrotising hepatitis of hares, european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) was conducted in sweden. two thousand eight hundred eighteen hares were necropsied between 1980 and 1989. european brown hare syndrome was diagnosed histologically in 234 (14%) of 1644 european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and 26 (3%) of 958 varying hares (lepus timidus). most cases occurred in october, november, and december. in 1980, the first cases were recorded on the island ...19938383252
endoparasites of hares (lepus timidus l. and l. europaeus pallas) in finland.intestinal and lung parasites of 85 mountain hares (lepus timidus) and 24 european hares (l. europaeus) were examined. the species of parasites found in both hare species were trichostrongylus retortaeformis zeder, 1800; mosgovoyia pectinata goeze, 1782 and protostrongylus pulmonalis froelich, 1802. eimeria semisculpta madsen, 1938 and e. townsendi carvalho, 1943 were found only in the european hares and eimeria leporis nieschulz, 1923 and dicrocoelium dendriticum rudolphi, 1819 only in the moun ...19836644932
european brown hare syndrome in free-ranging european brown and mountain hares from switzerland.from 1997 to 2000, complete necropsy and histopathologic investigations were performed on 157 free-ranging european brown hares (lepus europaeus) found dead throughout switzerland. organ samples of all these individuals (157 livers and 107 spleens available) were tested for european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv)-antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test kit. furthermore, 60 additional blood samples were tested for antibodies against ebhsv by elisa. in addition, liver samples ...200111763744
identification and classification of different isolates of francisella tularensis.the causative agent of tularemia, francisella tularensis, occurs in two main biovars, the highly virulent f. t. biovar tularensis, found in north america; and the less virulent biovar palaearctica, found all over the northern hemisphere. two other biovars have been proposed, f. t. biovar mediaasiatica and f. t. biovar palaearctica var. japonica. in sweden tularemia is most frequently observed in man and varying hares (lepus timidus), and occasionally in other species. tularemia in hares is norma ...19937510445
in search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild swedish fauna during 1973-1976.forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the swedish environment. the herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal cd levels. the moose (alces alces), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and hare (lepu ...19863810147
the role of non-viraemic transmission on the persistence and dynamics of a tick borne virus--louping ill in red grouse ( lagopus lagopus scoticus) and mountain hares ( lepus timidus).there exist many tick borne infections that are of either economic or public health interest. mathematical models have previously been used to describe the dynamics of these infections. however it has recently come to light that there is an alternative mechanism for the transmission of these diseases that has not been considered in a modelling framework. this is transmission through ticks co-feeding on non-viraemic hosts. this paper extends a simple mathematical model to include this alternative ...200414745507
[complex environmental and virological monitoring in the primorye territory in 2003-2006].the paper presents the results of monitoring of viruses of western nile (wn), japanese encephalitis (je), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), geta, influenza a, as well as avian paramicroviruses type i (virus of newcastle disease (nd)) and type 6 (apmv-6) in the primorye territory in 2003-2006. totally throughout the period, specific antibodies to the viruses were detected by neutralization test in wild birds (7.3%, wn; 8.0%, geta; 0.7% batai; 2.8%, alpine hare (lepus timidus); by hemagglutination-in ...200718041224
hybrids between lepus timidus and lepus europaeus are rare although fertile. 19873436829
pulmonary protostrongyliasis in a mountain hare from adult male mountain hare (lepus timidus), shot during the hunting season on the slopes of mt. civetta (eastern alps, veneto, northeastern italy), was eviscerated and diffuse nodular lesions of verminous pneumonia were observed. adult helminths were collected and male specimens were identified as protostrongylus pulmonalis. histologically, a non-purulent interstitial pneumonia and a desquamative bronchiolitis and alveolitis, along with thickening of alveolar septa, were apparent in the nodules ...200010813620
persistence and transmission of tick-borne viruses: ixodes ricinus and louping-ill virus in red grouse populations.the population dynamics of tick-borne disease agents and in particular the mechanisms which influence their persistence are examined with reference to the flavivirus that causes louping-ill in red grouse and sheep. pockets of infection cause heavy mortality and the infection probably persists as a consequence of immigration of susceptible hosts. seroprevalence is positively associated with temporal variations in vectors per host, although variation between areas is associated with the abundance ...19958632924
lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodes ricinus (acari:ixodidae) and the varying hare on isolated islands in the baltic, sea.we investigated isolated ecosystems to determine if lyme borreliosis is maintained in the absence of reservoir-competent small mammals. human cases of lyme disease have been reported on the isolated islands of gotska sandön and stora karlsö in the baltic sea. the varying hare, lepus timidus, is the only terrestrial vertebrate species capable of serving as a host for all stages of ixodes ricinus (l.) on these islands. in august, mean larval infestation on 5 hares from each island was 548 with a m ...19968667378
prevalence, intensity and aggregation of intestinal parasites in mountain hares and their potential impact on population dynamics.mountain hare lepus timidus populations show unstable dynamics and since hares carry a significant helminth infection and host-parasite interactions are known to be destabilising, they have been proposed as a possible causal mechanism for the observed instability. we assessed the prevalence, intensity of infection and aggregation of the helminth parasites graphidium strigosum and trichostrongylus retortaeformis recovered from 589 mountain hares culled from 30 scottish sporting estates in 1999 an ...200515777913
parasite-mediated reduction in fecundity of mountain hares.mountain hare populations in scotland exhibit regular 10 year fluctuations in abundance. simple models of host-parasite population dynamics suggest that parasite-mediated reductions in host fecundity can cause a transition from stable to cyclic host population dynamics. we tested the hypothesis that parasites reduce hare fecundity by experimentally reducing parasite burdens and recording female survival, body condition and fecundity. we captured 41 adult female hares in october 2002; 22 were tre ...200415801590
epidemiology and diagnosis of the european brown hare syndrome in scandinavian countries: a review.outbreaks among european brown hares (lepus europaeus, pallas) of a fatal disease associated with severe liver damage have occurred in sweden since the beginning of the 1980s. the disease, called the european brown hare syndrome (ebhs), was recognised in denmark in 1982 and is today widespread in denmark and southern sweden. it has not been reported in norway or finland. two species of hares are affected in sweden, the european brown hare and the varying hare (lepus timidus, linnaeus). ebhs occu ...19911760585
the occurrence of mountain hare mitochondrial dna in wild brown hares.if interspecific hybrids are fertile and backcross to either parental species, transmission of mitochondrial dna over the species barrier can occur. to investigate if such transmission has occurred between the brown hare lepus europeus pall and the mountain hare l. timidus l. in scandinavia, an analysis of genetic variation in mitochondrial dna from 36 hares, collected from 15 localities, was performed. sequence divergence of mtdna between species was estimated at 8 +/- 1% (sd). intraspecific mt ...19979161014
[structure of the inguinal gland in the mountain hare in various states of reproductive activity. i. the sebaceous glands].histology and ultrastructure of sebaceous glands of the integumental inguinal gland of the hare were studied during the periods of low and high reproductive activity (in winter and in spring breeding season). it was established that the glands were functioning continually (cells in acini of all the animals used contained numerous secretory granules). the expansion of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and golgi complex in secretory cells of sexually active animals, especially of males, shows an inc ...19873686667
cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. clonal characteristics of arterial lesions in the hybrid hare.utilizing the observation that a majority of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques show monoclonal characteristics, we carried out this study to determine the clonal characteristics of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in the hybrid hare. if this is a valid model for human atherosclerosis, the lesions produced in the aorta should be monoclonal. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g-6-pd) was used as an x-linked cellular marker in the female hybrid hare (lepus timidus x lepus europaeus), which i ...19836651613
european brown hare syndrome in free-living mountain hares (lepus timidus) and european brown hares (lepus europaeus) in finland 1990-2002.we investigated the epidemiology of the european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) in finland among free-living mountain hares (lepus timidus) and european brown hares (lepus europaeus). carcasses of 297 european brown hares and 843 mountain hares submitted for postmortem examination were analyzed between 1990 and 2002. one hundred thirty-six cases of ebhs were detected during the examination, 20 cases in european brown hares and 116 in mountain hares. liver samples from 56 histopathologically positive ...200515827209
transmission of louping ill virus between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on mountain hares.most of the data on oral infection of ticks by louping ill virus have been obtained from experiments in which animals were infected by syringe inoculation with infectious material. using infected ticks to mimic the natural situation, we have demonstrated that louping ill (li) virus transmission can occur from infected to uninfected ixodes ricinus feeding in close proximity on mountain hares (lepus timidus). under these conditions the hares developed either low or undetectable viraemias. highest ...19979226648
activity recording of radio-tagged animals.a system for automatic activity recording of free-living animals instrumented for radio tracking is described. technical details are given on a recorder, based on a frictionless transducer assuring extreme accuracy (gould brush 220 and 222). activity separation from chart roll diagrams is possible for inactivity (resting, lying, etc.) and some activity performances like moving while foraging on a restricted area, steady movements of a walking pace, and rapid movements (running and jumping). dist ...19807213955
a serological survey of antibodies against francisella tularensis in some swedish mammals.tularemia occurs in sweden as an epizootic among the mountain hare. little is known about the occurrence of the disease in other animals in this country. for this reason serum samples from 28 cattle, 83 moose, 110 beavers and 97 mountain hares were investigated for the presence of antibodies against francisella tularensis. the antibody levels against f. tularensis found in moose and cattle were generally low and also in a low incidence. this indicates that these species are not susceptible to tu ...19836878028
infestation of mammals by ixodes ricinus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in south-central sweden.infestation by ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at bogesund, 10 km north of stockholm, in south-central sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (lepus timidus) at stora karlsö and gotska sandön in the baltic sea during 1992-1993. at bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of i. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus). the seasonal pattern of infestation by i. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank vol ...19979423270
the rise and fall of the mountain hare (lepus timidus) during pleistocene glaciations: expansion and retreat with hybridization in the iberian peninsula.the climatic fluctuations during glaciations have affected differently arctic and temperate species. in the northern hemisphere, cooling periods induced the expansion of many arctic species to the south, while temperate species were forced to retract in southern refugia. consequently, in some areas the alternation of these species set the conditions for competition and eventually hybridization. hares in the iberian peninsula appear to illustrate this phenomenon. populations of iberian hare (lepu ...200717257116
applicability of rabbit microsatellite primers for studies of hybridisation between an introduced and a native hare species.introduced species may hybridise with relatives in the native fauna or flora and thereby compete for matings and transmit alien dna. such interference may contaminate unique genepools, disturb existing ecological balances and may ultimately result in the extinction of the native species. in sweden, the introduced brown hare (lepus europaeus pall.) hybridise with the native mountain hare (l. timidus l.), both relatively common members of the present swedish fauna. this hybridisation has resulted ...199910509140
can parasites drive population cycles in mountain hares?understanding the drivers of population fluctuations is a central goal of ecology. although well-established theory suggests that parasites can drive cyclic population fluctuations in their hosts, field evidence is lacking. theory predicts that a parasite that loosely aggregates in the host population and has stronger impact on host fecundity than survival should induce cycling. the helminth trichostrongylus retortaeformis in the uk's only native lagomorph, the mountain hare, has exactly these p ...200919203927
risk indicators for the tick ixodes ricinus and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sweden.the distributional area of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.), the primary european vector to humans of lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in sweden. it is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. the geographical distribution of i. ricinus in sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and clim ...200919712153
top predators, mesopredators and their prey: interference ecosystems along bioclimatic productivity gradients.1. the mesopredator release hypothesis (mrh) suggests that top predator suppression of mesopredators is a key ecosystem function with cascading impacts on herbivore prey, but it remains to be shown that this top-down cascade impacts the large-scale structure of ecosystems. 2. the exploitation ecosystems hypothesis (eeh) predicts that regional ecosystem structures are determined by top-down exploitation and bottom-up productivity. in contrast to mrh, eeh assumes that interference among predators ...201020337755
effects of protostrongylus sp. and pneumocystis sp. on the pulmonary tissue and the condition of mountain and brown hares from finland.mountain hares (lepus timidus) and brown hares (lepus europaeus) shot by hunters in several game management districts in southern and central finland during the hunting season from september to the end of february 1998-2001 were examined for protostrongylus sp. and pneumocystis sp. of the mountain hares, 96.5% (194/201) were infected with the lungworm protostrongylus sp. and 16.9% (32/189) had cyst forms of the fungus pneumocystis sp. in the lungs. the prevalence of the lungworm and fungus in br ...200617255444
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in skin of norwegian mountain hares (lepus timidus) without signs of dissemination.the mountain hare (lepus timidus) population in southern norway appears to be in decline. necropsy and laboratory examinations of 36 hares found dead or diseased during 2007-2009 in vest- and aust-agder counties showed that disease and deaths were attributed to multiple causes, with no specific etiology emerging as a cause for population decline. to investigate whether borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection is associated with mortality in mountain hares, tissues and ticks collected fro ...201121441181
reconstruction of karyotype evolution in core glires. i. the genome homology revealed by comparative chromosome painting.glires represent a eutherian clade consisting of rodents and lagomorphs (hares, rabbits, and pikas). chromosome evolution of glires is known to have variable rates in different groups: from slowly evolving lagomorphs and squirrels to extremely rapidly evolving muroids. previous interordinal homology maps between slowly evolving glires were based on comparison with humans. here, we used sets of chromosome-specific probes from tamias sibiricus (sciuridae), castor fiber (castoridae) and humans to s ...201121559983
first evidence of established populations of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) in sweden.the tick species ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the palaearctic region. in russia and finland the range of i. persulcatus has recently increased. in finland the first records of i. persulcatus are from 2004. the apparent expansion of its range in finland prompted us to investigate if i. persulcatus also occurs in sweden.201627370406
invasion from the cold past: extensive introgression of mountain hare (lepus timidus) mitochondrial dna into three other hare species in northern iberia.mitochondrial dna introgression from lepus timidus into lepus granatensis and lepus europaeus was recently reported in iberia, although l. timidus presumably retreated from this region at the end of the last ice age. here we assess the extent of this ancient mtdna introgression by rflp analysis of 695 specimens representing the three hare species present in iberia. the introgressed l. timidus lineage was found in 23 of the 37 populations sampled. it is almost fixed in l. europaeus across its ibe ...200515969727
clonal characteristics of experimentally induced "atherosclerotic" lesions in the hybrid hare.the female hybrid hare (lepus timidus x lepus europaeus) is heterozygous for electrophoretically separable, x-linked isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. the isoenzymes of this animal have been used as cellular markers in the study of the clonal origins of experimentally induced atherosclerotic lesions. aortic lesions produced in the hybrid hare by feeding cholesterol and injuring the aortic wall with a catheter have been shown to have polyclonal characteristics and in this way are f ...1979505016
[mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild animal species and cattle in styria/austria].infections with mycobacterium ovium ssp. paratuberculosis (m. paratuberculosis) are increasingly recognised worldwide. in addition to an increased prevalence of paratuberculosis in austrian cattle herds, recent years have also shown a rise in infections with m. paratuberculosis in wild red and roe deer, chamois and mouflon. during the period from june 2002 to september 2004, mesenteric lymph nodes were taken from a total of 483 wild animals hunted or found dead and from 338 deceased cattle. samp ...200516048043
contagious mucocutaneous dermatitis of the mountain hare (lepus timidus): pathology and cause.contagious mucocutaneous dermatitis is a frequently encountered disease of mountain hares (lepidus timidus) in finland. we describe the histopathologic changes and propose an etiologic cause for this disorder. fifty-three cases collected during 1982-2000 were examined histologically. transmission electron microscopy was performed in one case. in fully developed lesions, keratinocytes in epidermis and follicular infundibula were swollen and contained large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion ...200516456167
natural toxoplasma gondii infections in european brown hares and mountain hares in finland: proportional mortality rate, antibody prevalence, and genetic material examined postmortem in finland from may 2006 to april 2009, acute generalized toxoplasmosis was the immunohistochemically confirmed cause of death in 14 (8.1%) of 173 european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and four (2.7%) of 148 mountain hares (lepus timidus). sera from 116 of the european brown hares and 99 of the mountain hares were screened with a commercial direct agglutination test for toxoplasma gondii-specific igg antibodies at a dilution of 1:40. all sera from cases of fatal ...201121270004
[isolation of influenza virus a (orthomyxoviridae, influenza a virus), dhori virus (orthomyxoviridae, thogotovirus), and newcastle's disease virus (paromyxoviridae, avulavirus) on the malyi zhemchuzhnyi island in the north-western area of the caspian sea].the paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the malyi zhemchuzhnyi island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (laridae) is located. in the past several years, expansion of cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. the investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza a virus (orthomyxoviridae, influenza a virus) subtype h13n1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of dhori vir ...200818590134
cycles in voles and small game in relation to variations in plant production indices in northern sweden.population dynamics for voles (cricetidae), tengmalm's owl (aegolius funereus (l.)), red fox (vulpes vulpes (l.)) willow grouse (lagopus lagopus (l.)), black grouse (lyrurus tetrix (l.)), capercaillie (tetrao urogallus l.), hazel hen (tetrastes bonasia (l.)), mountain hare (lepus timidus l.) and tularemia (francisella tularensis (mccoy & chapin)) and game bird recruitment were studied by index methods in northern sweden. in addition contemporary temperature records and spruce (picea abies (l.) k ...198628311702
louping ill virus in the uk: a review of the hosts, transmission and ecological consequences of control.louping ill virus (liv) is a tick-borne flavivirus that is part of the tick-borne encephalitis complex of viruses (tbev) and has economic and welfare importance by causing illness and death in livestock, especially sheep, ovies aries, and red grouse, lagopus lagopus scoticus, an economically valuable gamebird. unlike western tbev which is found primarily in woodlands and is reservoired by small rodents, liv is not generally transmitted by small rodents but instead by sheep, red grouse and mounta ...201626205612
territory occupancy rate of goshawk and gyrfalcon: no evidence of delayed numerical response to grouse numbers.two recent studies on territory occupancy rates of goshawk accipiter gentilis and gyrfalcon falco rusticolus report a 2-3-year-delayed numerical response to grouse numbers, which is a requirement for a hypothesis of predator-generated grouse cycles. the time lags were assumed to reflect the average age of sexual maturity in the raptor species. in southern norway, however, subadult (two-year-old) goshawk hens occupied only 18-25% of territories where occupancy was not recorded in the preceding ye ...200717549523
changes in diet and morphology of finnish goshawks from 1960s to 1990s.we studied the morphology of the goshawk in northern finland by measuring skin and skeletal characters of 258 museum specimens dated between 1961 and 1997. we predicted a decrease in the size of male goshawks from the 1960s because availability of their main prey, grouse, has decreased since then and grouse have been replaced in the diet by smaller prey during the breeding season. based on the assumption that winter is the most critical period for females, we predicted that female size should ha ...199928308326
role of small mammals in the persistence of louping-ill virus: field survey and tick co-feeding studies.louping-ill (li) is a tick-borne viral disease of red grouse, lagopus lagopus scoticus lath. (tetraonidae: galliformes), and sheep, ovis aries l. (bovidae: artiodactyla), that causes economic loss to upland farms and sporting estates. unvaccinated sheep, grouse and mountain hares, lepus timidus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), are known to transmit li virus, whereas red deer, cenrus elaphus l. (cervidae: artiodactyla), and rabbits, oryctolagus cuniculus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), do not. however, th ...200011016435
the ubiquitous mountain hare mitochondria: multiple introgressive hybridization in hares, genus lepus.climatic oscillations during the glaciations forced dramatic changes in species distributions, such that some presently temperate regions were alternately occupied by temperate and arctic species. these species could have met and hybridized during climatic transitions. this phenomenon happened for three hare species present in iberia (lepus granatensis, lepus europaeus and lepus castroviejoi), which display high frequencies of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from lepus timidus, an arctic/boreal specie ...200818508749
dynamics of range margins for metapopulations under climate change.we link spatially explicit climate change predictions to a dynamic metapopulation model. predictions of species' responses to climate change, incorporating metapopulation dynamics and elements of dispersal, allow us to explore the range margin dynamics for two lagomorphs of conservation concern. although the lagomorphs have very different distribution patterns, shifts at the edge of the range were more pronounced than shifts in the overall metapopulation. for romerolagus diazi (volcano rabbit), ...200919324811
the effects of low levels of pollutants on the reproduction of golden eagles in western norway.the reproductive success of golden eagles was studied in an area in western norway between 62 degrees and 63 degrees n between 1973 and 1999. addled eggs were collected for analysis of chemical pollutants from nine territories; five from coastal areas and four from inland. the coastal sites had lower annual reproductive output than inland sites, and the eggs had a higher content of organochlorine compounds. there were relatively strong negative correlations between reproductive output and (1) sh ...200111556115
altitudinal patterns of tick and host abundance: a potential role for climate change in regulating tick-borne diseases?the impact of climate change on vector-borne infectious diseases is currently controversial. in europe the primary arthropod vectors of zoonotic diseases are ticks, which transmit borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the agent of lyme disease), tick-borne encephalitis virus and louping ill virus between humans, livestock and wildlife. ixodes ricinus ticks and reported tick-borne disease cases are currently increasing in the uk. theories for this include climate change and increasing host abundance. ...201019685082
the importance of willow thickets for ptarmigan and hares in shrub tundra: the more the better?in patchy habitats, the relationship between animal abundance and cover of a preferred habitat may change with the availability of that habitat, resulting in a functional response in habitat use. here, we investigate the relationship of two specialized herbivores, willow ptarmigan (lagopus lagopus) and mountain hare (lepus timidus), to willows (salix spp.) in three regions of the shrub tundra zone-northern norway, northern european russia and western siberia. shrub tundra is a naturally patchy h ...201121833646
molecular evolution and antigenic variation of european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv).european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) is the aetiological agent of european brown hare syndrome (ebhs), a disease affecting lepus europaeus and lepus timidus first diagnosed in sweden in 1980. to characterize ebhsv evolution we studied hare samples collected in sweden between 1982 and 2008. our molecular clock dating is compatible with ebhsv emergence in the 1970s. phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages: group a persisted until 1989 when it apparently suffered extinction; group b emerg ...201425155199
complete coding sequences of european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) strains isolated in 1982 in sweden.european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) is characterised by high mortality of european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (lepus timidus). european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) and the closely related rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) comprise the genus lagovirus, family caliciviridae. in contrast to rhdv, which is well studied, with more than 30 complete genome sequences available, the only complete genome sequence available for ebhsv was obtained from a strain isolated in ...201323640583
tularaemia in norwegian dogs.we describe tularaemia in a norwegian dog caused by francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. a hamilton hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (lepus timidus). the dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one ...201425150161
mountain hare populations on islands: effects of predation by red fox.on islands off the west coast of sweden the density of mountain hares (lepus timidus l.) is very high. one of the main predators on hares, the red fox (vulpes vulpes l.), is only present during short periods. data on hare density and predation by red fox and eagle owl (bubo bubo (l.)) has been analyzed from five islands over several years. winter mortality in years with low predation pressure was independent of hare density. but when red fox or eagle owl were present on islands (i.e., high preda ...198928311185
assessment of doses to game animals in finland.a study was carried out to assess the dose rates to game animals in finland affected by the radioactive caesium deposition that occurred after the accident at the chernobyl nuclear power plant in ukraine in 1986. the aim of this assessment was to obtain new information on the dose rates to mammals and birds under finnish conditions. dose rates were calculated using the erica assessment tool developed within the ec 6th framework programme. the input data consisted of measured activity concentrati ...201323395135
ecological and physiological characteristics of the mountain hare (lepus timidus) cold resistance in the northeastern siberia. 201718536285
synchronous population fluctuations in voles, small game, owls, and tularemia in northern sweden.1. the population fluctuations in time in northern sweden are examined for the following species: voles, mountain hare, willow grouse, black grouse, capercaillie, hazel hen, red fox, long-eared owl, tengmalm's owl, and tularemia. necessary population data have been obtained from the period 1963-1975/76 as revealed by catches, literature survey, hunting statistics, bird ringing, and obligatory reporting of tularemia in man. 2. the populations of the species under consideration are found to fluctu ...197828309394
the effects of acaricide treatment of sheep on red grouse lagopus lagopus scotica tick burdens and productivity in a multi-host system.ixodes ricinus (ixodida: ixodidae) ticks are of economic and pathogenic importance across europe. within the uplands of the u.k., management to reduce ticks is undertaken to benefit red grouse lagopus lagopus scotica (galliformes: phasianidae). management strategies focus on the acaricide treatment of domestic sheep ovis aries (artiodactyla: bovidae), but the effectiveness of this is less certain in the presence of wild hosts, particularly red deer cervus elaphus (artiodactyla: cervidae) and mou ...201729194726
a preliminary study on the seasonal body temperature rhythms of the captive mountain hare (lepus timidus).the mountain hare (lepus timidus) is a year-round active herbivore adapted to survive the boreal winter. captive mountain hares (n=4) were implanted with intraabdominal thermosensitive loggers to record their core body temperature (t(b)) for a year and during food deprivation (8-48h) in summer and winter. the average t(b) was 38.7+/-0.01 degrees c in summer and 38.3+/-0.01 degrees c in winter. the yearly t(b) correlated positively with the ambient temperature. the 24-h t(b) was the highest from ...200818329637
plant sex and hare feeding evaluate the general extent to which sex-related differences in palatability occur in boreal dioecious woody plants, males and females of five dioecious woody plant species were presented to free-ranging mountain hares (lepus timidus) during winter. hares strongly preferred branches from male plants when feeding on populus tremula and salix caprea and weakly preferred male s. pentandra. however, they did not show any sex-related preference when feeding on the other two species studied (myrica ...199228312880
role of predation in short-term population fluctuations of some birds and mammals in fennoscandia.we tested the hypothesis that synchronous fluctuations in small game species in boreal fennoscandia are caused by varying predation pressure. the main prey of predators are the cyclically superabundant voles. small game species (alternative prey) are rare compared to voles. the following 4 predictions were checked: (1) predators should shift their diet from main prey to alternative prey as main prey decline. - this was confirmed using data on red fox (vulpes vulpes l.) diet.; (2) the mortality r ...198428310714
numerical responses by populations of red fox and mountain hare during an outbreak of sarcoptic mange.during a severe outbreak of sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei vulpes) starting among red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in sweden in the 1970s, we studied: 1) the establishment and spread of the disease in northernmost sweden (by inquiries), and 2) the 1970-84 bag records for foxes and mountain hares (lepus timidus) (an alternative prey to the fox's main prey, voles). since the first case of sarcoptic mange in 1975 the disease spread rapidly, with >50% of the hunting organizations having reported the di ...198728311970
[transformation of mitochondria in sebaceous gland cells of the hare lepus timidus l]. 19892541989
phenolic compounds of willow bark as deterrents against feeding by mountain hare.overwintering mountain hares (lepus timidus) fed selectively on the shoots of a number of northern willow (salix spp.) species. the hares preferred certain species over others and mature shoots over juvenile ones. there was a negative correlation between the phenolic glycoside concentration in the twigs and the hares' feeding. this correlation was substantiated by feeding experiments in which oat grains treated with purified phenoglycoside and catechin fractions of willow bark were offered along ...198528310435
hares on ice: phylogeography and historical demographics of lepus arcticus, l. othus, and l. timidus (mammalia: lagomorpha).phylogeographical investigations of arctic organisms provide spatial and temporal frameworks for interpreting the role of climate change on biotic diversity in high-latitude ecosystems. phylogenetic analyses were conducted on 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region in 192 arctic hares (lepus arcticus, lepus othus, lepus timidus) and two individual lepus townsendii. the three arctic hare species are closely related. all l. othus individuals form one well-supported clade, l. arcticus in ...200516101770
mountain hare transcriptome and diagnostic markers as resources to monitor hybridization with european hares.we report the first mountain hare (lepus timidus) transcriptome, produced by de novo assembly of rna-sequencing reads. data were obtained from eight specimens sampled in two localities, alps and ireland. the mountain hare tends to be replaced by the invading european hare (lepus europaeus) in their numerous contact zones where the species hybridize, which affects their gene pool to a yet unquantified degree. we characterize and annotate the mountain hare transcriptome, detect polymorphism in the ...201729206218
home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus lepus) in iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. in the pyrenean foothills, lepus europaeus presumably replaced lepus granatensis ...201424149657
unstable dynamics and population limitation in mountain hares.the regular large-scale population fluctuations that characterize many species of northern vertebrates have fascinated ecologists since the time of charles elton. there is still, however, no clear consensus on what drives these fluctuations. throughout their circumpolar distribution, mountain hares lepus timidus show regular and at times dramatic changes in density. there are distinct differences in the nature, amplitude and periodicity of these fluctuations between regions and the reasons for t ...200717944616
[the effect of coprophagy on the size of plant fibers in the digestive tract of hares lepus europaeus and l. timidus (lagomorpha, leporidae)].we have studied the distribution of plant fibers of different sizes in the digestive tracts of two hare species: the brown hare (lepus euopaeus) and the mountain hare (l. timidus). in all studied hares (18 specimens), the highest amount of fine-sized fibers (less than 0.25 mm length) was observed in the cecum (50-70% of the total fiber mass). it was found out that the fine-sized content in the digestive tract, and especially in the cecum, is provided not only by the separation mechanism of the c ...201726638238
the flexibility of an intermediate feeder: dietary selection by mountain hares measured using faecal n-alkanes.herbivores with an intermediate feeding strategy either vary their diet between a grazing (bulk roughage feeders) or browsing (concentrate selectors) strategy on a seasonal basis or select a mixed diet at any one time. the underlying ecological causes of the seasonal dietary shift in a small non-ruminant intermediate feeder - the mountain or arctic hare (lepus timidus l.) were determined. diet composition and selection relative to availability were investigated for 41 individual free-ranging mou ...200128547597
effects of birch phenolics on a grazing and a browsing mammal: a comparison of hares.mountain hares (lepus timidus l.) commonly have high proportions of birch (betula spp.) in their winter diets, whereas european hares (lepus europaeus) do not. the effects of a birch extract added to laboratory diets offered to mountain hares and european hares on the digestibility and sodium balance were measured. the extract added contained total phenolics equivalent in amount to that occurring in diets containing 0, 40, 60 and 80% dry matter of birch twigs. increasing dietary phenolic concent ...199124257917
widespread introgression of mountain hare genes into fennoscandian brown hare fennoscandia, mountain hare (lepus timidus) and brown hare (lepus europaeus) hybridize and produce fertile offspring, resulting in gene flow across the species barrier. analyses of maternally inherited mitochondrial dna (mtdna) show that introgression occur frequently, but unavailability of appropriate nuclear dna markers has made it difficult to evaluate the scale- and significance for the species. the extent of introgression has become important as the brown hare is continuously expanding i ...201829370301
counting mountain hares in scotland.the mountain hare (lepus timidus) is britain's only native hare, but counting them is challenging. here,georgina millsexplains how new research is helping to finally discover the numbers of this elusive species.201829440602
how genetic data improve the interpretation of results of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite measurements in a free-living population.measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (gcm) in faeces has become a widely used and effective tool for evaluating the amount of stress experienced by animals. however, the potential sampling bias resulting from an oversampling of individuals when collecting "anonymous" (unknown sex or individual) faeces has rarely been investigated. we used non-invasive genetic sampling (nigs) to investigate potential interpretation errors of gcm measurements in a free-living population of mountain hares duri ...201728832649
tularaemia in european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (lepus timidus) characterized by histopathology and immunohistochemistry: organ lesions and suggestions of routes of infection and shedding.tularaemia is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis. in sweden, hares are considered to be key species in the epidemiology of tularaemia. the aim of this study was to characterize the pathology of natural tularaemia infection in european brown hares (ebhs) (lepus europaeus) and mountain hares (mhs) (lepus timidus) in sweden, in order to better understand the presentation of disease and the routes of infection, body dissemination and shedding of f. ...201728942292
introgression of mountain hare (lepus timidus) mitochondrial dna into wild brown hares (lepus europaeus) in europe the mountain hare (lepus timidus) exists in great britain, norway, sweden, finland, parts of the alps and in eastern europe, but not in denmark. interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (lepus europaeus). during the data collection in a study concerning danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype.200617105672
studies on an idiopathic syndrome in the brown hare (lepus europaeus p.) and mountain hare (lepus timidus l.) in sweden, with special reference to hepatic routine post mortem examinations performed at the national veterinary institute (nvi), uppsala, sweden, during november 1983-may 1984, a syndrome principally characterized by an acute hepatosis was found in 85 out of 177 brown hares (lepus europaeus p.). the hepatic lesions consisted of periportal or extensive necrosis and haemorrhages. concomitant changes in other organs were tubular necrosis in the kidneys, acute catarrhal enteritis, severe congestion, oedema and haemorrhages of the lungs, ...19892515697
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