[stereotype and plasticity of utterances in gibbons (hylobates concolor leucogenys)].the "great call" of adult male and female hylobates concolor leucogenys was studied in different conditions of social stimulation, using quantitative (i. e. sonographic) analysis. vocal sequences are generally made up of mixed sounds, appearing in a fixed order and constituting a species-specific character. qualitative diversification appears in the repetition of sequences. different social situations alter parameters of the calling pattern: especially the length and intensity of homologous modu ...1979114327
[candidiasis of the stomach in a several-hour-old white gibbon--hylobates concolor leucogenys]. 1975765818
comparative study of the femoral articular facies of knees of the this article, on the basis of the characteristics of the moiré contour fringes of nycticebus coucany, macaca assamensis m'clelland, presbytis phayrei, phinopithecus roxellanae, hylobates concolor leucogenys, gorilla gorilla. anthropopithecus troglodytes. simia satyrus and modern human beings we divide the primates into two types. the two types of the new classification may be two groups of the evolution moving state. for comparison with each other, the angle gamma between the approximately el ...19873127881
[phylogenetic relationships among six species of macaca inferred from ribosomal dna variations].restriction maps of ribosomal dna repeating units of six species of macaca (m. mulatta, m. facsicularis, m. arctoides, m. assamensis, m. thibetana, m. nemestrina) and two outgroup species, rhinopithecus bieti and hylobates leucogenys, were constructed with 15 restriction endonucleases and 28s, 18s rdna probes cloned from human, m. arctoides shares a common restriction map with m. assamensis. phylogenetic tree derived from the neighbor-joining was somewhat different that derived from the maximum ...19969041777
sequence evolution of the ccr5 chemokine receptor gene in primates.the chemokine receptor ccr5 can serve as a coreceptor for m-tropic hiv-1 infection and both m-tropic and t-tropic siv infection. we sequenced the entire ccr5 gene from 10 nonhuman primates: pongo pygmaeus, hylobates leucogenys, trachypithecus francoisi, trachypithecus phayrei, pygathrix nemaeus, rhinopithecus roxellanae, rhinopithecus bieti, rhinopithecus avunculus, macaca assamensis, and macaca arctoides. when compared with ccr5 sequences from humans and other primates, our results demonstrate ...199910486970
management of hepatitis b virus infections in two gibbons and a western lowland gorilla in a zoological collection.since 1996, three primates newly arrived at london zoo have been found to be infected with hepatitis b virus. the species involved were white-cheeked gibbons (hylobates leucogenys leucogenys and hylobates leucogenys siki) and a western lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla). the protocols for the practical management of these cases, including the immunisation of susceptible non-human primates and the staff with recombinant hepatitis b vaccine are described, and the origin and evolution of hep ...200111504202
applications of combined dna microarray and chromosome sorting technologies.the sequencing of the human genome has led to the availability of an extensive mapped clone resource that is ideal for the construction of dna microarrays. these genomic clone microarrays have largely been used for comparative genomic hybridisation studies of tumours to enable accurate measurement of copy number changes (array-cgh) at increased resolution. we have utilised these microarrays as the target for chromosome painting and reverse chromosome painting to provide a similar improvement in ...200414984100
repeat expansion in spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 alleles of the tata-box binding protein gene: an evolutionary approach.the variability and mutational changes of the cag microsatellite in the tata-box binding protein gene (tbp) were studied. we sequenced the microsatellite of the tbp gene of 25 unrelated individuals from northern germany (10 sca17 patients and 15 unaffected control individuals). in addition, the microsatellites were sequenced from individuals of 10 northern german families with at least one family member affected by sca17. to study also the evolutionary history of this cag/caa microsatellite in n ...200717033685
Ensembl 2012.The Ensembl project ( provides genome resources for chordate genomes with a particular focus on human genome data as well as data for key model organisms such as mouse, rat and zebrafish. Five additional species were added in the last year including gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) and Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) bringing the total number of supported species to 61 as of Ensembl release 64 (September 2011). Of these, 55 species appear on the main Ensembl website and ...201222086963
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive wildlife at zhengzhou zoo, china.cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals. two hundred and three fecal specimens from 80 wildlife species were collected in zhengzhou zoo and their genomic dna extracted. three intestinal pathogens were characterized with a dna sequence analysis of different loci. cryptosporidium felis, c. baileyi, and avian genotype iii were identified in three specimens (1.5%), the manul, red-crowned crane, and cockatiel, re ...201526384582
molecular characterization, polymorphism, and association of porcine gadd45g gene.growth arrest and dna-damage-inducible gamma (gadd45g) is a reproduction related gene. in this study, the full-length cdna sequence of porcine gadd45g gene was cloned through rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) method. the porcine gadd45g gene encodes a protein of 159 amino acids that shares high homology with the gadd45g of nine species: chimpanzee (97%), sumatran orangutan (97%), white-tufted-ear marmoset (97%), northern white-cheeked gibbon (97%), cattle (97%), human (97%), rhesus monkey ...201525927170
molecular cloning and expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene in hu sheep.17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-hsd2) catalyzes the nadp+-dependent oxidation of the most potent estrogen 17β-estradiol into the weak estrogen estrone, and the conversion of testosterone to androstenedione. it has been reported that 17β-hsd2 was expressed in many tissues in human, rats, however, the full-length sequence of 17β-hsd2 gene and its expression in ewe were still unknown. in this study, we cloned the full-length cdna sequence and investigated mrna differential expression i ...201323096084
identification and sequence analysis of the keratin-associated protein 24-1 (kap24-1) gene homologue in sheep.keratin-associated proteins (kaps) are major structural components of hair and wool fibres, and play a critical role in determining the properties of the fibre. while over 100 kap genes that have been grouped into 27 kap families have been identified in mammals, most homologues remain unidentified in sheep. a blast search of the ovine genome assembly v2.0 using a human krtap24-1 coding sequence (nm_001085455), identified a putative ovine kap24-1 gene clustered with six other known kap genes on c ...201222995344
next generation sequencing (ngs) database for tandem repeats with multiple pattern 2°-shaft multicore string generation sequencing (ngs) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. to provide the comprehensive ngs resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats taga, tcat, gaat, agat, agaa, gata, tatc, cttt, tctg and tcta. then we developed the ngs tandem repeat database (tandemrepeatdb) for all the chromosomes of homo sapiens, callithrix jacchus, chlorocebus sabaeus, gorilla gorilla, macaca fascicularis, macaca m ...201626981434
patterns of genetic variation within and between gibbon species.gibbons are small, arboreal, highly endangered apes that are understudied compared with other hominoids. at present, there are four recognized genera and approximately 17 species, all likely to have diverged from each other within the last 5-6 my. although the gibbon phylogeny has been investigated using various approaches (i.e., vocalization, morphology, mitochondrial dna, karyotype, etc.), the precise taxonomic relationships are still highly debated. here, we present the first survey of nuclea ...201121368318
evolutionary breakpoints in the gibbon suggest association between cytosine methylation and karyotype evolution.gibbon species have accumulated an unusually high number of chromosomal changes since diverging from the common hominoid ancestor 15-18 million years ago. the cause of this increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements is not known, nor is it known if genome architecture has a role. to address this question, we analyzed sequences spanning 57 breaks of synteny between northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus l. leucogenys) and humans. we find that the breakpoint regions are enriched in segmental d ...200919557196
new insights into centromere organization and evolution from the white-cheeked gibbon and marmoset.the evolutionary history of alpha-satellite dna, the major component of primate centromeres, is hardly defined because of the difficulty in its sequence assembly and its rapid evolution when compared with most genomic sequences. by using several approaches, we have cloned, sequenced, and characterized alpha-satellite sequences from two species representing critical nodes in the primate phylogeny: the white-cheeked gibbon, a lesser ape, and marmoset, a new world monkey. sequence analyses demonstr ...200919429672
sequencing human-gibbon breakpoints of synteny reveals mosaic new insertions at rearrangement sites.the gibbon genome exhibits extensive karyotypic diversity with an increased rate of chromosomal rearrangements during evolution. in an effort to understand the mechanistic origin and implications of these rearrangement events, we sequenced 24 synteny breakpoint regions in the white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys, nle) in the form of high-quality bac insert sequences (4.2 mbp). while there is a significant deficit of breakpoints in genes, we identified seven human gene structures involved in ...200919029537
tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the hominoidea ancestor to extant hylobates and nomascus gibbons by high-resolution synteny this study we characterized the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (hylobates lar, hla) by hybridization of a panel of approximately 1000 human bac clones. each lar gibbon rearrangement was defined by a splitting bac clone or by two overlapping clones flanking the breakpoint. a reconstruction of the synteny arrangement of the last common ancestor of all living lesser apes was made by combining these data with previous results ...200818552313
construction, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of a fosmid library of the white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys).gibbons have experienced extensive karyotype rearrangements during evolution and represent an ideal model for studying the underlying molecular mechanism of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements. it is anticipated that the cloning and sequence characterization of evolutionary chromosomal breakpoints will provide vital insights into the molecular force that has driven such a radical karyotype reshuffle in gibbons. we constructed and characterized a high-quality fosmid library of the white-cheek ...200718267302
a high-resolution map of synteny disruptions in gibbon and human genomes.gibbons are part of the same superfamily (hominoidea) as humans and great apes, but their karyotype has diverged faster from the common hominoid ancestor. at least 24 major chromosome rearrangements are required to convert the presumed ancestral karyotype of gibbons into that of the hominoid ancestor. up to 28 additional rearrangements distinguish the various living species from the common gibbon ancestor. using the northern white-cheeked gibbon (2n = 52) (nomascus leucogenys leucogenys) as a mo ...200617196042
molecular refinement of gibbon genome rearrangements.the gibbon karyotype is known to be extensively rearranged when compared to the human and to the ancestral primate karyotype. by combining a bioinformatics (paired-end sequence analysis) approach and a molecular cytogenetics approach, we have refined the synteny block arrangement of the white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys, nle) with respect to the human genome. we provide the first detailed clone framework map of the gibbon genome and refine the location of 86 evolutionary breakpoints to < ...200717185643
conserved chromosome segments in hylobates hoolock revealed by human and h. leucogenys paint probes.a complete comparative chromosome map of the white-browed gibbon (hylobates hoolock, 2n = 38), white-cheeked gibbon (hylobates leucogenys, 2n = 52), and human has been established by hybridising h. leucogenys chromosome-specific paints and human 24-colour paints onto h. hoolock metaphase chromosomes. in the 18 h. hoolock autosomes, we identified 62 conserved segments that showed dna homology to regions of the 25 h. leucogenys autosomes. numerous interchromosomal rearrangements differentiate the ...200111435697
a classification efficiency test of spectral karyotyping and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization: identification of chromosome homologies between homo sapiens and hylobates leucogenys.two digital fluorescence microscopy systems, spectral karyotyping (sky) and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation (m-fish), are used with multicolour probe sets to assist in the detection of chromosome aberrations. we have compared the resolution of the two methods in their ability to identify karyotype rearrangements, which have occurred during the divergence of homo sapiens and hylobates leucogenys in evolution. a 24-color human paint kit distinguishes 74 conserved autosomal segments in ...200111284037
fatal infections with balamuthia mandrillaris (a free-living amoeba) in gorillas and other old world primates.balamuthia mandrillaris is a newly described free-living amoeba capable of causing fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. because the number of human cases is rapidly increasing, this infection is now considered an important emerging disease by the medical community. a retrospective review of the pathology database for the zoological society of san diego (the san diego zoo and san diego wild animal park) for the period july 1965 through december 1994 revealed five cases of amoebic meni ...19979150541
phylogenetic relationships among two species of golden monkey and three species of leaf monkey inferred from rdna variation.restriction maps of rdna repeats of five species of colobinae and three outgroup taxa, hylobates leucogenys, macaca mulatta, and macaca irus, were constructed using 15 restriction endonucleases and cloned 18s and 28s rrna gene probes. the site variation between rhinopithecus roxellana and rhinopithecus bieti is comparable to that between presbytis françoisi and preshytis phayrei, implying that r. bieti is a valid species rather than a subspecies of r. roxellana. phylogenetic analysis on the 47 i ...19958792613
production of a female-specific great call in an immature male gibbon, the nomascus genus.production of species- and sex-specific vocalisation is a trait characteristic of all gibbons. however, the mechanisms of gibbon vocalisation ontogeny and the manner of developing sex-specific vocal patterns are not yet known. we recorded vocal behaviour of a juvenile male northern white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys). the male produced female-specific great calls. out of 163 great-call sequences recorded during six sessions, the juvenile son joined in 157 cases with its own great call. in ...201627565818
preliminary study on hand preference in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys).the postural origin hypothesis and the task complexity hypothesis propose that hand preference in non-human primates evolved in association with body posture and task complexity, respectively. the results of previous studies testing these two hypotheses, however, vary greatly with the different primate species and methods used. to investigate the effect of body posture and task complexity on hand preference, we recorded bouts of hand usage in nine captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus ...201727629111
multilocus genotyping of giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in sichuan and guizhou provinces, southwestern china.giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. it has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (nhps) in recent years. however, multilocus genotyping information for g. duodenalis infecting nhps in southwestern china is limited. in the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (mlgs) of g. duodenalis in captive nhps in southwestern china were determined. we examined 207 fecal samples from nhps in sichuan and guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens wer ...201728910395
hepatocystis in the white-cheeked gibbon, hylobates concolor. 19684966669
acute lymphocytic leukemia in a white-cheeked gibbon. (hylobates concolor). 19685248518
karyotypic study of four gibbon forms provisionally considered as subspecies of hylobates (nomascus) concolor (primates, hylobatidae).we report here a karyotypic study of 6 individuals of hylobates concolor leucogenys, 2h, concolor siki, 3h, concolor gabriellae, 1 hybrid h, concolor leucogenys x h. concolor ski, 3 hybrid h. concolor gabriellae x h. concolor siki and 2 hybrid h. concolor hainanus x h. concolor leucogenys. difficulties raised by the morphological identification of subspecies are discussed, and a new morphological characteristic for recognising female h. concolor gabriellae is described. each of the 4 subspecies ...19912045017
using occupancy-based surveys and multi-model inference to estimate abundance and distribution of crested gibbons (nomascus spp.) in central laos.reliable assessments of species' status are prerequisites for monitoring the success of conservation programmes. however, survey conditions such as terrain and inaccessibility, compounded by the low densities of many species across southeast asia and other parts of the world are considerable barriers to obtaining robust populations estimates. we used an occupancy-based approach and multi-model inference to generate occupancy and abundance estimates for northern white-cheeked crested gibbons noma ...201526637802
sex ratio bias in managed populations of hylobatids.a number of explanations have been proposed for the occurrence of sex ratio bias in primates, including the trivers-willard hypothesis on differential investment, local resource competition or enhancement as a result of sex-biased dispersal, dominance-related advantages conferred on one sex but not the other, and the fragile male hypothesis. however, none of these theories was thought to be applicable to monogamous primate species. here, we examine data on zoo-housed populations of three hylobat ...201122248927
locational diversity of alpha satellite dna and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the nomascus and hylobates genera of small apes.recently, we discovered that alpha satellite dna has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. this study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera nomascus and hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite dna markers in discriminating small ape genomes. in particular we establi ...201425290445
tube task hand preference in captive hylobatids.the link between laterality in humans and other primates is still hotly debated. hylobatids have been rather neglected in this research area, yet they can provide important insights because: (1) they share with humans a complex vocal repertoire, which in humans is thought to be associated with brain hemispheric specialization and lateralized behaviors; (2) their adaptation to arboreality has produced unique postural constraints; (3) the little that is known about laterality in gibbons is contrad ...201728342054
np9, a cellular protein of retroviral ancestry restricted to human, chimpanzee and gorilla, binds and regulates ubiquitin ligase mdm2.humans and primates are long-lived animals with long reproductive phases. one factor that appears to contribute to longevity and fertility in humans, as well as to cancer-free survival, is the transcription factor and tumor suppressor p53, controlled by its main negative regulator mdm2. however, p53 and mdm2 homologs are found throughout the metazoan kingdom from trichoplacidae to hominidae. therefore the question arises, if p53/mdm2 contributes to the shaping of primate features, then through w ...201526103464
hominoid composite non-ltr retrotransposons-variety, assembly, evolution, and structural determinants of mobilization.sva (sine-r-vntr-alu) elements constitute the youngest family of composite non-ltr retrotransposons in hominoid primates. the sequence of their assembly, however, remains unclear. recently, a second family of vntr-containing composites, lava (l1-alu-vntr-alu), has been identified in gibbons. we now report the existence of two additional vntr composite families, pva (ptgr2-vntr-alu) and fva (fram-vntr-alu), in the genome of nomascus leucogenys. like lava, they share the 5'-alu-like region and vnt ...201425216663
siamangs (hylobates syndactylus) and white-cheeked gibbons (hylobates leucogenys) show few behavioral differences related to zoo attendance.the effect of visitors on behavior and welfare of nonhuman animals in the zoo has been an active research topic during the last few decades. although research has variously shown negative or positive impacts of zoo visitors on animals in captivity, previous primate research at disney's animal kingdom suggests the importance of visual barriers in allowing animals to cope with large crowds. examining this further, this study monitored the behavior of white-cheeked gibbons (hylobates leucogenys) an ...201020349380
a chromosomal inversion unique to the northern white-cheeked gibbon.the gibbon family belongs to the superfamily hominoidea and includes 15 species divided into four genera. each genus possesses a distinct karyotype with chromosome numbers varying from 38 to 52. this diversity is the result of numerous chromosomal changes that have accumulated during the evolution of the gibbon lineage, a quite unique feature in comparison with other hominoids and most of the other primates. some gibbon species and subspecies rank among the most endangered primates in the world. ...200919319194
vocal responses of captive gibbon groups to a mate change in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys).the singing behaviour of 3 pairs of white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) held at the perth zoo was observed for 6 months in 2005. these groups included a family (mated pair and 2 immature offspring) and a pair without offspring. during the study, the female without offspring was exchanged for an unpaired female from new zealand. after the new pair had been released onto the island enclosure and began to duet, the duetting rate of the white-cheeked gibbon family increased. the increased si ...200717496420
observations on the behavior of gibbons (hylobates leucogenys, h. gabriellae, and h. lar) in the presence of mirrors.three captive gibbons (hylobates leucogenys, h. gabriellae, and h. lar) were videotaped in the course of longitudinal exposure to mirrors introduced into their familiar cage or island housing situation. the gibbons, which differed in age, sex, species, and rearing condition, exhibited great individual differences in their behavioral reactions to mirrors, spanning from a minimal reaction dominated by social responses to a dramatic sequence of progressive behavioral change that featured a variety ...200010994841
the forearm and hand musculature of semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and arboreal gibbons (fam. hylobatidae). part ii. quantitative analysis.nonhuman primates have a highly diverse locomotor repertoire defined by an equally diverse hand use. based on how primates use their hands during locomotion, we can distinguish between terrestrial and arboreal taxa. the 'arboreal' hand is likely adapted towards high wrist mobility and grasping, whereas the 'terrestrial' hand will show adaptations to loading. while the morphology of the forearm and hand bones have been studied extensively, functional adaptations in the forearm and hand musculatur ...202033011967
the forearm and hand musculature of semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and arboreal gibbons (fam. hylobatidae). part i. description and comparison of the muscle configuration.primates live in very diverse environments and, as a consequence, show an equally diverse locomotor behaviour. during locomotion, the primate hand interacts with the superstrate and/or substrate and will therefore probably show adaptive signals linked with this locomotor behaviour. whereas the morphology of the forearm and hand bones have been studied extensively, the functional adaptations in the hand musculature have been documented only scarcely. to evaluate whether there are potential adapta ...202032511764
reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (hylobates spp.).from studies of both wild and captive animals, gibbons are thought to reach sexual maturity at about 6 to 8 years of age, and the siamang (hylobates syndactylus) at about 8 to 9 years. however, a review of the literature reveals that in most cases the exact age of the maturing animals was not known and had to be estimated. this study presents seven case reports on captive gibbons of known age. captive males of the white-cheeked crested gibbon (h. leucogenys leucogenys) and of the siamang (h. syn ...199131952414
social dynamics modify behavioural development in captive white-cheeked (nomascus leucogenys) and silvery (hylobates moloch) gibbons.behavioural development was quantified in one family group of silvery gibbons (hylobates moloch) and one of white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) over 11 months during 2005 and 2008 at the perth zoo. levels of locomotion, solo play and play solicitation peaked by 5 years of age but continued solo and social play in older immatures suggested that social development continued until at least 7 years of age. mature offspring responded to play solicitations from younger siblings. the transition ...201121416217
the varied path to adulthood: plasticity in developmental timing in hylobatids.maturation includes physical, reproductive, and social aspects that develop asynchronously. intra- and inter-individual variation in the relative timing of each aspect reflects context-dependent plasticity. plasticity in developmental timing may be important for the family-living small apes (family hylobatidae), where reproductive opportunities are monopolized by territorial breeding pairs. data on development in hylobatids are so far limited due to their elusive arboreal niche and long lifespan ...201626716909
a most distant intergeneric hybrid offspring (larcon) of lesser apes, nomascus leucogenys and hylobates lar.unlike humans, which are the sole remaining representatives of a once larger group of bipedal apes (hominins), the "lesser apes" (hylobatids) are a diverse radiation with numerous extant species. consequently, the lesser apes can provide a valuable evolutionary window onto the possible interactions (e.g., interbreeding) of hominin lineages coexisting in the same time and place. in the present work, we employ chromosomal analyses to verify the hybrid ancestry of an individual (larcon) produced by ...200717717705
object permanence tests on gibbons (hylobatidae).ten gibbons of various species (symphalangus syndactylus, hylobates lar, nomascus gabriellae, and nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. the authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. during invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. the pe ...200819014264
gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes.gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between old world monkeys and great apes. here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys) genome. we describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (lava) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a p ...201425209798
reaching new heights: the effect of an environmentally enhanced outdoor enclosure on gibbons in a zoo setting.gibbons have adapted to live in the canopy layer of the rainforest. gibbons in the wild predominantly spend their time high in the trees resting, traveling, and foraging for food. comparatively, gibbons in the zoo often rest and search for their food terrestrially. the purpose of this study was to provide these arboreal smaller apes with more opportunities to utilize more vertical space. six gibbons (4 nomascus leucogenys and 2 symphalangus syndactylus) were observed in 2 phases of an observatio ...201424832240
hormonal and behavioral patterns of reproduction in female hylobatids.ovarian cyclicity, reproductive behavior, and gestation length were characterized in female hylobatids using non-invasive fecal steroid analyses and behavioral data. progestagen metabolites were quantified in fecal samples collected for 3 months from seven females housed at seven north american zoological institutions. mean (±sem) ovarian cycle length was 23.1±1.5 days (seven females; 22 cycles) and was similar across individuals and species (range: 15.3-27.3 days). gestation length in white-che ...201323273976
in situ hybridization analysis of gibbon chromosomes suggests that amplification of alpha satellite dna in the telomere region is confined to two of the four genera.the siamang (symphalangus syndactylus), a species of the family hylobatidae (gibbons), carries large blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the telomere region of chromosomes. we recently found that alpha satellite dna constitutes these heterochromatin blocks as a main component. alpha satellite dna, tandem repeat sequences of 171-bp repeat units, is a major component of centromeres in primates. in addition to the siamang, the white-cheeked gibbon (nomascus leucogenys) was previously found to ...201223199575
a novel composite retrotransposon derived from or generated independently of the sva (sine/vntr/alu) transposon has undergone proliferation in gibbon genomes.the superfamily hominoidea (hominoids) comprises two families: hominidae (hominids) and hylobatidae (gibbons, also called small apes). the sva transposon is a composite retrotransposon that occurs widely in hominoids and is considered to have been generated by stepwise fusions of three genetic elements: sine-r, a variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) sequence, and alu. we identified a novel transposon whose basic structure is the same as that of sva, with one prominent difference being the pre ...201222976393
an alu-based phylogeny of gibbons (hylobatidae).gibbons (hylobatidae) are small, arboreal apes indigenous to southeast asia that diverged from other apes ∼15-18 ma. extant lineages radiated rapidly 6-10 ma and are organized into four genera (hylobates, hoolock, symphalangus, and nomascus) consisting of 12-19 species. the use of short interspersed elements (sines) as phylogenetic markers has seen recent popularity due to several desirable characteristics: the ancestral state of a locus is known to be the absence of an element, rare potentially ...201222683814
repetitive sequences originating from the centromere constitute large-scale heterochromatin in the telomere region in the siamang, a small ape.chromosomes of the siamang symphalangus syndactylus (a small ape) carry large-scale heterochromatic structures at their ends. these structures look similar, by chromosome c-banding, to chromosome-end heterochromatin found in chimpanzee, bonobo and gorilla (african great apes), of which a major component is tandem repeats of 32-bp-long, at-rich units. in the present study, we identified repetitive sequences that are a major component of the siamang heterochromatin. their repeat units are 171 bp i ...201222669075
genetic characterisation and phylogenetic status of whipworms (trichuris spp.) from captive non-human primates in china, determined by nuclear and mitochondrial sequencing.whipworms (nematoda: trichuridae), among the most common soil-transmitted helminths (sths), can cause the socioeconomically important disease trichuriasis in various mammalian hosts including humans and non-human primates. for many years, trichuris from non-human primates has been assigned to the same species as the one infecting humans trichuris trichiura. more recently, several molecular reports challenged this assumption following recognition of a trichuris species complex observed in humans ...201830236150
retained duplications and deletions of cyp2c genes among primates.the human genome encodes about 60 functional enzymes of the cytochrome p450 superfamily, including four functional enzymes of the cytochrome p450 2c (cyp2c) subfamily. these enzymes have been shown to metabolize drugs and xenobiotic toxins, such as those in the diet, and are therefore of great importance for biomedical research and applications. while the pharmacology of p450 enzymes has been studied extensively, our understanding of molecular evolution of this gene family is incomplete, in part ...201829631055
fur color change and hormonal development in captive females of northern white-cheeked (nomascus leucogenys) and buff-cheeked (nomascus gabriellae) gibbons.gibbons of the genus nomascus exhibit strong sexual dichromatism in fur color. change of fur color in sub-adult wild nomascus females is associated with the onset of puberty and the time of their dispersal. the variability in fur change may be influenced by social factors. in this study, we determined whether in captive females of crested gibbons begin reproductive maturity prior to dispersing and with association to their fur color. we collected 287 fecal extracts to analyze pregnandiol -3- glu ...201931228419
type locality of hylobates concolor leucogenys.kloss [1929] restricted the type locality of the northern white-cheeked gibbon, hylobates concolor leucogenys, on the basis of two specimens that were collected at muang khi, laos, not at muang pak-lay, laos, as conventionally assumed. the locality difference is zoogeographically important because muang khi is east of the mekong river, within the known range of h. c. leucogenys, whereas muang pak-lay is west of the river, outside the known range of the subspecies. the type-locality restriction i ...198731973511
postural effect on manual laterality during grooming in northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys).investigations on manual laterality in non-human primates can help clarify human evolutionary origins of hand preference and cerebral cognition. although body posture can influence primate hand preference, investigations on how posture affects hylobatid manual laterality are still in their infancy. this study focused on how spontaneous bipedal behavioral tasks affect hand preference in hylobatidae. ten captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. un ...201931343856
molecular evolution of the semenogelin 1 and 2 and mating system in gibbons.semenogelin 1 and 2 (semg1 and semg2) are known as semen coagulating proteins in primates with a repetitive structure of 60-amino acids. the number of repeats varies among species and is hypothesized to be related to the level of primate sperm competition. gibbons until recently were thought to be monogamous primates, but it is now known that gibbon social structure is flexible. thus, hypotheses of the relationship between the semgs evolution and mating systems were tested.201930575018
the gastrointestinal tract microbiota of northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) varies with age and captive condition.nutrition and health of northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) are considered to be primarily influenced by the diversity of their gastrointestinal tract (git) microbiota. however, the precise composition, structure, and role of the gibbon git microbiota remain unclear. microbial communities from the gits of gibbons from nanning (nn, n = 36) and beijing (bj, n = 20) zoos were examined through 16s rrna sequencing. gibbon's gits microbiomes contained bacteria from 30 phyla, dominated ...201829453448
how target animacy affects manual laterality in hylobatidae: the first evidence in northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys).our study presents the first evidence on how target animacy impacts on manual laterality in the hylobatidae and contributes to filling the knowledge gap between monkeys and great apes in primate evolution of emotional lateralization. eleven captive individuals of northern white-cheeked gibbons (nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. there were significantly more ambipreferent individuals than left/right-handed individuals for both inanimate (χ2(1, n = 11) = 7.364, p = 0.007) and ani ...202031665734
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