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anthrax in captive carnivores in ibadan, nigeria.between 20 and 22 june 1974, three captive carnivores (two genets, genetta sp. and one caracal, felis caracal) died suddenly in the university of ibadan zoological garden without previous signs of illness. bacillus anthracis was isolated from their blood and tissues. the organism was highly pathogenic to laboratory animals. the disease was believed to have been contracted from meat fed the animals.1976819662
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
some wild hosts of the karoo paralysis tick, ixodes rubicundus neumann, 1904 (acari: ixodidae).a variety of mammal and bird species in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province, were examined for ixodes rubicundus. in addition, caracal (felis caracal) from the park and its vicinity as well as from the graaff-reinet region of the karoo were examined. amongst the animals collected, the red rock rabbit (pronolagus rupestris) was a preferred host of the immature stages of the tick. caracal were moderately good hosts of these stages and, with mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvoruful ...19873587926
irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at brookfield zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. fifteen cats, two african lions (panthera leo), two amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), one amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (felis caracal), one bobcat (felis rufus), and five fishin ...200112785680
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
the nutrition and natural history of the serval (felis serval) and caracal (caracal caracal).there is little information regarding the specific nutrient and dietary needs of many species of exotic cats, including those kept sporadically as house pets, such as the serval and the caracal. the diets of exotic cats kept in captivity are usually based on the nutrient requirements of the domestic cat, although there is some evidence that different cat species may not metabolize certain nutrients in the same manner as domestic species. this article provides information on the natural diet and ...200919341958
fiber type and metabolic characteristics of lion (panthera leo), caracal (caracal caracal) and human skeletal muscle.lion (panthera leo) and caracal (caracal caracal) skeletal muscle samples from vastus lateralis, longissimus dorsi and gluteus medius were analyzed for fiber type and citrate synthase (cs; ec 2.3.3.1), 3-hydroxyacyl co a dehydrogenase (3had; ec 1.1.1.35), phosphofructokinase-1 (pfk; ec 2.7.1.11), creatine kinase (ck; ec 2.7.3.2), phosphorylase (phos; ec 2.4.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh; ec 1.1.1.27) activities and compared to human runners, the latter also serving as validation of methodo ...201121320626
novel predators and anthropogenic disturbance influence spatio-temporal distribution of forest antelope species.understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on species' behaviour is crucial for conservation planning, considering the extent of habitat loss. we investigated the influence of anthropogenic disturbances including agriculture, urbanisation, protected areas, and the presence of novel predators, on the temporal and spatial behaviour of sympatric forest antelope (tragelaphus scriptus, philantomba monticola, sylvicapra grimmia, and cephalophus natalensis) in an anthropogenic matrix contai ...201930552995
fluctuating odontometric asymmetry, morphological variability, and genetic monomorphism in the cheetah acinonyx jubatus.the magnitudes of dimensional variability and fluctuating asymmetry in dental dimensions are reported for a sample of south african cheetah acinonyx jubatus. to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of variability and asymmetry are associated with the increased developmental instability reported for this species, our results were contrasted to those for two other felids: felis lybica and f. caracal. these findings suggest that dental dimensions in cheetahs are not significantly more variable ...199128564178
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlviii. ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern africa.ticks collected from domestic cats (felis catus), cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus),caracals (caracal caracal), african wild cats (felis lybica), black-footed cats (felis nigripes), a serval (leptailurus serval), lions(panthera leo), and leopards (panthera pardus) were identified and counted. thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. the domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. t ...201023327159
contribution to the knowledge of helminthofauna of wild mammals of somalia.within a survey of parasitic infections in wild mammals of somalia, during the first semester of 1983 and the second of 1984, endoparasites were collected from 11 host species: gazella soemmeringi, gazella spekei, madoqua saltiana, phacochoerus aethiopicus, xerus rutilus, lepus sp., genetta genetta, herpestes (galerella) sanguineus, felis sylvestris libyca, felis caracal, canis mesomelas. a total of 22 species of helminths (20 nematode and 2 metacestode species) were identified. lepus sp. is a n ...19969257339
measurements of faecal oestradiol and progesterone in non-pregnant and pregnant domestic and exotic cats.faecal samples collected for variable periods from 12 animals and five species of cats were assayed for progesterone and oestradiol content by application of standard radioimmunoassays to aliquots (50 microliters) of methanol extracts (4 ml) of a mixture of 0.5 g sample, 0.5 ml water and 1 g aluminium oxide, following partitioning of the total extract with petroleum ether (3 ml), further dilution of assay aliquots and drying. recoveries averaged 100 and 72% for oestradiol and progesterone, respe ...19938229917
focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.we examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (fpe). fpe was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. the prevalence of fpe between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; p = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; p = 0.010) were signific ...201121541986
successful treatment of a southern pacific rattlesnake (crotalus viridis helleri) bite in a caracal (caracal caracal).a caracal (caracal caracal) was bitten on the lower lip by a southern pacific rattlesnake (crotalus viridis helleri) and quickly developed progressive, severe soft tissue swelling and bruising of this site. initial laboratory results revealed prolonged clotting times within the first hour of envenomation, followed by signs of vasculitis and anemia. the caracal was successfully treated with intravenous crystalloids, four vials of polyvalent crotalidae antivenom, and transfusions of bovine hemoglo ...200919569491
the context of stw 573, an early hominid skull and skeleton from sterkfontein member 2: taphonomy and paleoenvironment.the reconstructed taphonomic and paleoenvironmental contexts of a ca. 4 million-year-old partial hominid skeleton (stw 573) from sterkfontein member 2 are described through presentation of the results of our analyses of the mammalian faunal assemblage associated stratigraphically with the hominid. the assemblage is dominated by cercopithecoids (parapapio and papio) and felids (panthera pardus, p. leo, felis caracal, and felidae indet.), based on number of identified specimens, minimum number of ...200414984784
serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (felis caracal), cheetah (acinonyx jubatus), cougar (felis concolor), fishing cat (felis viverrinus), leopard (panthera pardus), lion (panthera leo), ocelot (felis pardalis), pallas cat (felis manul), sand cat (felis margarita), serval (felis serval), snow leopard (panthera uncia) and tiger (panthera tigris). diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (broo ...200312514284
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
isolation of aeromonas hydrophila from a captive caracal lynx (felis caracal).aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the internal organs of a captive caracal lynx (felis caracal) which died of acute septicemia. grossly, patchy areas of focal necrosis were found in the lungs, liver and kidney; there was ulceration in the stomach and intestines. microscopically, lesions contained cellular debris, neutrophils, lymphocytes and gram-negative bacilli. this is the first report of isolation of aeromonas hydrophila from a captive wild animal in nigeria.19892915393
identification of selected wild felids using hair morphology and forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (fins): wildlife forensics prospective.we describe the identification of the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), jungle cat (felis chaus) fishing cat (prionailurus viverrinusis), wild cat (felis silvestris) and caracal (caracal caracal) using combined approach of morphological and molecular based analysis. three mitochondrial genes [12s rrna, 16s rrna and cytochrome b (cyt b)] and hair characteristics (cuticle and medulla patterns) were analysed and variation was observed among few selected wild felids. we did not find conclusive ...202032208347
skeletal differences in the appendicular skeleton of the lynx and the caracal (felidae: carnivora) in relation to ecology.the morphological characters of the girdles and limb-bones of the lynx (felis lynx linnaeus) and the caracal (felis caracal schreber) have been studied. some features which aid in differentiating these two species have been represented. further, an attempt has been made to correlate these differences with their habits.19751180384
high seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in an urban caracal (caracal caracal) population in south africa.we investigated toxoplasmosis gondii antibody seroprevalence in free-ranging caracals (caracal caracal) in cape town, south africa, from 2014 to 2017. seropositivity was 83% (24/29), which is substantially higher than that detected in sympatric feral domestic cat (felis catus) populations. the impact of this pathogen on local human and wildlife communities may be of concern.201930920906
widespread anticoagulant poison exposure in predators in a rapidly growing south african city.anticoagulant rodenticides (ars) are used worldwide to control rodent populations. ars bioaccumulate across trophic levels and threaten non-target wildlife. we investigated the prevalence of ar exposure in seven predator species in the rapidly developing greater cape town region of south africa - a mosaic of natural, urban, and agricultural areas within a global biodiversity hotspot. we focused sampling on caracals (caracal caracal, n = 28) as part of a larger caracal ecology study, but also opp ...201930807948
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in caracals (caracal caracal) living in human-modified landscapes of south africa.wild carnivores living alongside humans and domestic animals are vulnerable to changes in the infectious disease dynamics in their populations. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and diversity of selected tick-borne pathogens (tbps) of veterinary and/or zoonotic concern in wild populations of caracals (caracal caracal) occurring in human-modified landscapes in south africa. using molecular techniques, we screened 57 caracal blood samples for infection by rickettsial bacteria ...202032354342
isolation and characterization of toxoplasma gondii from captive caracals (caracal caracal).toxoplasma gondii infects most warm-blooded animals, including humans. felids can serve as both intermediate and definitive hosts for t. gondii. however, there is no direct evidence to prove the caracal (caracal caracal) is an intermediate host for t. gondii. here, we report t. gondii infection in two caracals in a zoo from china. antibodies against t. gondii were found in both caracals by modified agglutination test (mat) (cut-off titer: 1:25). tissue cysts were observed in the leg and tongue m ...202033145163
cystine urolithiasis in a caracal (caracal caracal).in july 2009, a 14-yr-old male caracal (caracal caracal) at the national zoological gardens of south africa was found, on abdominal ultrasound, to have a single large cystolith. the cystolith was removed, and the composition was determined to be 100% cystine. blood and urine samples were also collected from three other apparently healthy caracals at the zoo and were submitted, together with the samples from the affected animal, for analysis using gas chromatograph mass spectrometry for cystine, ...201223082535
lion (panthera leo) and caracal (caracal caracal) type iix single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans.this study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°c from lion, panthera leo (linnaeus 1758), and caracal, caracal caracal (schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. only type iix muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type iix and only ...201323155088
investigating the effects of management practice on mammalian co-occurrence along the west coast of south africa.the subtle and cascading effects (e.g., altered interspecific interactions) that anthropogenic stressors have on local ecological assemblages often go unnoticed but are concerning given their importance in ecosystem function. for example, elimination of buffalo from the serengeti national park is suggested to have driven increased abundance of smaller antelope as a result of release from competition. the perceived low abundance of small antelope in the contractual postberg section of the west co ...202032025364
feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response.determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. among mammals, members of the order carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. we therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas), the brown hyena (hyena brunnea), the caracal (caracal caracal), the che ...201627044323
aelurostrongylus abstrusus in wild felids of south africa.the increasing interest on respiratory nematodes of domestic cats (felis silvestris catus) has recently stimulated several studies on their epidemiology and geographic distribution. at the same time, there are still important gaps in our knowledge of the infections caused by respiratory nematodes in wild felids. the present study investigated the occurrence of pulmonary parasites in wild hosts housed in sanctuaries and protected areas of south africa. faecal samples collected from seven species ...201627230016
intermediate syndrome of chlorpyriphos toxicity (polaris) in a caracal (caracal caracal).a 5-yr-old spayed female caracal (caracal caracal) was presented with complaints of acute onset of mental dullness, ataxia, and ventroflexion of 24-hr duration. the animal's garden territory was sprayed a day earlier with an organophosphate (op) insecticide (chlorpyriphos-methyl). the caracal was treated for op toxicosis and mildly improved. it was discharged a day later at the owner's request, although clinical signs did not resolve. during the following week, the caracal was confined to preven ...201122946387
seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) on namibian farmland.cheetah populations are diminishing rapidly in their natural habitat. one reason for their decline is thought to be a high susceptibility to (infectious) diseases because cheetahs in zoos suffer from high disease-induced mortality. data on the health status of free-ranging cheetahs are scarce, and little is known about their exposure and susceptibility to infectious diseases. we determined seroprevalences to nine key viruses (feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, feline co ...201019955325
in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer in domestic and non-domestic cats.over a 5-year interval, multiple laparoscopic oocyte retrievals were done in fishing cats (prionailurus viverrinus), caracals (caracal caracal) and domestic cats after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. from 21 retrievals in five fishing cats, 579 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 27.6) were recovered and 348 embryos were produced in vitro (mean = 16.6). a total of 452 preovulatory oocytes (mean = 25.1) were recovered from 18 of 24 retrievals in six caracals and 297 (mean = 16.6) embryos were pr ...200616497369
small and medium sized mammals as predators of ticks (ixodoidea) in south africa.a total of 1,640 stomach contents from 56 south african species of small and medium sized mammals were examined for ticks. only six ticks were found in three specimens of the caracal felis caracal. although identification of the tick species was not possible owing to fragmentation and partial digestion, the genus haemaphysalis was represented in four of these cases. we conclude that predation by small and medium sized mammals on ticks is uncommon in south africa.19937628224
molecular evolution of mitochondrial 12s rna and cytochrome b sequences in the pantherine lineage of felidae.dna sequence comparisons of two mitochondrial dna genes were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 17 felidae species, notably 15 in the previously described pantherine lineage. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to generate sequences of 358 base pairs of the mitochondrial 12s rna gene and 289 base pairs of the cytochrome b protein coding gene. dna sequences were compared within and between 17 felid and five nonfelid carnivore species. evolutionary trees were constructed using ...19957544865
amyloidosis in caracals (caracal caracal).nine cases of amyloidosis in caracals (caracal caracal) from three different institutions in europe were reviewed and evaluated histopathologically. the six males and three females died between 2008 and 2018 at an age of 6 yr ± 2.5 mo (median ± interquartile range). in two out of nine (2/9) animals, amyloidosis was an incidental postmortem finding; the animals died of bronchopneumonia and gastric ulceration due to helicobacter spp., respectively. seven (7/9) animals suffered from acute renal fai ...202032212564
culling recolonizing mesopredators increases livestock losses: evidence from the south african karoo.populations of adaptable mesopredators are expanding globally where passive rewilding and natural recolonization are taking place, increasing the risk of conflict with remaining livestock farmers. we analysed data from two social surveys of farmers in the karoo, south africa, where black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and caracals (caracal caracal) have re-emerged as a threat to sheep farms in the context of falling agricultural employment and the expansion of natural areas. we show that irres ...202031679108
anterior uveitis as an atypical presentation of large granular lymphoma in a caracal (caracal caracal).an 11-year-old, female, spayed caracal (caracal caracal) presented with a 3-month history of intermittent anorexia, vomiting, and weight loss. at examination, bilateral anterior uveitis with anisocoria was present. further examination under general anesthesia revealed the anterior chamber of the right eye contained copious amounts of thick fibrin, hypopyon, and hyphema obscuring the ventral pupil margin and ventral iris. aqueous paracentesis revealed a cytologic diagnosis of large granular lymph ...201121929612
ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (caracal caracal).abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. the relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. the gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. the wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greate ...201223082516
cystine calculi in a caracal lynx (felis caracal). 1973422771
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