six platyhelminths from malaysian reptiles including paradistomoidella cerberi n.g., n.sp. (digenea: dicrocoeliidae).paradistomoidella cerberi n.g., n.sp. and paracanthostomum cerberi from cerberus rhynchops, xenopharynx pyriformis and allopharynx mehrai from ptyas korros, neopronocephalus orientalis from geoemyda spinosa, and duthiersia expansa from varanus salvator are all reported from the area of kuala lumpur, malaysia. paradistomoidella cerberi most closely resembles members of paradistomoides but is characterized by relatively short caeca, a cirrus sac containing a bipartite rather than sinous internal s ...19817229330
description of a giardia varani-like flagellate from a water monitor, varanus salvator, from malaysia.a giardia varani lavier, 1923-like flagellate was found in the feces of a captive water monitor, varanus salvator, originally caught wild from an unknown location in malaysia. the parasite is similar in size and shape to giardia lamblia, except that median bodies are rare and cysts are binucleate. a description of both the trophozoite and cyst stage of this flagellate is provided.19979379313
mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a water monitor.mycobacteriosis caused by mycobacterium intracellulare serotypes davis (8) and altman (18) is described in a water monitor (varanus semiremex). infection with this of organism has not been reported previously in reptiles in australia.1979480513
a check-list of the nematode parasites of south african serpentes (snakes) and sauria (lizards).published records, in combination with own data have been brought together to provide data on parasite/host relationships of reptiles that occur in the republic of south africa. a total of 62 nematode species belonging to 23 genera and 11 families are recorded from 20 snake and 21 lizard species. the genera kalicephalus, spauligodon, ophidascaris and abbreviata are especially well represented with between five and eight species per genus. the most nematode species were recorded from the flap-nec ...200010843317
new pentastomida, sambonia parapodum n. sp. from varanus salvator, and armillifer agkistrodontis n. sp. from agkistrodon acutus. 19665936511
karyotype reorganization in the hokou gecko (gekko hokouensis, gekkonidae): the process of microchromosome disappearance in gekkota.the hokou gecko (gekko hokouensis: gekkonidae, gekkota, squamata) has the chromosome number 2n = 38, with no microchromosomes. for molecular cytogenetic characterization of the gekkotan karyotype, we constructed a cytogenetic map for g. hokouensis, which retains the ancestral karyotype of gekkota, with 86 functional genes, and compared it with cytogenetic maps for four toxicofera species that have many microchromosomes (elaphe quadrivirgata, varanus salvator macromaculatus, leiolepis reevesii ru ...201526241471
identification of the linkage group of the z sex chromosomes of the sand lizard (lacerta agilis, lacertidae) and elucidation of karyotype evolution in lacertid lizards.the sand lizard (lacerta agilis, lacertidae) has a chromosome number of 2n = 38, with 17 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, one pair of microchromosomes, a large acrocentric z chromosome, and a micro-w chromosome. to investigate the process of karyotype evolution in l. agilis, we performed chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization for gene mapping and constructed a cytogenetic map with 86 functional genes. chromosome banding revealed that the z chromosome is the fifth largest chrom ...201424840599
nest predation and maternal care in the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus) at lake st lucia, south africa.information regarding nest predation, nest abandonment, and maternal care in the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus) is largely restricted to anecdotal observations, and has not been studied quantitatively. consequently, we investigated their nesting biology using camera-traps over four years at lake st lucia, south africa. we obtained 4305 photographs (daylight captures=90.1%, nocturnal=9.9%) of 19 nest-guarding females. of 19 monitored nests, 37% were raided by predators (mean=12.1±6.2days s ...201627816524
karyotype evolution in monitor lizards: cross-species chromosome mapping of cdna reveals highly conserved synteny and gene order in the toxicofera clade.the water monitor lizard (varanus salvator macromaculatus (vsa), platynota) has a chromosome number of 2n = 40: its karyotype consists of 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. to delineate the process of karyotype evolution in v. salvator macromaculatus, we constructed a cytogenetic map with 86 functional genes and compared it with those of the butterfly lizard (leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata (lre); 2n = 36) and japanese four-striped rat snake (elaphe quadrivirgata (equ); 2n = 36), memb ...201324343421
new and already known acanthocephalans mostly from mammals in vietnam, with descriptions of two new genera and species in archiacanthocephala.adults of 2 new species and 2 new genera of acanthocephalans in class archiacanthocephala, collected between 1998 and 2004 in vietnam from the intestines of mammals, are described, i.e., cucullanorhynchus constrictruncatus n. gen., n. sp. (oligacanthorhynchidae) from a leopard panthera pardus (linnaeus) (mammalia: felidae) and paraprosthenorchis ornatus n. gen. n. sp. (oligacanthorhynchidae) from the chinese pangolin manis pentadactyla (linnaeus) (mammalia: manidae). adult sphaerechinorhynchus m ...200818372641
forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (fins) for the first time authentication of indian varanus species: implication in wildlife forensics and conservation.monitor lizards are varanus species widely distributed, endangered reptile in the iucn red data list. in india, based on the morphological and ecological characteristic, it is divided into four species viz. bengal monitor lizard, yellow monitor lizard, desert monitor lizard and water monitor lizard. these four species listed as schedule i species in indian wildlife (protection) act 1972. this paper first attempt to present forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (fins) for the indian vara ...201727838947
artefactual incised wounds due to postmortem predation by the sri lankan water monitor (kabaragoya).monitor lizards are large reptilian animals mostly seen around water based habitats. sri lanka has an endemic water monitor lizard called the kabaragoya (varanus salvator salvator) which is perhaps the most common large animal scavenger in the country. scavenging by the kabaragoya can result in postmortem incised injuries which are caused by their sharp pointed claws as they grip or crawl over a dead body. the author presents four cases where these claw marks raised significant medicolegal issue ...201627216749
medical devices; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for three class iii preamendments devices--fda. proposed rule; opportunity to request a change in classification.the food and drug administration (fda) is proposing to require the filing of a premarket approval application (pma) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (pdp) for the following three class iii preamendments devices: lung water monitor, powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use, and stair-climbing wheelchair. the agency also is summarizing its proposed findings regarding the degree of risk of illness or injury designed to be eliminated or reduced by requiring th ...199810184983
medical devices; retention of three preamendment class iii devices in class iii--fda. final rule.the food and drug administration (fda) is retaining the following three preamendments class iii devices in class iii: lung water monitor, powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use, and stair-climbing wheelchair. the agency is taking this action because insufficient information exists to determine that special controls would provide reasonable assurance of their safety and effectiveness, and/or these devices present a potential unreasonable risk of illness or injury.199810181050
functional segregation within the muscles of aquatic propulsion in the asiatic water monitor (varanus salvator).water monitor lizards (varanus salvator) swim using sinusoidal oscillations generated at the base of their long (50% of total body length) tail. in an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features-myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patter ...201627660612
a piezoelectric crystal detector for continuous monitoring of water evolved during thermal decomposition reactions.a method for the continuous monitoring of water vapour evolved during thermal decomposition reactions is developed based on the reversible adsorption of water on a bare piezoelectric crystal with nickel electrodes. gaseous decomposition products formed in the furnace chamber of the thermoanalytical equipment are collected and transported to the detector cell by the carrier gas. a linear relationship exists between the decrease in vibrational frequency of the crystal and the concentration of wate ...199418966040
anatomical basis of dynamic modulation of tympanic tension in the water monitor lizard, varanus salvator.amphibious vertebrates, such as the water monitor (varanus salvator), require anatomical and/or neural specializations to cope with pressure changes on the tympanic membrane when transiting between air and water. v. salvator has internally coupled ears which are distinguished by (patent) anatomical conduits through the skull linking the middle ear cavities on both sides of the head. we describe a small skeletal muscle in v. salvator which inserts onto the middle ear ossicle and the tympanic memb ...201627312415
in situ calibration of a low-level, in-line, flow liquid scintillation analyzer.a new method to calibrate a flow liquid scintillation detector in an in-line waste water monitor was developed and its operation was verified. the liquid scintillation detector for detecting low energy beta emitters was one of three detectors of the monitor that aimed to analyze radionuclide concentrations in the waste water before draining it into sewer. to calibrate the liquid scintillation detector, a 20-cm3 calibration vial containing a reference solution was connected to the water sampling ...200312553648
the depot fat of varanus salvator laur. 193716746323
co-immobilized microbial biosensor for bod estimation based on sol-gel derived composite material.a novel type of biochemical oxygen demand (bod) biosensor was developed for water monitor, based on co-immobilizing of trichosporon cutaneum and bacillus subtilis in the sol-gel derived composite material which is composed of silica and the grafting copolymer of poly (vinyl alcohol) and 4-vinylpyridine (pva-g-p(4-vp)). factors that influence the performance of the resulting biosensor were examined. the biodegradable substrate spectrum could be expanded by the co-immobilized microorganisms. the b ...200312782465
[simultaneous determination of 6 pesticides in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with solid phase extraction].to develop an analytical method for simultaneous determination of 6 pesticides, namely bentazone, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,carbofuran, carbaryl, atrazine and pentachlorophenol, in drinking water by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and thereby to provide a reference to revise the health standards for drinking water (gb/t 5750-2006). meanwhile, to evaluate the content of the above 6 pesticides in the drinking water samples supplied by 12 centralized water plan ...201323958133
rickettsia sp. closely related to rickettsia raoultii (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in an amblyomma helvolum (acarina: ixodidae) tick from a varanus salvator (squamata: varanidae) in engorged female amblyomma helvolum koch tick was removed from an adult varanus salvator laurenti lizard during field collection in thailand. after using polymerase chain reaction to amplify three genes (16s rdna, glta, and ompa), we discovered the presence of a rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group. phylogenetic analysis revealed that this rickettsia sp. is closely related to rickettsia raoultii mediannikov. therefore, we report herein for the first time the detection of a novel spotted f ...201323427674
axial muscle function during lizard locomotionit was recently reported that the epaxial muscles of a lizard, varanus salvator, function to stabilize the trunk during locomotion, and it was suggested that this stabilizing role may be a shared derived feature of amniotes. this result was unexpected because it had previously been assumed that the epaxial muscles of lizards function to produce lateral bending during locomotion and that only in mammals and birds were the epaxial muscles active in stabilizing the trunk. these results and the infe ...19969320426
successful captive breeding of mitchell's water monitor, varanus mitchelli (mertens 1958), at perth zoo.mitchell's water monitors (varanus mitchelli) have been maintained on display at perth zoo since 1997. they are generally a timid species but have been maintained and bred in a mixed species water feature exhibit. in this article we describe their captive management and behavior with an insight into their reproductive biology. between 2002 and 2005, 11 clutches were laid ranging from 13 to 27 (x = 20) eggs from one female. egg size ranged between 3.00 and 6.08 g (x = 4.77 g) in weight, 22.8 and ...201119459149
electrophoretic separation of reptilian skeletal and cardiac muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms: dependence on gel format.this report provides a comparison of multiple gel formats to study myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoforms that are expressed in reptilian skeletal and cardiac muscles of five turtle species, water monitor, and prehensile tailed skink. three gel formats were tested. the results identify one format that is superior, for the overall extent of electrophoretic separation and for the assessment of the number of mhc isoforms in reptilian striated muscles. the same format was shown previously to separate mhc ...201424981405
acid-base imbalance in lizards during activity and recovery.1. the effects of treadmill exercise on oxygen consumption (v02), carbon dioxide production (vco2), arterial blood lactate concentration ([l-]a), arterial blood ph and arterial gas tensions (pao2 and paco2) were measured in 3 species of lizards (varanus salvator, v. exanthematicus, iguana iguana) 2. varanus salvator was exercised 45 min at an intensity which required 85% of its vo2 max. v. salvator utilized supplementary anaerobic metabolism during the first 10 min of this sustainable exercise, ...19827108439
tracing the diet of the monitor lizard varanus mabitang by stable isotope analyses (delta(15)n, delta(13)c).in this study, we used analyses of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)n) and carbon (delta(13)c) to determine the trophic ecology of the monitor lizard varanus mabitang. stable isotopes from claws, gut contents, and soft tissues were measured from the type specimen. samples from varanus olivaceus, varanus prasinus, varanus salvator, the herbivorous agamid lizard hydrosaurus pustulatus, and some plant matter were included for comparison. our data show a rapid decrease in delta(13)c (about 10 p ...200212384723
fossil-calibrated phylogeny and historical biogeography of southeast asian water monitors (varanus salvator complex).we utilize robust geographical genetic sampling, a multilocus dataset, a new synthesis of numerous fossil calibration points, a time-calibrated phylogeny, and the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis model to test the prediction that widespread southeast asian water monitor species initially diversified on the asian mainland and subsequently invaded the island archipelagos of the philippines, sundaland, and wallacea. our results strongly contradict these expectations and instead infer an initial wa ...201424486878
implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using nai(tl) scintillation this study, the implementation of gamma-ray spectrometry in two real-time water monitors using 2 in. × 2 in. nai(tl) scintillation detectors is described. these monitors collect the water from the river through a pump and it is analyzed in a vessel, which is shielded with pb. the full calibration of the monitors was performed experimentally, except for the efficiency curve, which was set using validated monte carlo simulations with the egs5 code system. after the calibration, the monitors per ...201323827508
multilocus phylogeny and bayesian estimates of species boundaries reveal hidden evolutionary relationships and cryptic diversity in southeast asian monitor lizards.recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances in phylogenetics have enabled increasingly robust statistical species delimitation in studies of biodiversity. as the variety of evidence purporting species diversity has increased, so too have the kinds of tools and inferential power of methods for delimiting species. here, we showcase an organismal system for a data-rich, comparative molecular approach to evaluating strategies of species delimitation among monitor lizards of the genu ...201323710945
hematopoietic neoplasms in lizards: report of a typical case in hydrosaurus amboinensis and of a probable case in varanus salvator. 19724676746
performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network.the automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of catalonia (spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the ebre river. since september 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. however, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuc ...201121570164
thermal luminescence water monitor.a thermal luminescence (tl) spectroscopy method for detecting organic impurities in water solution is presented. infrared emissions by the dissolved organic matter are measurable, once a thermal gradient between it and the water medium is established, at those tl frequencies that are absorbed by the contaminant, following irradiation by a pulsed microwave beam. this detection window of opportunity closes as the liquid reaches thermal equilibrium at elevated temperatures and on collapse of the gr ...200118357317
an annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of beris valley, kedah, malaysia.the herpetofauna of beris valley, kedah, malaysia, was studied using a rapid assessment survey during a scientific expedition organised by the school of biological sciences at the universiti sains malaysia, from 14-17 august 2009. all amphibians and reptiles were observed and captured during the four-day survey along the ditches, roads, dam areas, swamps, forest trails and streams. the results showed that 14 species of amphibians from 9 genera and 5 families inhabit the area, and 7 species of li ...201124575206
integrative taxonomy and phylogeny-based species delimitation of philippine water monitor lizards (varanus salvator complex) with descriptions of two new cryptic species.we describe two new species of morphologically cryptic monitor lizards (genus varanus) from the philippine archipelago:  varanus dalubhasa sp. nov. and v. bangonorum sp. nov. these two distinct evolutionary lineages are members of the v. salvator species complex, and historically have been considered conspecific with the widespread, northern philippine v. marmoratus. however, the new species each share closer phylogenetic affinities with v. nuchalis (and potentially v. palawanensis), than either ...201425543631
invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators.although invasive species can have substantial impacts on animal communities, cases of invasive species facilitating native species by removing their predators have rarely been demonstrated across vertebrate trophic linkages. the predictable spread of the invasive cane toad (rhinella marina), however, offered a unique opportunity to quantify cascading effects. in northern australia, three species of predatory monitor lizards suffered severe population declines due to toad-induced lethal toxic in ...201526594710
field fluorometers as dispersed oil-in-water monitors.a laboratory study of the turner instrument flow-through models 10au and 10 fluorometers was conducted to review their ability to measure real-time oil-in-water concentrations, to compare the results to other total petroleum hydrocarbon (tph) procedures and to improve the understanding of the relationship of the fluorescence to the chemical composition of the oils. comparison of the fluorometer results to standard infrared and gas chromatography laboratory procedures showed all methods capable o ...200312963283
a literature review of portable fluorescence-based oil-in-water monitors.the results of a literature search on fluorescence-based portable detectors to measure the real-time concentration of oil are reported. for more than two decades, fluorometers have been commonly employed to monitor dispersed oil levels at oil spills on water. the focus of this paper has been to extract specific information from references about how the instruments were used, including set up and calibration procedures, the oil and dispersant measured, the approximate concentration range of the o ...200312963282
medical devices; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for three preamendment class iii devices. food and drug administration, hhs. final rule.the food and drug administration (fda) is issuing a final rule to retain three class iii preamendment devices in class iii and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (pma) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (pdp) for the following devices: the lung water monitor, the powered vaginal muscle stimulator, and the stair-climbing wheelchair. the agency has summarized its findings regarding the degree of risk of illness or injury designed to be eliminated or ...200011010634
quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in captive asian water monitors.the asian water monitor (varanus salvator) is the most common monitor lizard in thailand. reported data regarding hematology and morphology of blood cells for this species are scarce.201425123583
acid-base balance during lactic acid infusion in the lizard varanus salvator.although reptiles rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid production during activity, little is known concerning their ventilatory response to the attendant metabolic acidosis. we measured arterial pco2, h+ and lactate (l)ion concentrations, and the rates of co2 (mco2) and o2 (mo2) exchange in varanus salvator (n = 9) during intravenous infusions of lactic acid (hl) or sodium lactate (nal; 250 mm) at rest. two protocols were used: (1) 15 min infusions of 0.42 ml/min at both 25 and 3 ...19853925519
a histochemical and enzymatic study of the muscle fiber types in the water monitor, varanus salvator.histochemical analysis of five muscles from the water monitor, varanus salvator, identified three major classes of fibers based on histochemical activities of the enzymes myosin atpase (matpase), succinic dehydrogenase (sdh), and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha gpdh). fast-twitch, glycolytic (fg) fibers were the most abundant fiber type and exhibited the following reaction product intensities: matpase, dark; sdh, light; alpha gpdh, moderate to dark. fast-twitch, oxidative, glycolytic ...19836225835
epaxial muscle function during locomotion in a lizard (varanus salvator) and the proposal of a key innovation in the vertebrate axial musculoskeletal systemthe pattern of electromyographic activity in the epaxial muscles of walking and running lizards (water monitors, varanus salvator) was quantified with high-speed video and synchronized electromyography. muscle denervation experiments were performed and ground reaction forces were recorded to evaluate hypotheses of muscle function. water monitors exhibit unilateral, uniphasic activation of the epaxial muscles ipsilateral to rear limb support. the iliocostalis and longissimus dorsi muscles are act ...19959320404
highly species-specific centromeric repetitive dna sequences in lizards: molecular cytogenetic characterization of a novel family of satellite dna sequences isolated from the water monitor lizard (varanus salvator macromaculatus, platynota).two novel repetitive dna sequences, vsarep1 and vsarep2, were isolated from the water monitor lizard (varanus salvator macromaculatus, platynota) and characterized using molecular cytogenetics. the respective lengths and guanine-cytosine (gc) contents of the sequences were 190 bp and 57.5% for vsarep1 and 185 bp and 59.7% for vsarep2, and both elements were tandemly arrayed as satellite dna in the genome. vsarep1 and vsarep2 were each located at the c-positive heterochromatin in the pericentrome ...201324129994
parasitisation and localisation of ticks (acari: ixodida) on exotic reptiles imported into a result of examinations, the following species of ticks have been found parasitising on python regius brought from africa to poland: amblyomma latum, amblyomma transversale, amblyomma spp., on varanus exanthematicus: amblyomma exornatum, amblyomma flavomaculatum, amblyomma latum, amblyomma nuttalli, amblyomma spp., on varanus salvator brought from indonesia to poland: amblyomma varanensis. there were 58 specimens of monitor lizard (v. salvator and v. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens of pytho ...201021186765
[equipments and instruments for use in radiological protection (iv). characteristics and use of area monitors and water monitors]. 20103517975
lung ventilation during walking and running in four species of lizards.the relationship between locomotion and aspiration breathing was investigated in the lizards iguana iguana, ctenosaura similis, varanus exanthematicus and varanus salvator, and the quail coturnix coturnix. respiratory air-flow during walking and running on a 7.3 m track or on a treadmill was measured with a bidirectional flow meter attached to one nostril. in all four species of lizards, lung ventilation drops markedly during locomotion. tidal volume decreases as speed increases, often by more t ...19873666097
increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. to explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we invest ...201728494004
entamoeba invadens myositis in a common water monitor lizard (varanus salvator).amoebiasis is one of the most common protozoal diseases of reptiles, but amoebic myositis has not been reported in any animal species. an 11-year-old, male common water monitor lizard (varanus salvator) was found dead with several subacute ulcerated skin wounds. gross examination revealed multiple discrete to coalescing, white-yellow to gray, caseous foci scattered in the skeletal muscles and liver. the mucosa of small intestine was thickened, red, and contained many variably sized, dark red ulc ...200919276058
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