arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes: kano plain, kenya.arbovirus isolation attempts on 324,486 mosquitoes captured over a four-year period on the kano plain, kenya, yielded 15 isolates including pongola (six strains), ilesha (three strains), germiston (two strains), sindbis (one strain), barur (one strain) and two viruses which could not be characterized. mansonia uniformis, anopheles gambiae and culex antennatus constituted 70% of the total collection and accounted for all of the isolates except one, which came from anopheles funestus.197724288
the survival in nature of wuchereia-infected anopheles funestus giles in north-eastern tanzania.hungry anopheles funestus females were caught in cdc light traps positioned overnight in village houses in which the occupants were protected by bed nets. the sampling was performed in six huts near muheza, in north-eastern tanzania, september to november 1972. parous, unfed mosquitoes were carefully examined, usually under phase-contrast optics, for the presence of developing wuchereria bancrofti larvae. because a. funestus seek blood meals at three-day intervals, most filariae were three, six, ...1977327630
malaria along the southernmost fringe of its distribution in africa: epidemiology and control.after more than thirty years of malaria control in northern transvaal with residual insecticides, malaria prevalence has been reduced to a low level. however, low-grade transmission of plasmodium falciparum continues, with periodic focal outbreaks after abnormally high rainfall. from october 1973 to september 1976, the operational and epidemiological factors involved in this residual transmission were studied in over 17 000 people of an area of northern transvaal. incidence surveys based on the ...1977330017
empidomermis cozii n.gen., n.sp. (mermithidae: nematoda) a parasite of anopheles funestus (culicidae: diptera) in west africa. 1977907930
hut entry and exit by anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus in an unsprayed village near kaduna in northern nigeria.hut entry and exit by an. gambiae and an. funestus were studied in an unsprayed village near kaduna in northern nigeria. a high turn-over of indoor resting mosquitoes of all blood digestion stages was noted throughout the night. the behaviour of both species was similar. the entry pattern was more uniform than the exit which showed two distinct peaks around sunset and after midnight. most of the daytime resting mosquitoes left the huts during the first hour after sunset, and therefore the mosqui ...19761032326
ookinete rates in afrotropical anopheline mosquitoes as a measure of human malaria infectiousness.anopheles gambiae s.1. and an. funestus were sampled for plasmodium spp. ookinetes in two p. falciparum-endemic sites in western kenya. since the ookinete is a transitional stage of short duration, occurring after fertilization and before oocyst development, only females in the half-gravid and gravid stages of blood digestion were examined. preparations of homogenized midguts were spotted onto microslides and examined microscopically after staining with giemsa. overall, ookinetes were detected i ...19921636882
quantitation of malaria sporozoites transmitted in vitro during salivation by wild afrotropical anopheles.the malaria transmission potential of wild, infective anopheles from western kenya was evaluated by determining the number of sporozoites transmitted in vitro by salivation when their mouthparts were inserted into capillary tubes containing either sucrose or blood. with sucrose, 86.6% of 102 infective anopheles transmitted a geometric mean (gm) of 3.84 sporozoites (range 1-34). with blood, 23.1% of 104 infective anopheles, tested on the day of collection, transmitted a gm of 2.30 sporozoites (ra ...19911768903
[field trial of the efficacy of 3 pyrethroids in the control of malaria vectors].three pyrethroids, oms-3002, oms-3004 and oms-3021 were tested in the experimental station of soumousso (burkina faso), a who reference centre. total indoor house-spraying was carried out in bobo and mossi huts, using a hudson type sprayer at doses of 1 g/m2 for oms-3002, 0.1 g/m2 for oms-3004 and oms-3021. the density of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus collected in huts treated with oms-3002 was reduced by 70%: a 94% exit rate was observed in the treated huts (compared to 33% in the co ...19911844500
malaria sporozoite detection by dissection and elisa to assess infectivity of afrotropical anopheles (diptera: culicidae).malaria infection rates determined by dissection and plasmodium falciparum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were compared for 26,935 anopheles gambiae giles sensu lato and 17,739 anopheles funestus giles collected during 20 mo in western kenya. elisa infection rates were about 43% higher than dissection sporozoite rates. in dissection-negative anopheles, circumsporozoite (cs) protein was detected by elisa in 5.2% of 10,017 salivary gland samples and in 12.2% of 237 thorax samples. the a ...19902185363
effect of plasmodium falciparum on the survival of naturally infected afrotropical anopheles (diptera: culicidae).the effect of the malarial parasite, plasmodium falciparum welch, on the daily survival rates and longevity of anopheles gambiae giles sensu lato and anopheles funestus giles was determined for wild-caught, naturally infected females from western kenya. mosquitoes were collected inside houses and held in cages until death, after which they were assayed for p. falciparum circumsporozoite protein by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). survival rates of field populations determined by par ...19902201768
[ecological factors in the renewed outbreak of malaria in madagascar].the new epidemic of malaria which spread on the madagascar high plateau in 1986-1987 is due to the combination of several factors (some of which are analysed by the authors, especially those related to anopheles, parasite and man). the authors compare the situations on the high plateau and on st mary island, on the east madagascar coast, where the malaria is stable. concerning the vector, the most interesting fact is the come-back of anopheles funestus on the high plateau from which it had disap ...19902208464
[the importance of anopheles funestus in the transmission of malaria in the hamlet of mahitsy, in tananarive, madagascar].this survey carried out in 1989, confirms the part played by an. funestus in the transmission of malaria, in some villages of the malagasy highlands.19902350839
characterization of malaria transmission by anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in western kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials.malaria transmission was studied for 33 mo in the villages of kisian and saradidi in western kenya in preparation for field trials of malaria vaccines. abundance estimates of anopheles gambiae giles sensu lato and anopheles funestus giles, which constituted over 99% of 26,645 anophelines collected, were compared for all-night biting collections inside houses, outdoors, and in tents. the overall numbers of anopheles per man-night were 2.3 times greater in kisian than in saradidi. for the three ty ...19902388233
effect of human circumsporozoite antibodies in plasmodium-infected anopheles (diptera: culicidae).human circumsporozoite (cs) antibodies to plasmodium falciparum were detected in blood meals from 45.0% of 1,547 field-collected anopheles gambiae giles sensu lato and anopheles funestus giles from western kenya. possible effects on malaria infections within the anopheles host were investigated. circumsporozoite antibodies were detected in blood meals up to 36 h after feeding. antibodies crossing the midgut were detected experimentally in hemolymph from 4 to 36 h after feeding; human igg also wa ...19892685310
the current state of studies of malaria vectors and the antivectorial campaign in west africa.most malaria transmission in west africa is by anopheles funestus and an. gambiae s.l. an. funestus is not very polymorphic and is generally susceptible to currently used insecticides. an. gambiae in contrast is very polymorphic. on the basis of chromosomal polymorphism an. gambiae can be divided into forest and savannah forms. the savannah forms in turn exist as several types, viz. bissau, mopti and bamako. insecticide susceptibility does not correlate with chromosomal type in most cases; never ...19892696159
[epidemiologic study of malaria in the rice-growing regions of yagoua and maga (north cameroon)].the results of the malaria investigation carried out in april 1981 in the irrigated regions of the logone valley show that plasmodium falciparum is the only species o. the genus plasmodium to be found there. in terms of parasitaemia in blood, the prevalence of malaria is highest in the 5 to 9 year-old age group, whereas fluorescent antibodies are to be found progressively greater quantities as subjects grow older. from the age of 40, 95% of the inhabitants of the region present circulating antib ...19852863004
reappearance of anopheles funestus as a malaria vector in the antananarivo region, madagascar. 19883256124
the changed pattern of malaria endemicity and transmission at amani in the eastern usambara mountains, north-eastern tanzania.parasitological and entomological studies on malaria were conducted between 1980 and 1982 on the amani hills in the eastern usambara mountains of north-eastern tanzania. malaria vectors were scarce on the amani hills until the late 1960s and it was generally presumed that any cases of malaria transmission must have been contracted by people while visiting lower altitudes where malaria is holoendemic. however, the malaria vectors anopheles funestus and an. gambiae have both become more abundant d ...19873586093
different malaria control activities in an area of liberia--effects on malariometric parameters.the epidemiology of malaria was studied in a west african mining town (yekepa) and three surrounding zones defined as close, middle and far areas. malariometric parameters were investigated in children two to nine years of age at the end of the rainy season. in yekepa, vector control measures and intense suppression of malaria with drugs had created an almost hypoendemic situation with a spleen rate of 11%. in close area, vector control was applied to some extent and malaria drugs were frequentl ...19853896168
seasonal vector density and disease incidence patterns of malaria in an area of zimbabwe.anopheline mosquitoes were studied in an area of zimbabwe to correlate their population densities with seasonality in malaria incidence. four trapping methods were employed for adult mosquitoes: pit traps, outdoor and indoor man-baited nets and a sheep-baited net. anopheles funestus exhibited two population peaks during the year, one in march and the other in september/october. the following over-all proportions of the an. gambiae complex were recorded: an. gambiae giles (2.5%), an. arabiensis p ...19854002287
vectors of the 1969 yellow fever epidemic on the jos plateau, nigeria.entomological investigations of the possible mosquito vectors of the yellow fever epidemic on the jos plateau, nigeria, were carried out between 27 october and 15 november 1969.of the 5 species of aedes (stegomyia) collected, ae. luteocephalus was the most abundant in human-bait captures. ae. aegypti, ae. africanus, and ae. vittatus were collected in low numbers. the aegypti larval index in the areas investigated was very low and the species was not considered to be the primary vector in the epi ...19724403105
a large-scale field trial of malathion as an insecticide for antimalarial work in southern uganda.malathion shows promise as a substitute for chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticides in the control of malaria whenever the latter are unsuitable because of anopheles resistance or other reasons. a field trial of malathion was carried out in 1963-64, covering an area of about 500 km(2) with a population of about 26 000, in masaka district, southern uganda. all houses and animal shelters were sprayed with malathion at 2 g/m(2) at roughly 4-month intervals. the average combined densities of the female ...19675299860
a new species of the anopheles funestus complex (diptera: culicidae) from zanzibar, united republic of tanzania. 19685302338
a village-scale trial of oms-214 (dicapthon) for the control of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus in northern nigeria. 19695308704
a village-scale trial of oms-708 (mobam) for the control of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus in northern nigeria. 19695308705
[the presence in southwest upper volta of populations of anopheles funestus giles resistant to dieldrin]. 19685692840
a quantitative study of naturally-acquired malaria infections in anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus in a highly malarious area of east africa. 19666006329
[contribution to the study of parasitism of adult anopheles funestus by gastromermis sp. (mermithidae)]. 19666014290
recovery of o'nyong-nyong virus from anopheles funestus in western kenya.o'nyong-nyong (onn) virus first appeared nearly 20 years ago and was responsible for one of the largest arbovirus outbreaks ever documented. since the original outbreak ended, onn activity, as determined serologically, gradually declined on the kano plain in western kenya. in june, 1978, a virus similar or identical to onn was isolated from a pool of anopheles funestus giles captured at ahero on the kano plain. the possible implications of this isolation are discussed.19816272457
effects of ecological changes on the malaria vectors anopheles funestus and the anopheles gambiae complex of mosquitoes in accra, ghana.studies have been conducted on mosquito breeding, indoor resting density and some parasitological and vectorial indices in accra since 1911. an. gambiae s.l. has adapted to breeding appreciably in water-filled domestic containers in recent times (viz. 21.14 +/- 4.4% of all breeding), compared with a low frequency of breeding in such domestic containers in the earlier years 1911-1930 (viz. 1.97 +/- 1.67% of all breeding). its breeding has also increased (viz. 5.3% to 25.4% of all breeding) in the ...19846748132
cladistic analysis of mosquito chromosome data (anopheles (cellia) myzomyia.homologies are presented among the ovarian polytene chromosomes of the following taxa of the series myzomyia, subgenus cellia: anopheles funestus, parensis, aruni? confusus, rivulorum, fuscivenosus, leesoni, demeilloni, wellcomei, and theileri from the afrotropical region; and fluviatilis and culicifacies from the oriental region. rearrangements involve many paracentric inversions and a possible whole-arm translocation. a cladistic approach was used in constructing a phylogeny, and out-group com ...19827069187
[study of malaria vectors in the south-west of madagascar].the authors describe the results of an entomological study run in december 1994 in the little town of bezaha (south-western madagascar). the observed entomological indexes are those of an intensive malaria transmission area. the authors suggest to organize a longitudinal entomological survey along with a clinical and parasitological study. they also point out the fact that they found two microfilariae wuchereria bancrofti in an anopheles funestus female.19947575037
origin of blood meals in indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in western kenya.blood meals were obtained from indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in three villages of western kenya and tested by sandwich elisa to determine host preferences and their human blood index (hbi). anopheles gambiae s.s. collected indoors at kisian village had a hbi of 0.97 while that of anopheles arabiensis collected at ahero was 0.23. however, the hbi of a. arabiensis varied depending on the availability of outdoor resting shelters. most female a. arabiensis (98.9%) collected outdoors in ...19947709869
[aspects of malaria in a village of the humid savannah of the ivory coast].malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in ivory coast. this fact justifies further epidemiological investigations to define regional features and allow implementation of the most suitable control measures. to this end, a study focusing on transmission of malaria was conducted between january and may 1993 concurrently with malarial parasite identification in allokoukro, a village in the humid savannah in the central region of ivory coast. two vectors of malaria were found in the vill ...19947746125
[environment and malaria in burundi. apropos of a malaria epidemic in a non-endemic mountainous region].in march 1991, an unusual increase of the consultations for fever and/or cephalgias was reported by the health centre of muhanga. at the same time, the administrative authorities worried about the increase of death registration in some hills, located around the big swamp of ruvubu, and next to this health centre. in this area, hypoendemic for malaria, the epidemic was belatedly recognized, entailing a gross death rate between 25.6 and 31.5/1000 person/year in 1991, in the three most hit hill-are ...19937819788
malaria in a rural area of sierra leone. iii. vector ecology and disease transmission.studies were undertaken on the role of anopheles gambiae and an. funestus in the transmission of malaria in four villages in a high-rainfall, forested area in the bo district of southern sierra leone. anopheles gambiae s.s., identified chromosomally as the forest form, was the most important vector, with a mean annual sporozoite rate, based on elisa, of 7.4%. anopheles funestus, which was found in considerably lower numbers, was mainly a dry season vector, with an annual sporozoite rate of 11.4% ...19947944670
absence of seasonal variation in malaria parasitaemia in an area of intense seasonal transmission.parasitological surveys carried out in two villages of the kilombero district of tanzania indicated a very high prevalence of plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia throughout the year (all ages mean prevalence = 69.2%) and a low, unstable prevalence of p. malariae (all ages mean prevalence = 4.5%). fevers (temperature > or = 37.5 degrees c) in both children and adults showed irregular changes in prevalence over time, but there was no seasonal pattern. neither was there seasonal variation in either ...19938103627
[epidemiological malaria surveillance in 3 villages of the madagascar highlands].results of the epidemiological surveillance of falciparum malaria carried out since 1987 in three villages of the malagasy highlands are reported. they clearly show the unsteady endemo-epidemic characteristic of the disease with highly variable transmission levels according to foci. at manarintsoa, a south-western village 20km away from the capital, the disease has now fully disappeared after the ravage of 1986. but it might reappear with new imported cases and by lack of antivectorial measures. ...19938192540
field trials of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 and bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) formulations against anopheles arabiensis in the central highlands of madagascar.malaria is highly endemic and unstable in the central highlands plateau of madagascar. the infection is seasonally transmitted by anopheles funestus and an. arabiensis. the latter species is abundant especially in rice-growing areas. the field efficacies of commercial formulations of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 and b. sphaericus (strain 2362) were assessed against an. arabiensis in 5 types of larval habitats. the granular formulation of b. thuringiensis (vectobac gr) provided very good control i ...19938245944
[malaria indices, larval ecology and trophic activity of anopheles mosquitoes in djohong (adamaoua, cameroon) in the rainy season].in djohong in the wet season the prevalence of malaria is 17.5% for plasmodium falciparum and 1.1% for plasmodium malariae. in children 2 to 9 years of age the plasmodic index is 38.6% (mesoendemicity) for the children of the peasants and 9.4% for those belonging to other socioeconomical groups. in infants less than 12 months old, the plasmodic index is 9.3%, this relatively high rate corresponding to the high transmission period of the rainy season. anopheles gambiae is the mosquito species mos ...19938289630
bloodfeeding behavior of anopheles gambiae s.l. and anopheles funestus in kilifi district, kenya.blood meal samples were tested by elisa for 534 anopheles gambiae s.l. and 76 anopheles funestus collected from 25 sites in kilifi district, kenya. human igg was detected in 94.4% of the an. gambiae s.l. and in 90.8% of the an. funestus. no samples were positive for cow and only a few were positive for goat. both species fed predominantly on humans irrespective of host availability. at these sites on the kenyan coast, the high degree of human-feeding by malaria vectors contributes to the efficie ...19938350080
baseline entomological data for a pilot malaria control program in equatorial guinea.entomological studies conducted on the island of bioko and the mainland province, río muni, in equatorial guinea provided baseline data for a pilot malaria control program. the main species collected resting in houses at low density were anopheles gambiae s.l. giles and anopheles funestus giles. an. gambiae s.l. density increased during the rainy season, whereas an. funestus populations remained stable during both dry and wet seasons. both species tended to be endophilic and were not collected r ...19938510123
some observations on the biting behavior of anopheles gambiae s.s., anopheles arabiensis, and anopheles funestus and their implications for malaria control.studies were carried out in three villages in western kenya on the biting behavior of anopheles gambiae s.s., anopheles arabiensis, and anopheles funestus. blood feeding behavior and departure from houses were studied under the impact of permethrin-impregnated eaves-sisal curtains. only 2-13% of the female vector population was collected biting before 2200 hr. over 90% of the villagers went to bed by 2100 hr. an. funestus was 6.6-8.2 times more likely to bite people indoors than outdoors, while ...19968631382
[anopheles funestus and rice agriculture in the madagascar highlands].an exhaustive study of the potential habitats of anopheles funestus was led during 1992 in ankazobe on the plateau of madagascar, 95 km northwest of the capital tananarive. the rice fields provide more than 90% of the positive habitats versus less than 10% for the nonhuman biotopes. larva are especially abundant on the surfaces of the rice during grain head formation and maturation. the dense vegetation coverage provides them with shade and protection against predators. after harvesting, the fol ...19958784552
response of wild anopheles funestus to repellent-protected volunteers is unaffected by malaria infection of the vector.a field experiment was conducted to compare the biting behavior of plasmodium falciparum-infected and uninfected anopheles on humans using mosquito repellents. repellent formulations (5% [wt/vol] n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide [deet] or 5% [wt/vol] ai3-37220, a piperidine compound, both in 100% ethanol, or 100% ethanol alone [as a control]) were applied to the lower legs of 3 collectors in each of 4 houses. collectors caught mosquitoes over 6 collection nights. mosquitoes were collected into vial ...19958825504
field evaluation of arthropod repellents, deet and a piperidine compound, ai3-37220, against anopheles funestus and anopheles arabiensis in western kenya.a field evaluation of the repellents n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and 1-(3-cyclohexen-1-yl-carbonyl)-2-methylpiperidine (ai3-37220, a piperidine compound) was conducted against anopheles funestus and an. arabiensis in kenya. both repellents provided significantly more protection (p < 0.001) than the ethanol control. ai3-37220 was significantly more effective (p < 0.001) than deet in repelling both species of mosquitoes. after 9 h, 0.1 mg/cm2 of ai3-37220 provided 89.8% and 71.1% protecti ...19968827589
age-related prevalence of plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antibody in an hyperendemic area of madagascar, and its relationship with parasite epidemiologic survey on malaria endemicity levels, including entomologic, parasitologic, and immunologic indicators, was carried out in a village of the madagascar highlands (analaroa) at the end of the 1990-1991 rainy season. the results indicate that malaria is hyperendemic and anopheles funestus is the main vector in the area. the prevalence of parasitemia decreased with age from a maximum level of about 60% in children less than five years of age to a minimum of about 16% among those more ...19968842115
the impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors of the kenyan coast.the effects of introducing permethrin-impregnated bednets on local populations of the malaria vector mosquitoes anopheles funestus and the an.gambiae complex was monitored during a randomized controlled trial at kilifi on the kenyan coast. pyrethrum spray collections: inside 762 households were conducted between may 1994 and april 1995 after the introduction of bednets in half of the study area. all-night human bait collections were performed in two zones (one control and one intervention) for t ...19968887336
different response to plasmodium falciparum malaria in west african sympatric ethnic groups.the comparison of malaria indicators among populations that have different genetic backgrounds and are uniformly exposed to the same parasite strains is one approach to the study of human heterogeneties in the response to the infection. we report the results of comparative surveys on three sympatric west african ethnic groups, fulani, mossi, and rimaibé, living in the same conditions of hyperendemic transmission in a sudan savanna area northeast of ouagadougou, burkina faso. the mossi and rimaib ...19968917569
field trial of permethrin impregnated sisal curtains in malaria control in western kenya.a trial to determine the effectiveness of sisal eaves-curtains impregnated with permethrin for malaria control was conducted in the malaria holoendemic western kenya between 1991 and 1993. indoor resting densities of anopheles gambiae s.l. and anopheles funestus were reduced by 90.9% and 93.8% respectively in protected houses. the entomological inoculation rate (eir) was reduced by 72% in the intervention village. there was no significant reduction in vector longevity or survival as shown by the ...19968997865
high annual and seasonal variations in malaria transmission by anophelines and vector species composition in dielmo, a holoendemic area in senegal.we conducted a three-year entomologic study in dielmo, a village of 250 inhabitants in a holoendemic area for malaria in senegal. anophelines were captured on human bait and by pyrethrum spray collections. the mosquitoes belonging to the anopheles gambiae complex were identified using the polymerase chain reaction. malaria vectors captured were an. funestus, an. arabiensis, and an. gambiae. anopheles funestus was the most abundant mosquito captured the first year, an. arabiensis in the following ...19979129525
[the impact of curtains impregnated with deltamethrin on the vectors and morbidity of malaria: results in ankazobe, on the plateaus of madagascar].to evaluate the efficacy of deltamethrin impregnated curtains on malaria morbidity in a low transmission area, we studied volunteer families in the village of ankazobe in the madagascar highlands from february 1993 to june 1994. after randomization, we provided 46 houses having 244 inhabitants with impregnated curtains (i) and 45 others having 257 inhabitants with nonimpregnated curtains (ni) as controls. we first estimated the number of mosquito bites in the protected versus nonprotected househ ...19979172875
dynamics of malaria transmission near two permanent breeding sites in baringo district, kenya.entomological and malario-metric measurements were made near two permanent breeding sites in baringo district, kenya in order to determine the prevalence and seasonality of malaria and the relative importance of two local anopheline mosquitoes as malaria vectors. the breeding sites studied were the perkerra irrigation scheme and the loboi swamp, whereas the mosquito species involved were anopheles gambiae giles (sensu lato) and anopheles funestus giles. malaria accounted for 54 per cent of annua ...19979183076
resting behaviour, ecology and genetics of malaria vectors in large scale agricultural areas of western kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of anopheles arabiensis and anopheles funestus at the ahero rice irrigation scheme, and anopheles gambiae s.s., an. arabiensis and an. funestus at the miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries. the vector's house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily (i.e., deliberate) was not detected in any of the vectors. assortative indoor/outdoor resting beh ...19969257337
mosquito vectors of bancroftian filariasis in kwale district, kenya.a total of 2,906 female mosquitoes were collected over a period of one year using pyrethrum spray-sheet and human bait methods, and dissected for filaria larvae in three hinterland villages of coastal kenya. the dominant species, anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus were also found to be the main vectors. from the spray catch collections 0,9 and 1 cx. quinquefasciatus, an. gambiae and an. funestus out of 491, 708 and 403 respectively were infective. in the same order, 4, 2 and 2 out of 512, ...19979337005
the bionomics of anopheles funestus and its role in malaria transmission in a forested area of southern cameroon. 19979373627
malaria's eve: evidence of a recent population bottleneck throughout the world populations of plasmodium falciparum.we have analyzed dna sequences from world-wide geographic strains of plasmodium falciparum and found a complete absence of synonymous dna polymorphism at 10 gene loci. we hypothesize that all extant world populations of the parasite have recently derived (within several thousand years) from a single ancestral strain. the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the time when this most recent common ancestor lived is between 24,500 and 57,500 years ago (depending on different estimates of t ...19989539753
[origin of malaria epidemics on the plateaus of madagascar and the mountains of east and south africa].the highlands of madagascar were malaria free until 1878, when a severe epidemic occurred, following the development of irrigated rice farming. then, the disease became endemic. between 1949 and 1962, malaria was "eradicated" on the highlands by joint house spraying and chemoprophylaxis measures. the main vector an. funestus disappeared. in 1986-1988, a very severe epidemic with high lethality rate devastated the highlands. it is now under control. thanks to the data of a religious dispensary, w ...19989559166
midgut bacteria in anopheles gambiae and an. funestus (diptera: culicidae) from kenya and mali.field studies in kenya and mali investigated the prevalence of bacteria in the midguts of malaria vectors, and the potential relationship between gram-negative bacteria species and plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. midguts were dissected from 2,430 mosquitoes: 863 anopheles funestus giles and 1,037 an. gambiae s.l. giles from kenya, and 530 an. gambiae s.l. from mali. an. funestus had a higher prevalence of gram-negative bacteria (28.5%) compared with an. gambiae collected in kenya and mali (15 ...19989615538
cloning of the american cockroach cr-pii allergens: evidence for the existence of cross-reactive allergens between species.previously, we have identified the 28 and 32 kd proteins as additional important allergens from the american cockroach (periplaneta americana) cr-pii allergenic fraction.19989648712
hpall endonuclease distinguishes between two species in the anopheles funestus group.the anopheles funestus group consists of at least eight species that are currently identified mainly on morphological criteria. until recently, only an. funestus s.s. was implicated in the transmission of malaria in africa, but recent work in tanzania has shown that an. rivulorum is also involved, albeit to a lesser degree than an. funestus. the constraints in the identification of the species and the need to clarify better their epidemiological role have led to the development of a pcr-rflp met ...19989662477
evolution of malaria in africa for the past 40 years: impact of climatic and human factors.different malarial situations in africa within the past 40 years are discussed in order to evaluate the impact of climatic and human factors on the disease. north of the equator, more droughts and lower rainfall have been recorded since 1972; and in eastern and southern africa, there have been alternating dry and wet periods in relation to el niño. since 1955, the increase in human population from 125 to 450 million has resulted in both expansion of land cultivation and urbanization. in stable m ...19989673911
seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of anopheles gambiae and anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugarcane growing zone in western entomological study was conducted on vectors of malaria and their relative contribution to plasmodium falciparum transmission in mumias, a high-altitude site and large-scale sugarcane growing zone in kakamega district, western kenya. anopheles gambiae s.l., the predominant vector species, represented 84% (n=2667) of the total anopheles mosquitoes collected with an. funestus comprising only 16%. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identified all 600 specimens of the an. gambiae complex tested as a ...19989754665
the role of four anopheline species (diptera: culicidae) in malaria transmission in coastal tanzania.malaria is holoendemic in coastal tanzania with anopheles funestus and members of the a. gambiae complex being mainly responsible for transmission. over a 4 months' sampling period 2222 anopheline mosquitoes were collected using light-traps and indoor resting catches, of which 58.6% were a. gambiae, 7.6% a. arabiensis, 6.9% a. merus and 26.9% a. funestus. plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigen (csa) rates were: a. funestus 6.05% (n = 479), a. gambiae 8.4% (n = 1042), a. arabiensis 7.3% ( ...19989764318
odor-mediated behavior of afrotropical malaria mosquitoes.the african mosquito species anopheles gambiae sensu lato s.l. and anopheles funestus rank among the world's most efficient vectors of human malaria. their unique bionomics, particularly their anthropophilic, endophagic and endophilic characters, guarantee a strong mosquito-host interaction, favorable to malaria transmission. olfactory cues govern the various behaviors of female mosquitoes and here we review the role of semiochemicals in the life history of african malaria vectors. recent eviden ...19999990718
mitochondrial and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its2) diversity of the african malaria vector anopheles funestus.the pattern of sequence variation in the mitochondrial dna cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) and ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) was examined in anopheles funestus from senegal and burkina faso in west africa and kenya in east africa. from both west african countries, samples included individuals hypothesized to represent reproductively isolated taxa based upon different karyotypes and behaviours. analysis of the cyt-b data revealed high haplotypic diversity (86%) and an average pairw ...199910065543
single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for identification of four members of the anopheles funestus (diptera: culicidae) group.members of the anopheles funestus giles group are difficult to identify because of the morphological overlap that exists within the group. this inability to distinguish species, as well as the fact that the species vary in their behavior and biting preferences, complicate the successful planning and maintaining of malaria control programs. in this article we discuss the use of a single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) assay to distinguish 4 members of the an. funestus group collected at 1 ...199910083746
bionomical and cytogenetic heterogeneities of anopheles funestus in senegal.malaria transmission by anopheles funestus was investigated from may 1994 to september 1997 in different locations from western to eastern senegal along the northern border of the gambia. 10515 a. funestus were captured on human volunteers or by indoor pyrethrum spraying. circumsporozoite protein rates showed that a. funestus had a high infection rate, 2-7%, in the whole of the study area. analysis of feeding behaviour showed great variation of anthropophilic rates from western senegal, where po ...199810326101
malaria transmission in a region of savanna-forest mosaic, haut-ogooué, gabon.during the 2 years 1993 to 1995, an entomological survey was carried out in the savanna-forest area of franceville, gabon, investigating malaria transmission in one suburban district of franceville (akou) and in one rural village (benguia). the biting rates of the anopheles vectors were 10 times higher in the rural zone compared to the suburban zone. anopheles funestus giles was the predominant species in both zones followed by anopheles gambiae s.l. giles. the densities of anopheles nili theoba ...199910342264
[anopheles mascarensis (de meillon, 1947): main vector of malaria in the region of fort-dauphin (south-east of madagascar)].anopheles funestus and anopheles gambiae s.l. have been considered until now the major vectors of malaria everywhere in madagascar. anopheles mascarensis, a mosquito native to madagascar, has been identified in sainte-marie island as a secondary vector only. in 1997, an entomological study was carried out to identify the malaria vectors in the area of fort-dauphin, south-east of madagascar. every month, mosquitoes were collected from landing catches on human volunteers (from 7:00 am to 5:00 pm i ...199910399606
spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in western kenya.studies were conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes and to analyze spatial heterogeneity of mosquito species in the suba district of western kenya. a total of 128 aquatic habitats containing mosquito larvae were sampled, and 2,209 anopheline and 10,538 culicine larvae were collected. the habitats were characterized based on size, ph, distance to the nearest house and to the shore of lake victoria, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidit ...199910674687
isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the malaria vector anopheles funestus. 200010736053
population structure and recent evolution of plasmodium falciparum.plasmodium falciparum is the agent of malignant malaria, one of mankind's most severe maladies. the parasite exhibits antigenic polymorphisms that have been postulated to be ancient. we have proposed that the extant world populations of p. falciparum have derived from one single parasite, a cenancestor, within the last 5, 000-50,000 years. this inference derives from the virtual or complete absence of synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms at genes not involved in immune or drug responses. seeking ...200010860962
chromosomal and bionomic heterogeneities suggest incipient speciation in anopheles funestus from burkina faso.sampling of day-resting anopheles funestus was carried out in september-november 1991, october-december 1992, and november 1994 at two sites near ouagadougou, burkina faso: the small village of noungou where humans outnumber cattle, and the nearby fulani settlement of loumbila where cattle outnumber humans. collections made inside human dwellings were supplemented in 1992 by outdoor-resting samples from artificial pit-shelters. indoor-resting an. funestus were also collected in november 1992 and ...199910870569
anopheles arabiensis and an. funestus are equally important vectors of malaria in matola coastal suburb of maputo, southern mozambique.transmission characteristics of malaria were studied in matola, a coastal suburb of maputo, the capital city, in southern mozambique, from november 1994 to april 1996. the local climate alternates between cool dry season (may-october) and hot rainy season (november-april) with mean annual rainfall 650-850 mm. saltmarsh and freshwater pools provide mosquito breeding sites in matola. malaria prevalence reached approximately 60% among people living nearest to the main breeding sites of the vectors. ...200010872861
anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in south africa.northern kwazulu/natal (kzn) province of south africa borders on southern mozambique, between swaziland and the indian ocean. to control malaria vectors in kzn, houses were sprayed annually with residual ddt 2 g/ m2 until 1996 when the treatment changed to deltamethrin 20-25 mg/m2. at ndumu (27 degrees 02's, 32 degrees 19'e) the recorded malaria incidence increased more than six-fold between 1995 and 1999. entomological surveys during late 1999 found mosquitoes of the anopheles funestus group (d ...200010872862
annual plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (eir) across africa: literature survey, internet access and review.this paper presents the results of an extensive search of the formal and informal literature on annual plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (eir) across africa from 1980 onwards. it first describes how the annual eir data were collated, summarized, geo-referenced and staged for public access on the internet. problems of data standardization, reporting accuracy and the subsequent publishing of information on the internet follow. the review was conducted primarily to investigate t ...200010897348
a probability model of vector behavior: effects of ddt repellency, irritancy, and toxicity in malaria control.a probability model of how ddt residues may function within a malaria control program is described. a step-wise organization of endophagic behaviors culminates in a vector acquiring a human blood meal inside the house. different vector behaviors are described, epidemiologically defined, temporally sequenced, and quantified with field data. components of vector behavior and the repellent, irritant, and toxic actions of insecticide residues are then assembled into a probability model. the sequence ...200010925797
ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer (its2) sequences differentiate anopheles funestus and an. rivulorum, and uncover a cryptic taxon.differentiation among the closely related afrotropical species comprising the funestus group is difficult by traditional taxonomic measures. anopheles rivulorum is the second most abundant and widespread species in the funestus group, and is occasionally collected indoors along with the dominant member and major malaria vector, an. funestus. the prospect of misidentification of an. rivulorum as an. funestus prompted the development of a rapid, polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based method for ide ...200010971714
earth observation, geographic information systems and plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-saharan africa.this review highlights the progress and current status of remote sensing (rs) and geographical information systems (gis) as currently applied to the problem of plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-saharan africa (ssa). the burden of p. falciparum malaria in ssa is first summarized and then contrasted with the paucity of accurate and recent information on the nature and extent of the disease. this provides perspective on both the global importance of the pathogen and the potential for contributio ...200010997207
[malaria and schistosomiasis: 2 examples using systems of geographical information and teledetection in madagascar].schistosomiasis and malaria constitute major health problems in madagascar. the main objectives of the national schistosomiasis control programme--launched in 1998--are to improve knowledge about the modes of transmission of the disease and conduct mass treatment in hyperendemic areas, so as to lower incidence rates. a geographic information system (gis) was established aiming to conduct a series of remote sensing studies based on digital image processing and analysis from landsat tm and panchro ...200011030060
spatial and temporal variations of the chromosomal inversion polymorphism of anopheles funestus in senegal.the polymorphism of paracentric inversions of an. funestus polytene chromosomes was studied along a transect in senegal in order to assess their variations at the spatial and temporal level. there was an increase in the degree of chromosomal polymorphism from the west to south-east. at the geographical level the variations in inversion frequencies were highly significant whatever the chromosomal arm considered. however, the variations in the chromosomal inversion frequencies did not change signi ...200011031753
identification of eukaryotic peptide deformylases reveals universality of n-terminal protein processing mechanisms.the n-terminal protein processing pathway is an essential mechanism found in all organisms. however, it is widely believed that deformylase, a key enzyme involved in this process in bacteria, does not exist in eukaryotes, thus making it a target for antibacterial agents such as actinonin. in an attempt to define this process in higher eukaryotes we have used arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism. two deformylase cdnas, the first identified in any eukaryotic system, and six distinct methionine ...200011060042
current status of malaria and potential for control.malaria remains one of the world's worst health problems with 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths annually; these deaths are primarily among children under 5 years of age and pregnant women in sub-saharan africa. of significance, more people are dying from malaria today than 30 years ago. this review considers the factors which have contributed to this gloomy picture, including those which relate to the vector, the female anopheline mosquito; to human activity such as creating new mosquito breeding sites, ...200111148010
eight novel families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae.eight novel families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (mites) were discovered in the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae, by using new software designed to rapidly identify mite-like sequences based on their structural characteristics. divergent subfamilies have been found in two families. past mobility was demonstrated by evidence of mite insertions that resulted in the duplication of specific ta, taa, or 8-bp targets. some of these mites share the same target duplicat ...200111172014
maque, a family of extremely short interspersed repetitive elements: characterization, possible mechanism of transposition, and evolutionary implications.database analysis revealed a novel family of very short interspersed repetitive elements named maque in the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae. past mobility of maque was demonstrated by evidence of its insertion that resulted in a target duplication. approximately 220 copies of maque were present in the a. gambiae genome. although only approximately 60 bp long, maque has the appearance of a distinct transposition unit. eleven of the 12 maque elements found in the database were flanked ...200111223264
malaria in the highlands of madagascar after five years of indoor house spraying of ddt.the central region of madagascar is a vast area of highlands (altitude 700-2000 m). malaria transmission has re-established itself here since the last epidemic of 1985-90 and has caused the deaths of 40,000 persons according to the minister of health. to combat the main malaria vector in the region, anopheles funestus, annual programmes of indoor house spraying of ddt were carried out between december 1993 and january 1998 in most rural areas at altitude 1000-1500 m. a parasitological and serolo ...200111280055
a simplified model for predicting malaria entomologic inoculation rates based on entomologic and parasitologic parameters relevant to control.malaria transmission intensity is modeled from the starting perspective of individual vector mosquitoes and is expressed directly as the entomologic inoculation rate (eir). the potential of individual mosquitoes to transmit malaria during their lifetime is presented graphically as a function of their feeding cycle length and survival, human biting preferences, and the parasite sporogonic incubation period. the eir is then calculated as the product of 1) the potential of individual vectors to tra ...200011289661
attraction of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) to volatile chemicals in western kenya.anopheles gambiae s.l. and anopheles funestus giles are the primary vectors of malaria in east africa. identification of host-location olfactory cues may increase trap sensitivity for vector control and surveillance programs. solid-state army miniature light traps were operated near sleeping humans in huts at night without lights and augmented with the potential attractants: l-lactic acid, limburger cheese volatiles, hexanoic acid, and carbon dioxide. mosquito response varied between species and ...200111296830
characteristics of larval anopheline (diptera: culicidae) habitats in western kenya.a longitudinal survey of mosquito larval habitats was carried out in asembo bay, western kenya, during the rainy season of 1998. all pools of standing water along a 700-m transect were sampled twice per week. for each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. in total, 1,751 anopheles gambiae s.l. and 2,784 anopheles funestus giles were identified. identification of an. gambiae s.l. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) ...200111296836
impact of irrigation on malaria in africa: paddies paradox.the high population growth rate of the african continent has led to an increased demand for food and is in danger of outstripping agricultural production. in order to meet this need, many governments have sought ways of improving food production by initiating large-scale irrigation projects, involving reclamation of arid and semi-arid areas for the cultivation of crops. although crop irrigation promises one solution to alleviating hunger and encourages economic growth, irrigation has often been ...200111297093
dry season refugia of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in a dry savannah zone of east africa.dry season survival of anopheles funestus, anopheles gambiae and anopheles arabiensis in the kilombero valley a dry savannah zone of east africa, was investigated with over 400 collections from 23 areas, covering 300 sq km of the valley. anopheles gambiae was found only in association with humans, in forested areas of high annual rainfall, while an. funestus occurred at high densities at the valley edge where large non-moving bodies of water remained. a large population of an. arabiensis was pre ...200011304064
effect of permethrin-impregnated nets on exiting behavior, blood feeding success, and time of feeding of malaria mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in western kenya.the impact of permethrin-treated bednets on the feeding and house entering/exiting behavior of malaria vectors was assessed in two studies in western kenya. in one study, matched pairs of houses were allocated randomly to receive bednets or no bednets. exiting mosquitoes were collected in colombian curtains hung around half of each house; indoor resting mosquitoes were collected by pyrethrum spray catches. the number of anopheles gambiae giles and an. arabiensis patton estimated to have entered ...200111476333
comeback of anopheles funestus in sahelian senegal. 200111511072
meiotic recombination, cross-reactivity, and persistence in plasmodium falciparum.we incorporate a representation of plasmodium falciparum recombination within a discrete-event model of malaria transmission. we simulate the introduction of a new parasite genotype into a human population in which another genotype has reached equilibrium prevalence and compare the emergence and persistence of the novel recombinant forms under differing cross-reactivity relationships between the genotypes. cross-reactivity between the parental (initial and introduced) genotypes reduces the frequ ...200111525454
linear and spatial organization of polytene chromosomes of the african malaria mosquito anopheles funestus.anopheles funestus giles is one of the major malaria vectors in africa, but little is known about its genetics. lack of a cytogenetic map characterized by regions has hindered the progress of genetic research with this important species. this study developed a cytogenetic map of an. funestus using ovarian nurse cell polytene chromosomes. we demonstrate an important application with the cytogenetic map for characterizing various chromosomal inversions for specimens collected from coastal kenya. t ...200111560898
bioassay and biochemical analyses of insecticide resistance in southern african anopheles funestus (diptera: culicidae).anopheles funestus giles has been implicated as a major malaria vector in sub-saharan africa where pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture and public health. samples of this species from northern kwazulu/natal in south africa and the beluluane region of southern mozambique showed evidence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. insecticide exposure, synergist and biochemical assays conducted on a. funestus suggested that elevated levels of mixed function oxidases were responsibl ...200111587622
chromosomal inversion polymorphism of anopheles funestus from forest villages of south cameroon.the polymorphism of paracentric inversions of anopheles funestus polytene chromosomes was studied in three villages (nkoteng, obala, and simbock) located in a forest area of south cameroon in order to analyse the genetic structure of these populations. a total of 146-210 chromatids could be scored from specimens collected over about two years. a low degree of chromosomal polymorphism was observed with two floating inversions on chromosomal arm 2 (2h and 2d), and three fixed arrangements on arms ...200011686083
the availability of potential hosts as a determinant of feeding behaviours and malaria transmission by african mosquito populations.a simple model for the influence of host availability on vector bloodmeal choice is applied to estimate the relative availabilities of humans, cattle and other host populations to malaria vectors in african communities, using published human blood indices and ratios of cattle to humans. cattle were bitten < 0.01, 0.021 +/- 0.11, 1.61 +/- 0.16 and 1.61 +/- 0.46 times as often as humans by anopheles funestus, an. gambiae sensu stricto and an. arabiensis in segera, tanzania, and an. gambiae sensu l ...200111706651
[the campaign against malaria in central western madagascar: comparison of the efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and ddt house spraying. i--entomological study].for malaria vector control in madagascar, the efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin 10% wettable powder (icon 10 wp) was compared with ddt 75% wp for house-spraying. this evaluation was conducted from november 1997 to september 1998 in highland villages of vakinankaratra region, at the fringe of the malaria epidemic zone, outside the zone covered by routine ddt house-spraying (opération de pulvérisation intro-domiciliaire de ddt: opid zone). treatments were compared by house-spraying in four areas: 1) ...200111802266
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