[diversity of faecal bacteria in several mammals by 454 high-throughput sequencing].the aim of this study was to analyze the diversities and differences of several mammalian' s faecal bacteria, to understand the relationships between bacterium diversities and animals' evolutionary and animals' feeds.201526562992
indigenous knowledge of zootherapeutic use among the biate tribe of dima hasao district, assam, northeastern india.the present study addresses the use of zootherapy in the traditional healthcare system of the biate tribe of dima hasao district, assam, india. it sought to identify the different species used for zootherapeutic use with the detailed methods of usages to create awareness and contribute to the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources.201323938109
net effects of ecotourism on threatened species survival.many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. for a range of iucn-redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. species for which these calculations are currently possible, ...201626886876
complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest china.roundworms (ascaridida: nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (sths), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. despite the veterinary and health importance of the ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years ...201324358225
habitat characterization of western hoolock gibbons hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use.conserving a species depends on an understanding of its habitat requirements. primatologists often characterize the habitat requirements of primates using macroscale population-based approaches relying on correlations between habitat attributes and population abundances between sites with varying levels of disturbance. this approach only works for species spread between several populations. the populations of some primates do not fulfill these criteria, forcing researchers to rely on individual- ...201323553252
the first finding of chromosome variations in wild-born western hoolock gibbons.hoolock gibbons (genus hoolock) are a group of very endangered primate species that belong to the small ape family (family hylobatidae). the entire population that is distributed in the northeast and southeast of bangladesh is estimated to include only around 350 individuals. a conservation program is thus necessary as soon as possible. genetic markers are significant tools for planning such programs. in this study, we examined chromosomal characteristics of two western hoolock gibbons that were ...201323958946
local and landscape correlates of primate distribution and persistence in the remnant lowland rainforests of the upper brahmaputra valley, northeastern india.habitat fragmentation affects species distribution and abundance, and drives extinctions. escalated tropical deforestation and fragmentation have confined many species populations to habitat remnants. how worthwhile is it to invest scarce resources in conserving habitat remnants within densely settled production landscapes? are these fragments fated to lose species anyway? if not, do other ecological, anthropogenic, and species-related factors mitigate the effect of fragmentation and offer conse ...201424471780
[mitochondrial dna sequence evolution and phylogenetic relationships of gibbons].the phylogenetic relationships of gibbons are still open questions. we have sequenced a mitochondrial cytochrome b gene fragment from hylobates hoolock, h. concolor, h. lar and h. syndactylus. combined with the sequences from garza and woodruff (1992), we have constructed a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the gibbons using the maximum-parsimony analysis. our results suggested that the gibbons should be divided into four groups: (1) hoolock, (2) syndactylus, (3) agilis, lar, muelleri and kloss ...19979361456
a phylogeny of gibbons (hylobates spp.) based on morphological and behavioural characters.a new estimate of the phylogenetic relationships among the nine gibbon taxa is presented, based on a compatibility analysis of 55 morphological and behavioural characters. the phylogeny presented here differs somewhat from those of other studies, but there appears to be a basic consensus that: the siamang and concolor gibbons represent the earliest forms to speciate; the agile, lar, moloch, müller's, and pileated gibbons represent the lates forms to speciate; with the kloss and hoolock gibbons r ...19827166287
the skin of primates. xi. the skin of the white-browed gibbon (hylobates hoolock). 196214483793
geographic variation in the hoolock or white-browed gibbon (hylobates hoolock harlan 1834). 19675626313
tandem repeat sequences evolutionarily related to sva-type retrotransposons are expanded in the centromere region of the western hoolock gibbon, a small ape.hoolock hoolock (the western hoolock gibbon) is a species of the family hylobatidae (small apes), which constitutes the superfamily hominoidea (hominoids) together with hominidae (great apes and human). here, we report that centromeres or their vicinities in this gibbon species contain tandem repeat sequences that consist of 35-50-bp repeat units, and exhibit a sequence similarity with the variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) region of the sva, lava and pva transposons. sva is a composite ret ...201222931862
anatomical contributions to hylobatid taxonomy and adaptation.compared with the great apes, the small-bodied hylobatids were treated historically as a relatively uniform group with 2 genera, hylobates and the larger-bodied symphalangus. four genera are now recognized, each with a different chromosome number: hoolock (hoolock) (38), hylobates (44), nomascus (crested gibbon) (52), and symphalangus (siamang) (50). previous morphological studies based on relative bone lengths, e.g., intermembral indices; molar tooth sizes; and body masses did not distinguish t ...201121892236
survey and census of hoolock gibbon (hoolock hoolock) in the inner-line reserve forest and the adjoining areas of cachar district, assam, india.a detailed survey of hoolock hoolock was carried out in the inner-line reserve forest and the adjoining areas of cachar district of southern assam, india, from july 2010 to december 2011. about 150 km2 of the area was covered. in direct sighting, groups and individuals were counted in 7 localities (39.7 km2). only 3.96 km2 of the actual forest area were occupied by these gibbons. nine family groups and a solitary subadult, 33 individuals in all, made up the total count. of these, adult males and ...201323816919
effects of tsaoko (fructus tsaoko) cultivating on tree diversity and canopy structure in the habitats of eastern hoolock gibbon (hoolock leuconedys).in this study, the quadrat method was used to study the effects of tsaoko (fructus tsaoko) plantation on tree diversity and canopy structure of two natural habitats of eastern hoolock gibbon (hoolock leuconedys): nankang (characterized by extensive tsaoko plantation) and banchang (relatively well reserved and without tsaoko plantation). totally, 102 tree species from 25 families and 16 woody liana species from 10 families were recorded in nankang, whereas 108 tree species from 30 families and 17 ...201424866494
predicting suitable habitats for the vulnerable eastern hoolock gibbon, hoolock leuconedys, in india using the maxent model.the eastern hoolock gibbon, hoolock leuconedys, is categorized as vulnerable on the iucn red list and assessed as a schedule i species of the wildlife (protection) act of 1972 in india. we predict the potential habitat of h. leuconedys in the state of arunachal pradesh, india, using the maximum entropy (maxent) distribution modelling algorithm. the model was developed using 90 known localities of h. leuconedys in the state. nineteen environmental parameters along with 12 normalized difference ve ...201526278411
effects of group density, hunting, and temperature on the singing patterns of eastern hoolock gibbons (hoolock leuconedys) in gaoligongshan, southwest china.many non-human primates produce species-specific loud calls to communicate within and between groups over long distances. understanding these calling patterns can provide insights into how individuals modify their behavior in response to environmental variables as well as help to design efficient bioacoustic survey techniques. eastern hoolock gibbons in gaoligongshan inhabit the coldest habitat of all gibbon populations, but both conservation and research efforts on this population have been min ...201627167327
watering holes: the use of arboreal sources of drinking water by old world monkeys and apes.water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. the latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. however, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. this has been commonly observe ...201627234173
diet and feeding ecology of the western hoolock gibbon (hoolock hoolock) in a tropical forest fragment of northeast india.forest fragmentation alters plant species diversity and composition, and causes diverse affects on the feeding behavior of wild primates. we investigated the feeding behavior and diet of two groups of western hoolock gibbon (hoolock hoolock) inhabiting a small isolated forest patch (21 km(2)) in hollongapar gibbon wildlife sanctuary, assam, northeast india, over a year using focal animal sampling. h. hoolock adults spent, on average, 35.2% of their total annual activity budget on feeding, and fe ...201728894949
centromere remodeling in hoolock leuconedys (hylobatidae) by a new transposable element unique to the gibbons.gibbons (hylobatidae) shared a common ancestor with the other hominoids only 15-18 million years ago. nevertheless, gibbons show very distinctive features that include heavily rearranged chromosomes. previous observations indicate that this phenomenon may be linked to the attenuated epigenetic repression of transposable elements (tes) in gibbon species. here we describe the massive expansion of a repeat in almost all the centromeres of the eastern hoolock gibbon (hoolock leuconedys). we discover ...201222593550
seasonal variation of diet and time budget of eastern hoolock gibbons (hoolock leuconedys) living in a northern montane forest.most gibbons dwell in the tropical forests of southeastern asia, but eastern hoolock gibbons (hoolock leuconedys) survive in high montane forest ranging from 1,600 to 2,700 m a.s.l. in gaoligongshan (>24°30'n), yunnan, china. to assess the behavioral adaptations of hoolock gibbons to the montane forest, we related temperature and food availability within the habitat to the seasonal behavioral patterns of a family group and a solitary female between august 2010 and september 2011 in nankang, gaol ...201323192193
violapyrones a-g, α-pyrone derivatives from streptomyces violascens isolated from hylobates hoolock new 3,4,6-trisubstituted α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones a-g (1-7), were isolated from streptomyces violascens obtained from hylobates hoolock feces. their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. the antimicrobial activities of 1-7 were evaluated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and against fungi. compounds 1-3 showed moderate antibacterial activities against bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus with mic values of 4-32 μg/ml.201324182355
conserved chromosome segments in hylobates hoolock revealed by human and h. leucogenys paint probes.a complete comparative chromosome map of the white-browed gibbon (hylobates hoolock, 2n = 38), white-cheeked gibbon (hylobates leucogenys, 2n = 52), and human has been established by hybridising h. leucogenys chromosome-specific paints and human 24-colour paints onto h. hoolock metaphase chromosomes. in the 18 h. hoolock autosomes, we identified 62 conserved segments that showed dna homology to regions of the 25 h. leucogenys autosomes. numerous interchromosomal rearrangements differentiate the ...200111435697
[comparison of the common fragile sites and g-banding patterns of chromosomes among rhesus monkeys, white-eyebrow gibbons and human being].the peripheral lymphocyte cultures from rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), white-eyebrow gibbons (hylobates hoolock) and human being were treated with brdu (bromodeoxyuridine), frdu (fluorodeoxyuridine) and mtx (methotrexate). a number of 22 common fragile sites for rhesus monkeys and 20 for white-eyebrow gibbons were found. chromosome homology and the relationship between fragile sites and chromosomal evolution were discussed. several common fragile sites of human chromosomes have been found at t ...19892629913
copulatory vocalizations of chacma baboons (papio ursinus), gibbons (hylobates hoolock), and humans.the copulatory vocalizations of female baboons (papio ursinus) are more complex than those of female gibbons (hylobates hoolock) or human females. adult males of all these species begin calling later than the female, but subordinate baboon males do not call. copulatory vocalizations may serve to mutually stimulate the mating partners or to incite male competition.1978663622
preliminary investigation of flexibility in learning color-reward associations in gibbons (hylobatidae).previous studies in learning set formation have shown that most animal species can learn to learn with subsequent novel presentations being solved in fewer presentations than when they first encounter a task. gibbons (hylobatidae) have generally struggled with these tasks and do not show the learning to learn pattern found in other species. this is surprising given their phylogenetic position and level of cortical development. however, there have been conflicting results with some studies demons ...201525845982
description of a new species of hoolock gibbon (primates: hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy.we describe a species of hoolock gibbon (primates: hylobatidae) that is new to science from eastern myanmar and southwestern china. the genus of hoolock gibbons comprises two previously described living species, the western (hoolock hoolock) and eastern hoolock (h. leuconedys) gibbons, geographically isolated by the chindwin river. we assessed the morphological and genetic characteristics of wild animals and museum specimens, and conducted multi-disciplinary analyses using mitochondrial genomic ...201728073165
ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in gaoligongshan, yunnan, china.generally, food abundance and distribution exert important influence on primate ranging behavior. hoolock gibbons (genus hoolock) live in lowland and montane forests in india, bangladesh, myanmar and china. all information about hoolock gibbons comes from studies on western hoolock gibbons (hoolock hoolock) living in lowland forest. between august 2010 and september 2011, we studied the ranging behavior of one habituated group of eastern hoolock gibbon (h. leuconedys) living in a seasonal montan ...201424220849
tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the hominoidea ancestor to extant hylobates and nomascus gibbons by high-resolution synteny this study we characterized the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (hylobates lar, hla) by hybridization of a panel of approximately 1000 human bac clones. each lar gibbon rearrangement was defined by a splitting bac clone or by two overlapping clones flanking the breakpoint. a reconstruction of the synteny arrangement of the last common ancestor of all living lesser apes was made by combining these data with previous results ...200818552313
[a comparative chromosome map between human and hylobates hoolock built by chromosome painting].we established chromosomal homologies between all human chromosomes except y and those of hylobates hoolock by chromosome painting (chromosome in situ suppression hybridization with human chromosome-specific dna libraries). human chromosomes 9,13,15,18,21,22,x libraries hybridized to single g-banding h. hoolock chromosomal region, other human dna libraries showed at least two homologous segments in h. hoolock chromosomes. 59 segments homologous to one of 22 human autosomes were detected in 18 h. ...19979494294
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