glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the trypanosomiasis endemic areas of south eastern uganda: apparent density, trypanosome infection rates and host feeding preferences.a study was undertaken in three districts in south eastern uganda endemic for human and animal trypanosomiasis, to investigate the status of the vector tsetse fly population. apparent density (ad) of tsetse was between 2 and 21 flies/trap/day across the three districts, with glossinia fuscipes fuscipes identified as the predominant species. trypanosomes were observed in g.f. fuscipes with an infection rate, as determined by microscopy, of 1.55% across the three studied areas. however, trypanosom ...200616870129
prospects for developing odour baits to control glossina fuscipes spp., the major vector of human african trypanosomiasis.we are attempting to develop cost-effective control methods for the important vector of sleeping sickness, glossina fuscipes spp. responses of the tsetse flies glossina fuscipes fuscipes (in kenya) and g. f. quanzensis (in democratic republic of congo) to natural host odours are reported. arrangements of electric nets were used to assess the effect of cattle-, human- and pig-odour on (1) the numbers of tsetse attracted to the odour source and (2) the proportion of flies that landed on a black ta ...200919434232
timing of a mtdna gene rearrangement and intercontinental dispersal of varanid lizards.the mitochondrial genomes of the komodo monitor (varanus komodoensis) and the nile monitor (v. niloticus) were previously shown to have an extensive gene rearrangement. here, we show that this gene arrangement widely occurs in varanid taxa originated from africa, asia and australasia. based on phylogenetic relationships of the varanids constructed using mitochondrial dna sequences encoding the nadh dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and seven flanking trna genes, we estimated their divergence times by ...200818670139
fatal clostridial enterotoxemia (clostridium glycolicum) in an ornate nile monitor (varanus ornatus).enterotoxemia caused by clostridium glycolicum was identified as the cause of circulatory collapse and death in a female, 3-yr-old, captive-bred ornate nile monitor (varanus ornatus). anaerobic culture of fecal samples from 12 other monitor lizards from the collection failed to demonstrate the presence of this pathogen.200617312813
trichinella zimbabwensis in wild reptiles of zimbabwe and mozambique and farmed reptiles of 1995, a new species of trichinella (trichinella zimbabwensis) was discovered in farmed nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe, where the mode of transmission was the consumption of the meat of slaughtered crocodiles, used as feed. to determine whether t. zimbabwensis affects poikilotherm vertebrates in the wild, monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) and nile crocodiles were collected in zimbabwe and mozambique. in 5 (17.6%) of the 28 monitor lizards from zimbabwe, t. zimbabwensis la ...200716982152
a check-list of the nematode parasites of south african serpentes (snakes) and sauria (lizards).published records, in combination with own data have been brought together to provide data on parasite/host relationships of reptiles that occur in the republic of south africa. a total of 62 nematode species belonging to 23 genera and 11 families are recorded from 20 snake and 21 lizard species. the genera kalicephalus, spauligodon, ophidascaris and abbreviata are especially well represented with between five and eight species per genus. the most nematode species were recorded from the flap-nec ...200010843317
isolation of trypanosoma brucei from the monitor lizard (varanus niloticus) in an endemic focus of rhodesian sleeping sickness in kenya.monitor lizards were sampled along the shores of lake victoria to detect natural infections of potentially human-infective trypanosomes. in an area with endemic rhodesian sleeping sickness, one of 19 lizards was infected (busia, kenya). six of ten lizards also showed indirect evidence of infection with trypanosoma brucei (antibody elisa). in an area with no recent history of human disease (rusinga island), no parasites were found and no antibodies to t. brucei were detected. the isolate was iden ...199910206114
natural host odours as possible attractants for glossina tachinoides and g. longipalpis (diptera: glossinidae).as strictly haematophagous insects, tsetse flies feed on a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. although these are mainly mammals, some tsetse species also feed on reptiles. the present study investigated whether the odours of several potential natural tsetse hosts may be used as novel attractants to improve the catch of glossina tachinoides or g. longipalpis in biconical traps. the odour of a living monitor lizard (varanus niloticus) had no effect on the catch of g. tachinoides. hexane sk ...19979386790
ticks (acarina: ixodidae) of reptiles from central, lusaka and southern provinces of zambia.during the period 1988-1991, reptiles (23 snakes, 36 tortoises, 25 chameleons and 2 monitor lizards) from central, lusaka and southern provinces of zambia were caught and checked for ticks. only 2 snakes, respectively one python sebae (gmelin, 1789) and one bitis arietans (merrem, 1820), 8 tortoises, respectively seven geochelone pardalis (bell, 1828) and one kinixys belliana (gray, 1831) were found infested with a small number of ticks: nymphs and adults of aponomma latum (koch, 1844) and ambly ...19938065818
analysis of intracardiac shunting in the lizard, varanus niloticus: a new model based on blood oxygen levels and microsphere distribution.the central sites of the cardiovascular system (right and left aortic arches, rao and lao, pulmonary artery, pa, and right and left atria, rat and lat) were chronically and non-occlusively cannulated for an analysis of intracardiac shunting in varanus niloticus. oxygen partial pressure (po2) and oxygen concentration (co2) were significantly higher in right aortic blood than values determined in left aortic blood. the difference was larger in animals acclimated to 25 degrees c (rao co2 = 4.5 +/- ...19883340815
[isolation of yersinia pseudotuberculosis and edwardsiella tarda from a dead monitor lizard (varanus niloticus)]. 1977406717
the occurrence of trichinella zimbabwensis in naturally infected wild crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) from the kruger national park, south africa.trichinella zimbabwensis has been found naturally infecting crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) in zimbabwe, mozambique, ethiopia and south africa, as well as monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) in zimbabwe. the reports on natural infections were mostly accidental rather than structured surveys and involved very few animals. previous surveillance studies in south africa reported a 38.5% prevalence of t. zimbabwensis among wild crocodiles tested from the mpumalanga province and kruger national park ...201322335961
parasitic infections of the african dwarf crocodile (osteolaemus tetraspis) and the ornate nile monitor (varanus ornatus) from nigeria.the parasitic infections of market derived osteolaemus tetraspis from the rainforest and varanus ornatus from locations in the savanna-mosaic and the rainforest of southern nigeria were investigated. parasites recovered from o. tetraspis included members of the pentastomida, trematoda and nematoda. an undescribed pentastomid belonging to the family sebekidae was recovered from o. tetraspis. the same parasite was also found to parasitize v. ornatus from the rainforest. other parasites found in o. ...201323666655
redescription, molecular characterisation and taxonomic re-evaluation of a unique african monitor lizard haemogregarine karyolysus paradoxa (dias, 1954) n. comb. (karyolysidae).within the african monitor lizard family varanidae, two haemogregarine genera have been reported. these comprise five species of hepatozoon miller, 1908 and a species of haemogregarina danilewsky, 1885. even though other haemogregarine genera such as hemolivia petit, landau, baccam & lainson, 1990 and karyolysus labbé, 1894 have been reported parasitising other lizard families, these have not been found infecting the varanidae. the genus karyolysus has to date been formally described and named o ...201627305899
tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. it is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. this knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. the objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding ...201121386971
trypanosoma cf. varani in an imported ball python (python reginus) from ghana.peripheral blood from a ball python (python reginus) imported from ghana was cultured in barbour-stoenner-kelly (bsk) medium for borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. the molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rdna, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to trypanosoma varani wenyon, 1908, originally describe ...200920050011
the fish fauna of anambra river basin, nigeria: species abundance and morphometry.the fish yields of most nigeria inland waters are generally on the decline for causes that may range from inadequate management of the fisheries to degradation of the water bodies. sustainable exploitation requires knowledge of the ichthyofaunal composition in the water bodies. we did a survey of fish species in anambra river basin for 22 months. fish samples were collected using four different gears -hook and line of size 13, caste nets, gill nets, and cages of mesh sizes of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 1 ...200919637699
trichinella zimbabwensis in a naturally infected mammal.trichinella zimbabwensis has been detected in wild and farmed nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) and in wild monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) of several african countries, but it has never been detected in mammals in nature, in spite of its infectivity to rodents, pigs, foxes and monkeys under laboratory conditions. the aim of this work was to describe the first detection of t. zimbabwensis in a naturally infected lion (panthera leo) of the kruger national park (knp) of south africa. the ...201019580688
combining genetic and distributional approaches to sourcing introduced species: a case study on the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in florida.three separate breeding populations of the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) have been identified in florida, usa, located in cape coral, west palm beach and homestead air reserve base. this large, predatory lizard could have negative effects on florida's native wildlife. here, we infer the source of the introduced populations using genetic and statistical approaches, as well as estimate the potential non-native distribution of v. niloticus in north america. we collected genetic data from 25 flor ...201627152204
prevalence and molecular identification of trichinella species isolated from wildlife originating from limpopo and mpumalanga provinces of south africa.trichinella species are widely distributed on all continents with the exception of antarctica, although the full spectrum of trichinella species found in sub-saharan african countries, and their hosts, has not been fully documented. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichinella in wildlife from the greater kruger national park (gknp) and adjacent areas located in the limpopo and mpumalanga provinces of south africa, and to identify the species and/or genotypes of trichinell ...201729168444
[giant mitochondria in the a cells of the pancreas of a lizard: varanus niloticus].pancreatic a cells of the lizard varanus niloticus are characterized by the presence of two types of mitochondria: (a) normal, small mitochondria (about 0.4 x 1 micron), and (b) giant mitochondria, measuring up to 9 micron in length and 1 micron in diameter. giant mitochondria show various shapes. their matrix is filled with tubules, filaments, and dense granules. transverse sections of tubules are polygonal in shape and about 20 nm in diameter. they are grouped in bundles. the filaments, about ...19853837128
insights into the introduction history and population genetic dynamics of the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in florida.invasive species are widely recognized as important drivers of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. the us state of florida is especially susceptible to the proliferation of invasive reptiles, and nonnative lizards currently outnumber native lizard species. at present, there are 3 documented breeding populations of the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in different regions of southern florida, and these populations are considered potential dangers to threatened, fossorial endemics, such as burrowing ...201626971010
non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of streptococcus varani sp. nov.strain ff10(t) (= csur p1489 = dsm 100884) was isolated from the oral cavity of a lizard (varanus niloticus) in dakar, senegal. here we used a polyphasic study including phenotypic and genomic analyses to describe the strain ff10(t). results support strain ff10(t) being a gram-positive coccus, facultative anaerobic bacterium, catalase-negative, non-motile and non-spore forming. the sequenced genome counts 2.46 mb with one chromosome but no plasmid. it exhibits a g+c content of 40.4% and contains ...201627158513
[the endocrine pancreas in varanus niloticus: ultrastructural and cytochemical electron microscopic study and x-ray microdiffraction].electron microscopy has confirmed that there are b and a1 insular cells in the varanidae; nevertheless, the majority of cells are a2. it is the transformation of canalicular and acinar cells that is responsible for insular regeneration. mixed cell type can be found very frequently. x ray microdiffraction has shown that the beta granules contain high levels of zinc; similar concentrations are found in peri-insular exocrine cells. seasonal sexual activity intensifies the process of exo-endocrine c ...1975807398
ventricular outflow dynamics in the lizard, varanus niloticus: responses to hypoxia, hypercarbia and diving. 19744847287
the life history of varanus niloticus. 192817769943
molecular data from contemporary and historical collections reveal a complex story of cryptic diversification in the varanus (polydaedalus) niloticus species group.previous studies of color pattern, tongue pigmentation, and scale counts have been used to distinguish two species of semiaquatic varanids in africa, but these findings have yet to be tested with molecular data. the varanus (polydaedalus) niloticus species group is comprised of the nile monitor (v. niloticus) and the ornate monitor (v. ornatus). due to the high rate of exploitation of both species for bushmeat, the leather industry, and the pet trade, a clear understanding of the taxonomy and ge ...201626475616
illustrating ontogenetic change in the dentition of the nile monitor lizard, varanus niloticus: a case study in the application of geometric morphometric methods for the quantification of shape-size heterodonty.many recent attempts have been made to quantify heterodonty in non-mammalian vertebrates, but the majority of these are limited to euclidian measurements. one taxon frequently investigated is varanus niloticus, the nile monitor. juveniles possess elongate, pointed teeth (caniniform) along the entirety of the dental arcade, whereas adults develop large, bulbous distal teeth (molariform). the purpose of this study was to present a geometric morphometric method to quantify v. niloticus heterodonty ...201525939576
fine-scale genetic analysis of the exploited nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in sahelian africa.overexploitation of wildlife populations results in direct consequences, such as extinction and local extirpation, as well as indirect effects including genetic diversity loss and changes in genetic structure. a clear understanding of the underlying genetic patterns of harvested species is necessary for sustainable management. the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) is a commercially valuable species in the international leather industry, with the highest levels of exploitation concentrated through ...201525884730
assessing environmental contamination around obsolete pesticide stockpiles in west africa: using the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species.environmental contamination caused by obsolete pesticide stocks was assessed using the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. organochlorines and organophosphates were quantified by gas chromatography in abdominal fat and the liver, respectively. results were compared to those obtained from three other sites, characterized by different histories of contamination. none of the previously stocked pesticides were recovered. low to moderate levels of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethy ...201222045616
the nile monitor (varanus niloticus; squamata: varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-saharan wetlands.wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-saharan africa. though regularly exploited, the nile monitor (varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. this work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted si ...201121885092
jaw and hyolingual movements during prey transport in varanid lizards: effects of prey type.the ability to modulate feeding kinematics in response to prey items with different functional properties is likely a prerequisite for most organisms that feed on a variety of food items. variation in prey properties is expected to reveal variation in feeding function and the functional role of the different phases in a transport cycle. here we describe the kinematics of prey transport of two varanid species, varanus niloticus and varanus ornatus. these species were selected for analysis because ...201121600748
use of the nile monitor, varanus niloticus l (reptilia: varanidae), as a bioindicator of organochlorine pollution in african wetlands. 200617033862
a kinematic analysis of mesokinesis in the nile monitor (varanus niloticus).previous investigations attempting to document cranial kinetic movements in lizards have resulted in ambiguous and contradictory results. mesokinesis during feeding in the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) was investigated using a new technique. slotted mounts were attached to the frontal and parietal segments in three adult nile monitors (0.8-1.7 kg). extensions which exaggerate the relative movements of the bones were attached to these mounts. all phases of feeding behavior on mice were filmed ...19873436405
ticks (acari: ixodidae) of the nile monitor on rusinga island, the course of a study of ticks of livestock, five nile monitor lizard specimens were caught and examined for ticks. although none of the tick species infesting livestock were found on the reptiles, a large number of adults and presumed nymphs and larvae of aponomma flavomaculatum (lucus) and adults of amblyomma sparsum (neumann) were collected. the ticks demonstrated a distinct predilection for their attachment sites. this is the second report of a. flavomaculatum from this part of kenya.19902332875
[an anatomical study of the teeth of varanus niloticus]. 19853859791
experimental infection of tigerfish (hydrocynus vittatus) and african sharp tooth catfish (clarias gariepinus) with trichinella zimbabwensis.trichinella zimbabwensis naturally infects a variety of reptilian and wild mammalian hosts in south africa. attempts have been made to experimentally infect piranha fish with t. zimbabwensis and t. papuae without success. tigerfish (hydrocynus vittatus) and african sharp tooth catfish (clarias gariepinus) are accomplished predators cohabiting with nile crocodiles (crocodylus niloticus) and nile monitor lizards (varanus niloticus) in southern africa and are natural hosts of t. zimbabwensis. to as ...202033179950
caryospora varaniornati sp. n. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in the nile monitor, varanus (polydaedalus) niloticus species complex.parasitological examination of two ornate nile monitors varanus ornatus (daudin, 1803) imported from benin revealed the presence of a new species of caryospora. oocysts of caryospora varaniornati sp. n. are spherical to slightly subspherical, 12.0 (11-12.5) x 11.5 (11-12) microm, without amicropyle and oocyst residuum, and occasionally possessing one small polar granule. sporocysts are broadly ellipsoidal, 8.8 (8.5-9.5) x 6.7 (6.5-7) microm; a lentil-like stieda body is present, ca. 0.5 x 1 micr ...200111266138
severe fibrinonecrotic enteritis caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa in a captive monitor lizard (varanus niloticus).pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen that has been implicated in a number of serious conditions in humans and animals. studies regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs against virulent strains of p. aeruginosa in human and animal hosts have demonstrated that common therapeutic options are sometimes ineffective. in captive animals, in particular reptiles, literature on this topic is scarce. in this study, a 6-yr-old monitor lizard, varanus niloticus, died suddenly without previous ...201425000709
nest predation and maternal care in the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus) at lake st lucia, south africa.information regarding nest predation, nest abandonment, and maternal care in the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus) is largely restricted to anecdotal observations, and has not been studied quantitatively. consequently, we investigated their nesting biology using camera-traps over four years at lake st lucia, south africa. we obtained 4305 photographs (daylight captures=90.1%, nocturnal=9.9%) of 19 nest-guarding females. of 19 monitored nests, 37% were raided by predators (mean=12.1±6.2days s ...201627816524
squamate reptiles from kanapoi: faunal evidence for hominin paleoenvironments.the squamate fossil record from kanapoi reveals generic to higher-order similarities with modern east african herpetofaunas. the record is derived from surface collection and screen washing, and consists primarily of isolated vertebrae with a few maxillary and mandibular elements. the most abundant remains are vertebrae of large-bodied python that are morphologically similar to extant python sebae, and vertebrae of varanus cf. (varanus niloticus + varanus exanthematicus). additional cranial and ...202029910043
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