evidence of differences in the biotransformation of organic contaminants in three species of freshwater invertebrates.acute static bioassays were performed using three freshwater invertebrate species (the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus, the fingernail clam sphaerium corneum and the larvae chironomus riparius) exposed separately to a variety of 14c radiolabelled contaminants. the aim of this work was to investigate if the chemicals remained as parent compounds after the treatments. chemicals used were 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,4,5-trichlorophenol; pentachlorophenol; pyrene; fenpropidin, and trifluralin. homogena ...200211926182
the life cycle of sphaerospora truttae (myxozoa: myxosporea) and some features of the biology of both the actinosporean and myxosporean stages.a previously undescribed echinactinomyxon type actinosporean was shown experimentally to be the alternate stage of sphaerospora truttae. the echinactinomyxon type spores were found to be released from lumbriculus variegatus and occasionally tubifex tubifex. overall infection prevalence of the echinactinomyxon was 0.14%. peak release was in march-may each year. s. truttae spores developed in experimentally infected salmon 4.5 mo post-exposure to echinactinomyxon spores. extrasporogonic stages of ...200010785861
effects of contaminants in dredge material from the lower savannah river.contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. the environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from savannah harbor, georgia, usa, are unknown. to evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from front river, back river, a ...200010556380
actinosporean stages of myxozoan parasites of oligochaetes from lake sasajewun, algonquin park, ontario: new forms of echinactinomyxon, neoactinomyxum, aurantiactinomyxon, guyenotia, synactinomyxon and antonactinomyxon.six forms (5 of which are new) of echinactinomyxon and 5 new forms of the collective groups neoactinomyxum, aurantiactinomyxon, guyenotia, synactinomyxon, and antonactinomyxon of oligochaetes in lake sasajewun, algonquin park are described. five forms of echinactinomyxon designated as echinactinomyxon 'a,' 'b,' 'c,' 'd,' and 'e,' a form of neoactinomyxum, and a form of aurantiactinomyxon were found in limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. echinactinomyxon radiatum, a form of synactinomyxon, and a form of an ...19989794645
hexachlorobenzene uptake by fathead minnows and macroinvertebrates in recirculating sediment/water systems.fathead minnows (pimephales promelas), the worm, lumbriculus variegatus, and the amphipods hyalella azteca and gammarus lacustris were exposed to hexachlorobenzene (hcb) in water with and without a bed of hcb-spiked sediment. water hcb concentrations were maintained by recirculation through hcb-packed columns. recirculating hcb-bound particulates and possibly eroded hcb particulates were an added source of hcb in addition to the sediment bed. significant bioaccumulation of hcb in animal tissues ...19902331142
comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: generalizations and exceptions.the aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (pac) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates (folsomia candida and enchytraeus cripticus) and two sediment invertebrates (lumbriculus variegatus and chironomus riparius) exposed to six pacs (two homocyclic isomers, anthracene and phenanthrene; two ...200919447472
the lan3-2 glycoepitope of hirudo medicinalis consists of beta-(1,4)-linked mannopyranose: cell type-specific glycans of h. medicinalis.while glycosyltransferases are restrictively expressed in invertebrate model organisms, little is known of their glycan end products. one such restrictively expressed glycoepitope was localized to sensory and epithelial cells of leech and caenorhabditis elegans using the lan3-2 monoclonal antibody. a biological function for the neural lan3-2 epitope was previously determined in the leech. here we report on the chemical structure of this mannosidic epitope harvested from whole hirudo medicinalis. ...200819013832
effects of azinphos-methyl exposure on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in biomphalaria glabrata and lumbriculus variegatus.azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus and pigmented and non-pigmented specimens of the gastropod biomphalaria glabrata are freshwater invertebrates that have been recommended for contamination studies. recently, it has been shown that l. variegatus worms exhibit a higher cholinesterase (che) activity and a greater sensitivity to in vivo che inhibition by azinphos-methyl ...200818533225
development of a bioreactor system for the decolorization of dyes by coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus.decolorization of 100 microm malachite green (mg) by coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus using a two-phase bioreactor, was investigated. in the first phase the decolorization ability of this fungus, growing under conditions of solid-state fermentation (ssf), was proved; in the second phase the capacity of the enzymes present in extracts from the solid residues was exploited. during the first phase using the same culture in the bioreactor, five consecutive charges were made, each with 75 ml of 100 ...200818359061
effects of temperature and oxygen concentration in sediment toxicity testing.joint effects of temperature and oxygen concentrations for the results of sediment toxicity tests were studied at 10 and 20 degrees c with 40% and 80% dissolved oxygen (do) saturation. growth, feeding rate, and reproduction of lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaete) and growth, emergence, and survival of chironomus riparius (diptera) were tested in a polluted and in a reference sediment. both the feeding of l. variegatus and the emergence of c. riparius were significantly retarded at low temperatur ...200818061670
biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes of lumbriculus variegates as biomarkers of contaminated sediment this study the black worm lumbriculus variegatus was tested for suitability as biomonitor for moderately contaminated sediments. the response capacity of the biotransformation system phase ii enzyme glutathione-s-transferase (gst) and the oxidative defense enzyme catalase (cat) to contaminated sediment and atrazine was investigated to establish them as sensitive biomarkers. to get an integrated view on the enzyme activity kinetics, increasing concentrations of the herbicide atrazine were appl ...200817868770
endocrine modulation and toxic effects of two commonly used uv screens on the aquatic invertebrates potamopyrgus antipodarum and lumbriculus variegatus.the two uv screens 3-benzylidene-camphor (3-bc) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-mbc) were tested regarding their toxicity and estrogenic activity. the yeast estrogen screen (yes) and two sediment assays with the freshwater invertebrates lumbriculus variegatus and potamopyrgus antipodarum were performed. in the yes, both substances activated the human estrogen receptor alpha with ec50 values of 44.2 microm for 3-bc and 44.3 microm for 4-mbc, whereby 4-mbc attained only 8% of the maximal r ...200817669564
chronic toxicity of copper to five benthic invertebrates in laboratory-formulated sediment: sensitivity comparison and preliminary risk assessment.five benthic organisms commonly used for sediment toxicity testing were chronically (28 to 35 days) exposed to copper in standard laboratory-formulated sediment (following organization for economic cooperation and development guidelines) and lethal and sub-lethal toxicities were evaluated. sub-lethal endpoints considered were reproduction and biomass production for lumbriculus variegatus, growth and reproduction for tubifex tubifex, growth and emergence for chironomus riparius, and growth for ga ...200717631947
variation in the bioaccumulation of a sediment-sorbed hydrophobic compound by benthic macroinvertebrates: patterns and mechanisms.aquatic ecological risk assessment is primarily focused on aqueous exposure, but many hydrophobic contaminants bind to particulate material and accumulate in sediments. the risk posed by such contaminants is partially dependent on the importance of dietary exposure. here, we describe the bioaccumulation of a highly hydrophobic compound (dioctadecyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride (dodmac)) to four freshwater macroinvertebrates (i.e., asellus aquaticus, chironomus riparius, gammarus pulex, lumbriculus ...200717396674
effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates. part ii: the antidepressant drug fluoxetine.fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant and high-prescription-volume drug, is excreted unchanged or as a glucuronide from the human organism. little is known about its fate in sewage treatment plants. effects of fluoxetine on life-cycle parameters of the midge chironomus riparius, especially development (mean emergence time), emergence, sex ratio, and fecundity, were assessed, as well as effects on reproduction of the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus and of the fres ...200717160491
bioaccumulation of paraquat by lumbriculus variegatus in the presence of dissolved natural organic matter and impact on energy costs, biotransformation and antioxidative enzymes.dissolved organic matter from natural sources (dnom) is omnipresent in aquatic ecosystems. besides affecting bioavailability of substances including xenobiotics, it directly influences physico-chemistry of the habitat and there is increasing evidence for it is interaction with organisms. we investigated direct and interacting effects of dnom from three sources, lake valkea-kotinen, svartberget brook, and lake fuchskuhle with the herbicide paraquat on the oligochaete worm lumbriculus variegatus. ...200716828145
bioaccumulation and toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (4-np) and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (las) in lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta) and chironomus riparius (insecta).the discharge of surfactants, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-np) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (las), into water bodies leads to accumulation of the chemicals in the sediments and may thus pose a problem to benthic organisms. to study the bioaccumulation of surfactants, oligochaeta worm lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to sediment-spiked, [14c]-labeled 4-np and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (c12-las) in three different sediments (s1-s3). the sediments were characterized for organic carbon (oc ...200616458370
using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. this method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. it has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large european lowland river. first, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of ...200516193760
effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates. part i. the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine.the effects of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (cbz) were studied in three freshwater invertebrate species representing different taxonomic groups, life histories, and habitats in aquatic ecosystems. the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus was exposed by way of cbz-spiked sediments at nominal concentrations between 0.625 and 10 mg/kg dry weight (dw) for 28 days. at the end of the test, reproduction and biomass were monitored as end points. the non-biting midge chironomus riparius was exposed ...200516177879
bioaccumulation and toxicity of sediment associated herbicides (ioxynil, pendimethalin, and bentazone) in lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta) and chironomus riparius (insecta).the benthic macroinvertebrates lumbriculus variegatus and chironomus riparius were used in toxicity and bioaccumulation tests to determine the toxic concentrations and accumulation potential of sediment associated herbicides. the tested chemicals were ioxynil, bentazone, and pendimethalin. the bioaccumulation tests with l. variegatus were performed in four different sediments, each having different characteristics. water-only lc(50) tests were performed with both l. variegatus and c. riparius. a ...200314575680
bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (chironomus riparius and lumbriculus variegatus).in the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (ahtn) and galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (hhcb), were studied in two benthic organisms. polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. the aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for ah ...200312729218
lethal body residue of chlorophenols and mixtures of chlorophenols in benthic organisms.the lethal body residue (lbr) of a few chlorophenol congeners were measured in the oligochaete worm lumbriculus variegatus, and the lbr of pentachlorophenol was measured also in a midge, chironomus riparius larvae. lbr is defined as the concentration of the compound in the organism, on molar basis, to cause death, and the lbr(50) is defined as the calculated lbr value to cause a 50% mortality in population after a given time. groups of 30 or 40 organisms were exposed to different chlorophenol co ...200212115047
biological responses of lumbriculus variegatus exposed to fluoranthene-spiked sediment.lumbriculus variegatus was used as a bioassay organism to examine the impact of the sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) fluoranthene on behavior, reproduction, and toxicokinetics. the number of worms increased between the beginning and end of the experiment at 59 microg x g(-1) fluoranthene, but at the next higher treatment (108 microg x g(-1)) the number of worms found was lower and not different from the control. worms exposed to 95 microg x g(-1) also exhibited increased ...200211910457
the use of sediment analogues to study the uptake of pollutants by chironomid larvae.a technique is described that uses artificial resin beads with known surface properties to investigate the factors influencing the bioaccumulation of pollutants from sediments. one advantage of this technique is that it provides a standard procedure against which it is possible to calibrate natural sediments with their diverse properties. the method has been used on third instar larvae of the midge chironomus riparius and the results are compared with previous studies on the worm lumbriculus var ...200111586776
toxicity of freshwater sediments in the vicinity of an old sawmill: application of three bioassays.toxicity of contaminated sediments collected from an old sawmill area and the downstream river-lake system was assessed with three different bioassays. survival and growth were used as endpoints in subchronic (10-day) test with chironomus riparius and growth and reproduction in long-term (28-day) test with lumbriculus variegatus. a microbial bioluminescent direct contact assay, the flash test, was also included in the test set to measure acute toxicity. in every bioassay, sediment from a pool of ...200111443361
variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination--determination of toxicity thresholds.freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. tests were performed with bacteria (arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (myriophyllum aquaticum), and the e ...201020594629
toxicity assessment of sediments from three european river basins using a sediment contact test battery.the toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three european river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. the tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus, the nematode caenorhabditis elegans and the mudsnail potamopyrgus antipodarum, a sub-chronic test with the midge chironomus riparius, an early life stage test with the zebra fish danio rerio, ...201120833427
comparative toxicity assessment of ozone and activated carbon treated sewage effluents using an in vivo test battery.wastewater treatment plants do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. ozonation and activated carbon treatment might be beneficial for ecosystem health as these techniques provide effective barriers to organic contaminants. however, a toxicity evaluation is required to investigate toxicity reduction and to assess the potential formation of toxic oxidation byproducts during ozonation. therefore a comparative toxicity evaluation of diffe ...201020189626
relevance of the bioavailable fraction of ddt and its metabolites in freshwater sediment toxicity: new insight into the mode of action of these chemicals on dictyostelium this work, the toxicity of lake sediments contaminated with ddt and its metabolites ddd and dde (collectively, ddx) was evaluated with widely used toxicity tests (i.e., vibrio fischeri, daphnia magna, pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and lumbriculus variegatus) and with the social amoeba dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism that is also suitable for studying pollutant-induced alterations at the molecular and cellular levels. although the ddx concentration in the sediments was high (732. ...201627340883
survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. in the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of lumbriculus va ...201728284153
comparative study on two freshwater invertebrates for monitoring environmental lead exposure.two freshwater invertebrate organisms, biomphalaria glabrata and lumbriculus variegatus, were tested as potential experimental animal models to assess pb exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. since long, the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ala-d) has been recognised as a useful biomarker of pb exposure and effect. therefore, determinations of ala-d activity were performed in the whole body soft tissues of pigmented and non-pigmented gastropods b. glabrata and in the oligochaet ...200515804457
uptake of organic xenobiotics by benthic invertebrates from sediment contaminated by the pulp and paper industry.uptake of pulp and paper mill-derived pollutants by benthic invertebrates from sediment in southern lake saimaa, eastern finland, was studied. two groups of benthic invertebrates (diptera and oligochaeta) were analyzed for their concentrations of resin acids (ras), chlorophenolics (cps) and beta-sitosterol. the samples were collected 1 and 3km downstream from the mill. in laboratory experiments chironomus plumosus (a dipteran) and lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaete) were exposed for 14d to sedi ...200817988707
regulatory ecotoxicity testing of nanomaterials - proposed modifications of oecd test guidelines based on laboratory experience with silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.regulatory ecotoxicity testing of chemicals is of societal importance and a large effort is undertaken at the oecd to ensure that oecd test guidelines (tgs) for nanomaterials (nms) are available. significant progress to support the adaptation of selected tgs to nms was achieved in the context of the project marina ( ) funded within the 7th european framework program. eight oecd tgs were adapted based on the testing of at least one ion-releasing nm (ag) and two inert nms ...201627592624
toxicity of sediment-associated unresolved complex mixture and its impact on bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.unresolved complex mixtures (ucms) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are ubiquitous in sediment originating from oil leaks, shipping, and other human activities and thus it is necessary to understand the role of ucm on sediment toxicity and pah bioaccumulation. in the current study, lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-associated ucm were examined in two benthic invertebrates (chironomus dilutus and lumbriculus variegatus) using two spiked sediments. results showed that ucm alone w ...201122197560
Geographical variation in spore morphology, gene sequences, and host specificity of Myxobolus arcticus (Myxozoa) infecting salmonid nerve tissues.Myxobolus arcticus Pugachev and Khokhlov, 1979 is a freshwater myxosporean parasite infecting the nerve tissues of salmonid fishes throughout the Pacific region of Far East Asia and North America. The principal fish host is sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in North America and masu salmon O. masou in Japan. Actinospores of M. arcticus were isolated from the lumbriculid oligochaetes Lumbriculus variegatus and Stylodrilus heringianus in Japan and Canada, respectively. Morphological comparisons in ...201122132501
utilization of multiple organisms in a proposed early-warning biomonitoring system for real-time detection of contaminants: preliminary results and modeling.during past decades, biomonitors were deployed in lakes and rivers to rapidly detect hazardous chemicals by measuring the endpoints of a single aquatic species at defined short intervals. most biomonitors, however, are only capable of indicating a departure from baseline water conditions without identifying the cause. in order to provide a more comprehensive assessment, a biomonitoring system which features a library of stereotyped responses of multiple aquatic species in various water condition ...201222516521
the potential of tio2 nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in lumbriculus variegatus and daphnia magna.the use of engineered nanoparticles (e.g. in industrial applications and consumer products) is increasing. consequently, these particles will be released into the aquatic environment. through aggregation/agglomeration and sedimentation, sediments are expected ultimately to be sinks for nanoparticles. both in the water phase and in the sediments engineered nanoparticles will mix and interact with other environmental pollutants, including metals. in this study the toxicity of cadmium to two freshw ...201222494961
on the borderline of dissolved and particulate organic matter: partitioning and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.the functionality of dissolved organic matter (dom) was studied by assessing the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) spiked in pore water samples separated from sediments by water extraction and centrifugation with or without subsequent filtration. the purpose was to compare the effects of traditionally defined dom (0.45-μm cut off) and larger colloidal material present in the separated pore water samples on the partitioning and bioavailability of pahs. the tested pahs includ ...201222136915
dietary selenium disrupts hepatic triglyceride stores and transcriptional networks associated with growth and notch signaling in juvenile rainbow trout.dietary se has been shown to adversely affect adult fish by altering growth rates and metabolism. to determine the underlying mechanisms associated with these observations, we measured biochemical and transcriptomic endpoints in rainbow trout following dietary se exposures. treatment groups of juvenile rainbow trout were fed either control lumbriculus variegatus worms or worms cultured on selenized yeast. selenized yeast was cultured at four nominal doses of 5, 10, 20 or 40mg/kg se dry weight (m ...201627694045
inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, biomphalaria glabrata and lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (che) and carboxylesterase (ces) activities present in the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. the results showed that che activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with ec(50) and ic(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. on the other ...201019879661
differential effects of paraquat on oxidative stress parameters and polyamine levels in two freshwater invertebrates.paraquat is still a widely used herbicide in several countries. its toxic action on plants occurs through a one-electron reduction interfering with the photosynthesis process. by a similar reaction, the herbicide may induce peroxidation processes in non-target animal species. furthermore, paraquat may interfere with the cellular transport of polyamines. the aim of this work was to investigate some aspects related to paraquat-induction of oxidative stress (lipoperoxidation, enzymatic activities o ...200717196654
inhibition of cholinesterase activity by azinphos-methyl in two freshwater invertebrates: biomphalaria glabrata and lumbriculus this study, some biochemical features and the extent of inhibition induced by the organophosphorous pesticide azinphos-methyl on the cholinesterase (che) activity present in whole soft tissue of two freshwater invertebrate species, the gastropod biomphalaria glabrata and the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus were investigated. both invertebrate organisms presented marked differences in che activity, type of enzymes and subcellular location. acetylthiocholine was the substrate preferred by b. ...200616597480
mutagenicity, dioxin-like activity and bioaccumulation of alkylated picene and chrysene derivatives in a german a former study, a german lignite extract exhibited toxicity to danio rerio and caenorhabditis elegans and was shown to have mutagenic and dioxin-like activity. besides the comparatively low content of known toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pah), highly intensive peaks of m/z 274 and m/z 324 were observed during the chromatographic analysis. these compounds are assumed to be alkylated chrysenes and picenes (3,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysene, 1,2-(1'-isopropylpropano)-7-methylch ...201425170829
assessing the impact of chemical pollution on benthic invertebrates from three different european rivers using a weight-of-evidence approach.the aim of this study was to combine different lines of evidence on the impact of chemical pollution on benthic invertebrate communities in three european river basins (elbe, scheldt, and llobregat). the study integrates chemical analyses, a battery of different sediment toxicity tests, and field data from soft-sediment meio- and macrobenthic fauna within a sediment-quality triad in which chironomids, oligochaetes, and nematodes are identified on the species level. the use of tu (toxic units) an ...201223032566
sediment contact tests as a tool for the assessment of sediment quality in german waters.a sediment contact test (sct) battery consisting of five ecotoxicological test systems was applied to 21 native freshwater sediments characterized by a broad variety of geochemical properties and anthropogenic contamination. higher plants (myriophyllum aquaticum), nematodes (caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (lumbriculus variegatus), zebrafish embryos (danio rerio), and bacteria (arthrobacter globiformis), representing various trophic levels and exposure pathways, were used as test organisms ...201323027525
ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic uv filters.chemical uv filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (uv) radiation. the present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common uv filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (b-mdm) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (ehmc) and octocrylene (ocr) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (chironomus riparius, lumbriculus variegatus, melanoides tuberculata and potamopyrgus a ...201222325435
extended anaerobic conditions in the biological wastewater treatment: higher reduction of toxicity compared to target organic micropollutants.extended anaerobic conditions during biological wastewater treatment may enhance the biodegradation of micropollutants. to explore this, we combined iron-reducing or substrate-limited anaerobic conditions and aerobic pilot-scale reactors directly at a wastewater treatment plant. to investigate the detoxification by these processes, we applied two in vitro bioassays for baseline toxicity (microtox) and reactive toxicity (arec32) as well as in vivo bioassays with aquatic model species in two labor ...201728340420
the effect of lead from sediment bioturbation by lumbriculus variegatus on daphnia magna in the water column.the present study investigated the bioavailability and potential toxicity to daphnia magna of lead released to the water column due to bioturbation by lumbriculus variegatus. experiments used microcosms with pb-spiked sediment, with or without worms in the sediment, and with d. magna present in the water column. the daphniids were allowed free movement or were restricted to flow-through containers, in order to assess the influence of their direct contact with the contaminated sediment. a control ...201627660066
development and validation of an in-house quantitative analysis method for cylindrospermopsin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: quantification demonstrated in 4 aquatic organisms.the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (cyn) is of great concern in aquatic environments because of its incidence, multiple toxicity endpoints, and, therefore, the severity of health implications. it may bioaccumulate in aquatic food webs, resulting in high exposure concentrations to higher-order trophic levels, particularly humans. because of accumulation at primary levels resulting from exposure to trace amounts of toxin, a sensitive analytical technique with proven aquatic applications i ...201526126753
accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to daphnia magna and lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (blm) and tissue residue approach (tra)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (nps). the present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of pvp-, peg-, and citrate-agnps, in comparison to dissolved ag, in daphnia magna and lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether par ...201525756614
multixenobiotic resistance efflux activity in daphnia magna and lumbriculus variegatus.multixenobiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which atp-binding cassette (abc) family proteins transfer harmful compounds out of cells. daphnia magna and lumbriculus variegatus are model species in aquatic ecotoxicology, but the presence and activity of abc proteins have not been well described in these species. the aim of this work was to study the presence, activity, and inhibition of abc transport proteins in d. magna and l. variegatus. the presence of abcb1 and abcc transcripts in 8-9-day-ol ...201525550106
acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant c12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (spme) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of c12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of organisation for economic co-operation and development (oecd) sediment; 3) photosystem ii inhibition of green algae chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viab ...201424273010
extraction and analysis of silver and gold nanoparticles from biological tissues using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.expanded use of engineered nanoparticles (enps) in consumer products increases the potential for environmental release and unintended biological exposures. as a result, measurement techniques are needed to accurately quantify enp size, mass, and particle number distributions in biological matrices. this work combines single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spicpms) with tissue extraction to quantify and characterize metallic enps in environmentally relevant biological tissu ...201324218983
whole effluent toxicity assessment at a wastewater treatment plant upgraded with a full-scale post-ozonation using aquatic key species.ozonation as final wastewater (ww) polishing step, following conventional activated sludge treatment is increasingly implemented in sewage treatment for contaminant degradation to prevent surface water pollution. while the oxidative degradation of chemicals has been extensively investigated, the in vivo toxicological characteristics of ozonated whole effluents are rarely a matter of research. in the present study, whole effluents were toxicologically evaluated with an in vivo test battery before ...201222560180
the impact of increased oxygen conditions on metal-contaminated sediments part ii: effects on metal accumulation and toxicity in aquatic invertebrates.the present study evaluated the effect of increasing oxygen concentrations in overlying surface water on the accumulation and toxicity of sediment-bound metals in the aquatic invertebrates lumbriculus variegatus, asellus aquaticus and daphnia magna. a 54 days experiment using three experimental treatments (90% o(2) in overlying surface water, 40% o(2) and a non-polluted control) was conducted. at 6 different time points (after 0, 2, 5, 12, 32 and 54 days) acid volatile sulfides (avs), simultaneo ...201222520858
health effects of metoprolol in epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates-a basis to validate future in vitro biotests for effect-based biomonitoring.the aim of this study was to determine the effect data for metoprolol as a model substance for beta-blockers in aquatic invertebrates. the results will be used as a basis for the validation of future mode of action-based in vitro test systems targeting this class of pharmaceuticals. effects of metoprolol were investigated in two autochthonous species with high relevance in stream ecology: the amphipod gammarus fossarum and the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus. mortality in g. fossarum was not ...201727835069
artificial indoor streams as a method to investigate the impact of chemicals on lotic communities.the potential hazard of chemicals on aquatic communities are generally evaluated by standardised single-species bioassays. safety assessment is based on results gained from organisms adapted to lentic systems and biological interactions in ecosystems are neglected. while lotic communities are often at first in contact with chemicals, it is astonishing that microcosms with lentic communities are mainly used as a bridge between laboratory bioassays and outdoor aquatic systems. hence, we establishe ...200111360793
whole sediment toxicity tests for metal risk assessments: on the importance of equilibration and test design to increase ecological relevance.current laboratory-based approaches for predicting metal toxicity in sediments exhibit a number of limitations. the most important are (1) a lack of sufficient equilibration resulting in unrealistically low ph values or unnaturally high porewater metal concentrations and (2) an inadequate test design regarding the metal concentrations selected for spiking. the present study illustrates that by explicitly accounting for these limitations, one obtains reliable and environmentally realistic toxicit ...201323401179
chronic toxicity of chloride to freshwater species: effects of hardness and implications for water quality guidelines.toxicity tests using nine freshwater species (ceriodaphnia dubia, daphnia magna, oncorhynchus mykiss, pimephales promelas, lumbriculus variegatus, tubifex tubifex, chironomus dilutus, hyallela azteca, and brachionus calyciflorus) were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to chloride. acute-to-chronic ratios (acrs) from these tests indicate the acr of 7.59 employed by the united states environmental protection agency (u.s. epa) in deriving its water quality guideline for chloride may be conser ...201120872898
ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.activated carbon (ac) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of ac can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. however, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of ac addition o ...200919731704
in situ exposures using caged organisms: a multi-compartment approach to detect aquatic toxicity and in situ toxicity and bioaccumulation assessment approach is described to assess stressor exposure and effects in surface waters (low and high flow), the sediment-water interface, surficial sediments and pore waters (including groundwater upwellings). this approach can be used for exposing species, representing major functional and taxonomic groups. pimephales promelas, daphnia magna, ceriodaphnia dubia, hyalella azteca, hyalella sp., chironomus tentans, lumbriculus variegatus, hydra attenuatt ...200515572231
[life cycles of the hymenolepis, aploparaksis birulai linstow, 1905 and aploparaksis brachyphallos (krabbe, 1869)].larvae of a. birulai from lumbriculus variegatus and a. brachyphallos from stylodrilus sp. from the chauna lowland (chukotka) are described. the species belonging of the larvae was proved experimentally. it was shown that cysticercus sp. hrabe, 1958 is a larvacyst of a. birulai. for larvacysts of a. birulai type the name of "floricerk" was suggested and for those of a. brachyphallos type--the name "tailed diplocyst". it is noted that a. uelcal spassky et jurpalova, 1968 is a synonym of a. brachy ...20071018938
bioaccumulation of as, cd, cr, hg(ii), and mehg in killifish (fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey.elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (aes) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k(ef)s). these models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. fish often consume a varied di ...201121658746
comparing the effects of nanosilver size and coating variations on bioavailability, internalization, and elimination, using lumbriculus the production and applications of silver nanoparticles (agnps) increase, it is essential to characterize fate and effects in environmental systems. nanosilver materials may settle from suspension; therefore, the authors' objective was to utilize environmentally relevant bioassays and study the impact, bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, uptake, and depuration of agnps on a sediment-dwelling invertebrate, lumbriculus variegatus. hydrodynamic diameters of uncoated 30-nm, 80-nm, and 1500-nm a ...201323686570
effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests.sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. for this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sedi ...201627414482
chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments.this study evaluated the chronic toxicity of ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. a 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (avs; 0.94-38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (toc; 0.42-10%). chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (hyalella azteca, gammarus pseudolimnaeus, chironomus ...201323657897
improving sediment-quality guidelines for nickel: development and application of predictive bioavailability models to assess chronic toxicity of nickel in freshwater sediments.within the framework of european union chemical legislations an extensive data set on the chronic toxicity of sediment nickel has been generated. in the initial phase of testing, tests were conducted with 8 taxa of benthic invertebrates in 2 nickel-spiked sediments, including 1 reasonable worst-case sediment with low concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide (avs) and total organic carbon. the following species were tested: amphipods (hyalella azteca, gammarus pseudolimnaeus), mayflies (hexagenia ...201323983116
using hexagenia in sediment bioassays: methods, applicability, and relative sensitivity.the majority of sediment toxicity and aquatic bioaccumulation assessments are conducted using standardized species, such as hyalella azteca, chironomus dilutus, and lumbriculus variegatus. the burrowing mayfly, hexagenia sp., may serve as an ideal supplemental organism for both toxicity and bioaccumulation studies for several reasons. hexagenia are recognized as sensitive species, have a long aquatic life stage (up to 2 yr), and have large bodies, which aid in retrieval from sediments and for re ...201424375636
variable intron/exon structure in the oligochaete lombricine kinase gene.lombricine kinase is an annelid enzyme that belongs to the phosphagen kinase family of which creatine kinase and arginine kinase are the typical representatives. the enzymes play important roles in the cellular energy metabolism of animals. biochemical, physiological and molecular information with respect to lombricine kinase is limited compared to other phosphagen kinases. this study presents data on the cdna sequences of lombricine kinase from two smaller oligochaetes, enchytraeus sp. and styl ...201222705027
uptake, handling and excretion of na+ and cl- from the diet in vivo in freshwater- and seawater-acclimated killifish, fundulus heteroclitus, an agastric teleost.a radiotracer approach using diets labelled with (22)na(+), (36)cl(-) and [(14)c]polyethylene-4000 (peg-4000) was employed to investigate the role of intestinal uptake from the food in ion homeostasis in the killifish fundulus heteroclitus. this euryhaline teleost lacks both a stomach and the capacity for cl(-) uptake at the gills in freshwater. peg-4000 appearance in the water was minimal up to 10-11 h post-feeding, indicating the virtual absence of na(+) and cl(-) loss in the faeces up until t ...201323868841
can spme fiber and tenax methods predict the bioavailability of biotransformed insecticides?recent studies recognize the ability of chemical techniques such as solid phase microextraction (spme) fibers and tenax extraction to predict bioavailability more effectively than exhaustive chemical extractions for sediment-associated organic contaminants. while the majority of research using these techniques studied legacy compounds such as pcbs and pahs, there is great potential for these methods to work well for highly toxic, rapidly biotransformed compounds such as pyrethroid insecticides. ...201222316215
can adsorption isotherms predict sediment bioavailability?the adsorption and desorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (dcp) and pentachlorophenol (pcp) were studied for a range of synthetic particles, a dimethylditallowammonium exchanged clay and a natural sediment. the synthetic particles were dowex 1x8400, toyopearl phenyl 650m and toyopearl sp 650m. the bioaccumulation of the dcp and pcp from these particles was then studied using the oligochaete, lumbriculus variegatus. there is a correlation between contaminant-particle interactions, as determined from ad ...200010879828
transmission of freshwater myxozoans during the asexual propagation of invertebrate hosts.the phylum myxozoa contains over 1350 species almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic animals. the phylum is composed of two classes, the myxosporea and the malacosporea, species of which are important pathogens responsible for severe economic losses in cultured fisheries. the life cycles of freshwater myxozoa are believed to involve horizontal, indirect transmission, involving an invertebrate (oligochaetes or bryozoans) and a vertebrate host (fish or amphibians). ...200616373070
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