serologic survey for toxoplasma gondii in wild animals in florida.blood samples were collected for serum separation from 114 species of wild animals (25 species of mammals, 82 species of birds, and 7 species of reptiles) in florida. each of the 3,471 samples was tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii, using the indirect hemagglutination test. the highest prevalences of t gondii antibodies were 19% in armadillos (dasypus novemcinctus), 18% in raccoons (procyon lotor), 13% in black rats (rattus rattus), and 11% in opossums (didelphis marsupialis). antibody p ...1979521384
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
leptospirosis in selected wild mammals of the florida panhandle and southwestern georgia.a group of 144 wild mammals, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbits, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, raccoons, opossums, a bobcat, and various small rodents was examined for cultural or serologic evidence of leptospiral infection. leptospires were isolated from 1 of 25 rabbits, 1 of 27 fox squirrels, 1 of 26 gray squirrels, 4 of 18 mice and rats, 8 of 21 raccoons, 7 of 17 opossums, and a bobcat. isolations were not made from 6 deer examined. serotypes isolated were leptospira interrogans ...19751176352
lesions associated with pulmonary parasites in bobcats (felis rufus) from arkansas.two of five bobcats (felis rufus) from southwestern arkansas had natural pulmonary infections of paragonimus kellicotti and filaroides rostratus. pairs of p. kellicotti were found in spherical cyst-like structures approximately 1 cm in diameter. filaroides rostratus were seen as serpentine pale white areas on the pleural surface and also firmly embedded in fibrous capsules in the pulmonary parenchyma. histologic lesions associated with the presence of these parasites consisted primarily of a ver ...19912023320
iatrogenic transmission of cytauxzoon felis from a florida panther (felix concolor coryi) to a domestic cat.a laboratory cat died 12 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a 1 ml suspension containing 1.5 x 10(6) blood mononuclear cells from a florida panther (felis concolor coryi). gross, histologic and ultrastructural investigations revealed the cause of death to be infection by cytauxzoon felis, a protozoal parasite known to cause a rapidly fatal disease (cytauxzoonosis) in domestic cats. the bobcat (felis rufus) has been identified as a natural host for c. felis. this report implicates the flor ...19912067059
helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, lynx rufus (schreber), from nebraska.cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, lynx rufus (schreber), in nebraska from 1977 to 1979. of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: south dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; kansas, 3/2; and wyoming, 1/1. helminths recovered included: mesocestoides corti hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), taenia rileyi loewen, 1929 (67%), taenia pisiformis (bloch, 1780) gmelin, 1790 (27%), taenia macrocystis (diesing, 1850) lühe, 1910 (19%), phy ...19853998960
hematologic and serum chemical values for free-ranging bobcats, felis rufus (schreber), with reference to animals with natural infections of cytauxzoon felis kier, 1979. 19853999257
endoparasites and selected infectious agents in bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and georgia.a total of 143 bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and 10 bobcats from georgia was examined for parasites and selected infectious agents. a total of 31 species of parasites was recovered including 1 protozoan, 1 trematode, 4 cestodes, 1 acanthocephalan and 24 nematodes. results indicate bobcats are important definitive hosts for sarcocystis sp. and toxoplasma gondii. thirteen species (paragonimus kellicotti, spirometra mansonoides, taenia macrocystis, t. rileyi, capillaria putorii, toxascar ...19816802988
interspecies transmission of cytauxzoon felis.the causative agent of feline cytauxzoonosis was experimentally inoculated into 4 species of domestic farm animals, 9 species of laboratory animals, and 17 wildlife species. the inoculum consisted of freshly collected or deep-frozen blood and/or tissue homogenates from domestic cats euthanatized in extremis with experimentally transmitted feline cytauxzoonosis. a bobcat, lynx rufus floridanus (florida bobcat), developed cytauxzoonosis typical of the disease observed in domestic cats and died of ...19826807139
experimental transmission of cytauxzoon felis from bobcats (lynx rufus) to domestic cats (felis domesticus).freshly collected blood and/or spleen homogenate from an experimentally infected florida bobcat (lynx rufus floridanus), which had died of feline cytauxzoonosis, was inoculated into domestic cats. all inoculated cats had clinical signs of feline cytauxzoonosis and died within 2 weeks after they were inoculated. similar material collected from an eastern bobcat (lynx rufus rufus) carrying an experimentally infected cytauxzoon felis parasitemia was inoculated into domestic cats. all inoculated cat ...19826807145
transmission of cytauxzoon felis kier, 1979 from bobcats, felis rufus (schreber), to domestic cats by dermacentor variabilis (say). 19846492329
cytauxzoon-like piroplasms in erythrocytes of wild-trapped bobcats in oklahoma.stained blood smears from 26 bobcats wildtrapped in 4 oklahoma counties were examined for protozoan parasites. a cytauxzoon-like piroplasm was observed in erythrocytes from 13 of 21 bobcats trapped in 2 counties. organisms were not observed in the 5 bobcats trapped in 2 other counties. the degree of parasitemia varied from less than 0.5% to 5% infected erythrocytes but commonly ranged from 1% to 3%. responding anemia was apparent in 1 of the 13 infected bobcats but other ill effects possibly att ...19827174437
sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from montana.sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (gulo gulo), 4 mink (mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (procyon lotor). sarcocystis muris and toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions.19826816776
presence of echinococcus oligarthrus (diesing, 1863) lühe, 1910 in lynx rufus texensis allen, 1895 from san fernando, tamaulipas state, in north-east mexico.a bobcat was found recently killed on "highway 101" near the town of san fernando, tamaulipas state, mexico (100 km south of brownsville, tx, u.s.a.). the cat (lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, echinococcus oligarthrus. the diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. e. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in north america. this is the first time that the strobilar stage has been rec ...19968894772
accessory suckers (?) in taenia taeniaeformis from the california bobcat. 19734711672
notoedric mange in the bobcat, felis rufus, from south texas.a fatal case of notoedric mange is described in an adult male bobcat, felis rufus, from south texas. this cat was extremely weak and emaciated. skin lesions consisted of greatly thickened, gray encrustations and alopecia of the muzzle, eyes, crown, ears and parietal scalp extending down the neck to the midscapular region of the shoulders. histologically, there was partial to complete excoriation of the stratum corneum with erosions into the stratum germinativum to the level of the dermis in some ...19827097869
mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from michigan.during a survey for tuberculosis in wild carnivores and omnivores, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from pooled lymph nodes of three adult female coyotes (canis latrans) harvested by hunters in michigan (usa). no gross or histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were seen in these animals. one coyote was taken from montmorency county and two coyotes from alcona county located in the north-eastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula where free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginia ...19989706576
gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.nine small cats, including one bobcat (felis rufus), one pallas cat (f. manul), one canada lynx (f. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (f. viverrina), two margays (f. wiedii), and two sand cats (f. margarita), necropsied between june 1995 and march 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one african lion (panthera leo), two snow leopards (p. uncia), one siberian tiger (p. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (p. onca), necropsied during the same period ha ...19989732040
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
characteristics of 11 rabies virus isolates in mice: titers and relative invasiveness of virus, incubation period of infection, and survival of mice with sequelae.mice were inoculated intracerebrally or in the footpad with 11 salivary gland suspensions from rabid foxes, skunks, and bobcats. the 11 isolates differed in their ratios of intracerebral titer to footpad titer, a result indicating that the "invasiveness" of different isolates varies markedly. the degree of invasiveness could not be correlated with the species of animal. the inoculation of the less invasive isolates resulted in an appreciable number of permanently paralyzed animals (survivors wit ...1977903672
hepatozoon sp infection in bobcats. 19836643261
administration of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate for treatment of cytauxzoonosis in cats.bobcats (lynx rufus) are the reservoir hosts for cytauxzoon felis, the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis. cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal tickborne blood protozoal disease of domestic and exotic cats. treatment of clinically affected cats has generally been unrewarding. in our report, 6 of 7 cats had signs of illness and laboratory findings indicative of cytauxzoonosis and were successfully treated with 2 i.m. injections of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb] of ...199910461632
fatal cytauxzoonosis in a captive-reared white tiger (panthera tigris).fatal (panthera tigris) cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in a 7-year-old female white tiger. the tiger presented with a 2-day history of anorexia and lethargy. she was mildly dehydrated, with a temperature of 105.2 f and a hematocrit of 26%. over the next day, icterus developed, and her physical condition progressed to recumbency, coma, and death. hematologic findings obtained shortly before death included icteric plasma, severe thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, hematuria, and parasites consistent with ...19968826011
blood parameters of clinically normal captive bobcats (felis rufus).data on blood parameters were obtained from 56 (32 female, 24 male) clinically healthy, captive bobcats (felis rufus). the animals were housed under ambient conditions at the mississippi state university captive bobcat facility. samples were collected opportunistically between 1982 and 1995. differences (p < or = 0.05) in blood parameters existed between sexes, among age classes (kitten, subadult, adult, and geriatric), and among stages in the reproductive cycle (breeding, parturition, recycling ...199910484139
molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from mexico: implications for transmission dynamics and human risk.twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. the variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from mexico and the rest of the americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and outbreaks and to increase the understanding of rabies epidemiology in the western he ...199910548293
feline papillomas and papillomaviruses.papillomaviruses (pvs) are highly species- and site-specific pathogens of stratified squamous epithelium. although pv infections in the various felidae are rarely reported, we identified productive infections in six cat species. pv-induced proliferative skin or mucous membrane lesions were confirmed by immunohistochemical screening for papillomavirus-specific capsid antigens. seven monoclonal antibodies, each of which reacts with an immunodominant antigenic determinant of the bovine papillomavir ...200010643975
relationships between cytauxzoon felis and african piroplasmids.a cat which had recovered from cytauxzoon felis infection following treatment with the anti-theilerial drug, parvaquone, showed an increase in piroplasm parasitemia after splenectomy and its blood was suitable for the preparation of antigen smears for the indirect fluorescent antibody test. high levels of antibodies were found in this cat after recovery, in two other cats sub-lethally infected with piroplasms and in sera of naturally infected bobcats. cats recovered from piroplasm infection died ...19873125663
toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (felis rufus).a bobcat (felis rufus) estimated to be 6-mo old exhibited head pressing, stupor, intermittent seizures, and vocalization. based on gross and histopathologic features, it was diagnosed to have severe focally extensive protozoal meningoencephalitis. toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent by an avidin-biotin immunohistochemical test. this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a free-ranging bobcat.19958592391
sex linkage of minisatellite bands in bobcats (felis rufus).minisatellite dna profiles using the multilocus human probe 33.6 are presented for 27 captive bobcats (felis rufus) of documented geographic and genetic origins. the results show that 30% of the finger-printing bands present in males are sex linked. the effect of sex on band sharing was attributed to the presence of male-specific hemizygotic bands belonging to a minisatellite cluster located in the nonrecombinant region of the y chromosome. a combination of mechanisms might drive the dynamics of ...19979419895
rabies in skunks from enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in mexico is described. fifty three wild animals including two badgers (taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (lynx rufus), two coatis (nasua narica) three foxes (urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of san luis potosi state, mexico. rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and o ...199910479094
feline leukemia virus in a captive 11-mo-old captive-bred male neutered bobcat (felis rufus) presented with lethargy, anorexia, leukopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and nonregenerative anemia. the animal was diagnosed as feline leukemia virus (felv) positive by immunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) testing. it died despite supportive care. pathologic examination revealed multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, diffuse interstitial pneumonia, multifocal hepatocellular necrosis, non-suppurati ...200111272497
6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase polymorphism in the bobcat (felis rufa schreber). 19725075385
hematology, intestinal parasites, and selected disease antibodies from a population of bobcats (felis rufus) in central arkansas.eight bobcats with adjoining or overlapping home ranges were examined. hematological values were within previously reported ranges. six bobcats demonstrated antibody titers to toxoplasma gondii. isospora spp., taenia taeniaeformis, spirometra mansoides, physoloptera rara, toxocara cati, strongyloides spp., trichurus spp., capillaria spp., and ancyclostoma spp. were found also in the animals examined. the mean number of parasite species per host was 4.1. all bobcats tested negative for serum anti ...19883352091
embryo transfer and embryonic capsules in the bobcat (lynx rufus).bobcats (lynx rufus) (n=22) were used to test a surgical embryo transfer protocol for wild felines. five blastocysts were collected 8-14 days post-initial copulation (pic). translucent capsule-like structures were recovered at 12 days pic and are the first report of such a structure in a felid. endometrial fibrosis was observed in one cat but, in general, post-surgical fibrosis of the uterus did not seem to impede ova or embryo transport. one embryo underwent cryopreservation and this embryo plu ...200212047248
bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from michigan.during a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in michigan (usa) since 1996, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (ursus americanus). one adult, male bobcat (felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for ...200111272505
a complementary dna encoding an antigen from trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and its analog from trichinella t5 of bobcat origin: sequence, cloning and expressions.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was employed to amplify a cdna encoding an excretory-secretory (es) antigen with mol. wt 45-50 kda by sds-page from t. spiralis muscle larvae. the pcr product was purified by electrophoresis and sequenced by thermal cycle sequencing with primer walking. the cdna is 890 bp long and encodes a polypeptide of 255 amino acid (aa) residues. using the same methods, we also recovered a corresponding cdna from trichinella t5, which is 891 bp long a ...19979184935
molecular tracking of mountain lions in the yosemite valley region in california: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal dna.twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in california mountain lions (puma concolor) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal dna matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. dna from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces were reliably distinguished from mountain lions using this microsatellite panel. in a f ...200010736046
toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
ectoparasites of the bobcat from west texas. 1977864562
rabies among infrequently reported mammalian carnivores in the united states, 1960-2000.most cases of rabies reported annually in the united states occur among three groups of carnivores--raccoons (procyon lotor), skunks (mephitis, spilogale, and putorius), foxes (vulpes, urocyon, and alopex)--and among bats (numerous species). however, between 1960 and 2000, a total of 2,851 cases of rabies in 17 other carnivore taxa were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, georgia (usa), from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico. three species of t ...200312910751
distribution and prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in wild predators in nebraska, kansas, and further determine the distribution and prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in the central united states, 245 wild canids (125 red foxes, 120 coyotes) and 33 bobcats were collected from nebraska, kansas, and wyoming and examined for this parasite. animals examined included 11 red foxes from the western panhandle of nebraska; 5 red foxes and 30 coyotes from southern nebraska; 56 red foxes and 1 coyote from northeastern nebraska; 20 red foxes, 63 coyotes, and 13 bobcats from northern kansa ...200212054030
p68, a dead-box rna helicase, is expressed in chordate embryo neural and mesodermal tissues.the p68 dead-box rna helicases have been identified in diverse organisms, including yeast, invertebrates, and mammals. dead-box rna helicases are thought to unwind duplexed rnas, and the p68 family may participate in initiating nucleolar assembly. recent evidence also suggests that they are developmentally regulated in chordate embryos. bobcat, a newly described member of this gene family, has been found in eggs and developing embryos of the ascidian urochordate, molgula oculata. antisense rna e ...200011069138
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii among bobcats of west virginia and georgia.bobcats (felis rufus) from west virginia and georgia were examined for toxoplasma gondii serum antibodies and fecal oocysts. of the 150 bobcats, 27 (18%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:16, as detected by the indirect hemagglutination test. oocysts typical of t gondii were not seen in any of the fecal specimens.19807451325
troglostrongylus wilsoni (stough, 1953) n. comb. (nematoda: metastrongylidae) from the lungs of the bobcat, lynx rufus rufus. 195613295891
deficiency of cytosolic arylamine n-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single nat1-like gene.the purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine n-acetyltransferase (nat), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, nat1 and nat2. n-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean km = 2.1 microm) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an nat1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean km > 10 mm) f ...199810022754
bartonella henselae antibody prevalence in free-ranging and captive wild felids from order to determine the importance of wild felids in the epidemiology of bartonella spp. infection, 136 nobuto strips or serum samples from free-ranging mountain lions (felis concolor) and bobcats (felis rufus) captured in california (usa) between 1985 and 1996 were tested for b. henselae antibodies (titer > or = 1:64) using an immunofluorescence test. similarly, 124 serum samples from 114 captive wild cats representing 26 species or subspecies collected between 1991 and 1995 were retrieved fr ...19989476226
exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in california.exposure of bobcats (lynx rufus) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of golden gate national recreation area, a national park in the san francisco bay area, (california, usa) from 1992 to 1995. testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (fcv), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric co ...200415137484
observation of helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (lynx rufus).archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (lynx rufus), 4 skunks (mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of helicobacter-like organisms. such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. histochemical stains (modified steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumi ...200415188962
evidence of a limited schizogonous cycle for cytauxzoon felis in bobcats following exposure to infected ticks.schizogonous tissue stages of cytauxzoon felis (apicomplexa: theileridae) were not observed by microscopic evaluation of impression smears of liver, spleen, lung and lymph nodes in 10 bobcats (lynx rufus) from oklahoma with naturally occurring piroplasm infections. schizogonous stages were observed in similar tissues from experimentally-infected bobcats at 11 days postexposure to infected dermacentor variabilis, but not at 30 days following tick feeding. the schizogonous cycle of this parasite a ...19873114505
taenia macrocystis (diesing, 1850), its occurrence in eastern canada and maine, u.s.a., and its life cycle in wild felines (lynx rufus and l. canadensis) and hares (lepus americanus). 19705503028
sylvatic trichinosis in canada.pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western arctic and extended down into the rocky mountain and foothills regions of western canada. infections were demonstrated in arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.19883196978
notoedric mange in an ocelot (felis pardalis) from southern texas.notoedric mange was diagnosed in a free-ranging adult male ocelot (felis pardalis) found dead in april 1994 in southern texas (usa). the emaciated carcass had no body fat. the heart was enlarged and flaccid. there was a nonpurulent serosanguineous pericardial and peritoneal exudate. severe encrusted skin lesions and alopecia extended from the head posteriorly to the shoulders. the forelegs and feet were less severely affected. we observed a massive infection of notoedres cati in skin scrapings. ...19958592392
raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic the present study, we evaluated both the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. rcn is an orthopoxvirus that was isolated from healthy raccoons and has been used experimentally as a vaccine vector for rabies and other antigens in a variety of species, including raccoons, skunks, foxes, bobcats, rabbits, domestic cats, piglets, sheep and non-human primates. we evaluated the antibody response induced by a recombinant rcn va ...200315203914
serologic evidence of west nile virus exposure in north american mesopredators.sera from 936 mammalian mesopredators (virginia opossums, gray foxes, striped skunks, hooded skunks, raccoons, a bobcat, and a red fox) were collected during 2003 and 2004 in california, arizona, texas, louisiana, ohio, and wyoming and screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies by an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking elisa). serum samples positive for antibodies against flaviviruses were screened for west nile virus (wnv)-specific antibodies by blocking elisa and sele ...200717255248
disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive indochinese tiger (panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.a 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female indochinese tiger (panthera tigris corbetti) from the el paso zoo (el paso, texas, usa) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. pyogranulomatous pneumonia ...200617315442
ancient papillomavirus-host co-speciation in felidae.estimating evolutionary rates for slowly evolving viruses such as papillomaviruses (pvs) is not possible using fossil calibrations directly or sequences sampled over a time-scale of decades. an ability to correlate their divergence with a host species, however, can provide a means to estimate evolutionary rates for these viruses accurately. to determine whether such an approach is feasible, we sequenced complete feline pv genomes, previously available only for the domestic cat (felis domesticus, ...200717430578
ixodid ticks from panthers and bobcats in florida.ixodid ticks were present in all 189 samples examined from 53 florida panthers (felis concolor coryi, 104 collections) and 85 bobcats (felis rufus floridana) in florida (usa) between 1974 and 1991. we identified 3,251 ticks from panthers and 918 from bobcats. specimens of dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, i. affinis, amblyomma maculatum, and a. americanum were present on 49, 39, 17, seven, and two of the 53 florida panthers, respectively, and comprised 36%, 55%, 7%, 1%, and < 1% of the ...19958592378
visceral lesions in wild carnivores naturally infected with spirocerca lupi.aortic lesions pathognomonic for spirocerca lupi were found in 123 of 150 (82%) coyotes, canis latrans, 23 of 66 (35%) bobcats, felis rufus, one of five gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus and one of two red foxes, vulpes vulpes, examined in west texas. adult nematodes in the esophagus were recovered from 11 of 150 (7%) coyotes. in the aorta there was initially an acute inflammatory response followed by an eosinophilic granuloma surrounding larval nematodes. the principal lesions was scarring o ...1978685080
the molecular epidemiology of rabies associated with chiropteran hosts in mexico.while large-scale dog vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced urban rabies throughout mexico, reports of sylvatic rabies, including cases of spill-over of bat strains into livestock and humans, are increasing. to improve knowledge of these epidemiological trends, 64 mexican rabies virus isolates from various host species, have been characterized. phylogenetic analysis at the viral p locus identified distinct viral strains associated with terrestrial reservoirs (dog, skunk and fox/bobcat ...200616303200
variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (puma concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis).although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. we tested bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (felis concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (plv), african lion lentivirus (llv), and domestic cat fiv-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzym ...200717984266
cytauxzoonosis in cats: eight cases (1985-1992).cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly and highly fatal disease in cats that is caused by the protozoan cytauxzoon felis, which may be transmitted by ixodid ticks (dermacentor variabilis) from parasitemic bobcats (lynx rufus). during an 8-year period, cytauxzoonosis was diagnosed in 8 cats, 7 cats within 14 months. risk factors for these cats were warm weather, access to a wooded environment, and exposure to ticks. the most consistent clinical signs were acute lethargy, anorexia, decreased response to exte ...19947961073
the ab blood group system in wild felids.the blood type of 131 non-domesticated felids belonging to 26 felid species was surveyed in this study. based upon a tube hemagglutination assay established for domestic cats, 80% of felids had type-a, 18% type-b, and 2% type-ab blood. felids in the puma group and african and asian golden cats had blood type b, whereas all other species were found to have blood type a. two cheetahs and one bobcat had type-ab blood. red cell glycolipids analysed by high performance thin layer chromatography revea ...199910376305
fiv cross-species transmission: an evolutionary prospective.feline and primate immunodeficiency viruses (fivs, sivs, and hiv) are transmitted via direct contact (e.g. fighting, sexual contact, and mother-offspring transmission). this dynamic likely poses a behavioral barrier to cross-species transmission in the wild. recently, several host intracellular anti-viral proteins that contribute to species-specificity of primate lentiviruses have been identified revealing adaptive mechanisms that further limit spread of lentiviruses between species. consistent ...200818299153
sarcocystis of deer in south dakota.the prevalence of sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (o. hemionus) in south dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. the percentage of sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the missouri river, west of the missouri river, and black hills of western south dakota. sixteen percent (n = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from east river, 69% (n = 42) from west river, and 74% (n = 23) fr ...19826808161
sylvatic trichinellosis in texas.there are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in texas. the aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern texas. in 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern texas: 154 coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus), 32 racoons (procyon lotor), 13 opossum (didelphis marsupialis), four ocelots (leopardus pardalis) and five wild boars ( ...200111484391
male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (lynx rufus).there is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in november (autumn) and april (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. testosterone (mean+/-sem: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/ml) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dl) was significantly higher in april. average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with ...200919410285
trichinella spiralis (t1) and trichinella t5: a comparison using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques.we compared trichinella t5 of bobcat (lynx rufus) origin with trichinella spiralis (t1) by using animal infectivity and molecular biology techniques. swine, sd rats, and cf1 mice were highly resistant to infection with trichinella t5 but sensitive to t. spiralis, whereas deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) had similar sensitivity to both parasites. the fecundity of trichinella t5 in deer mice was 10-35-fold higher in comparison to the fecundity in laboratory rodents (sd rats and cf1 mice). fecund ...19979057702
seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) from québec, canada.the seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated in trapped lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) from québec, canada. forty-seven of 106 (44%) lynx and 4 of 10 (40%) bobcats had positive titers for t. gondii (> or = 25) by means of the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed tachyzoites. seroprevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in adult lynx than in juvenile lynx. the presence of antibodies to t. gondii in lynx and ...200111695397
trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern united states.several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of trichinella were examined from texas, new mexico, and arizona. during 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (ursus americanus) in arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (canis latrans), and a mountain lion (felis concolor) in new mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (procyon lotor), 13 opossums (didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (sus scrofa) in southern tex ...200111695403
occurrence of dirofilaria striata in the bobcat (lynx rufus) in louisiana with observations on its larval development. 196414206489
seroprevalence of trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern united states.trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in latin america. although rare in humans and domestic animals in the united states, t. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (procyon lotor) and virginia opossums (didelphis virginiana). to increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of t. cruzi (arizo ...201020020815
fatal neonatal toxoplasmosis in a bobcat (lynx rufus).toxoplasma gondii was found in tissues of a captive 1-week-old bobcat (lynx rufus) that died of myocarditis, hepatitis and encephalitis. although infection is common in wild felidae, clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely seen. in this case, the infection was apparently congenitally acquired.19873586212
anti-trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera.constitutive anti-trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei s 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. the sera fell into 5 categories. sera from cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. their antitrypanoso ...199910207362
immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (procyon lotor), 1 bat (myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (vulpes vulpes). all cases had previously been diagnose ...201020484176
frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas.with the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. among the felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuate ...200717670835
meniscal ossicles in large non-domestic cats.radiographs of the stifles of 6 species of 34 large, non-domestic cats were reviewed foremost for the presence of meniscal ossicles and then for the presence of the other potential four sesamoids. the animals in the review included 12 lions, 7 tigers, 7 cougars, 3 leopards, 3 bobcats, and 2 jaguars. fluoroscopy, arthrography, computed tomography, necropsy, and histology were also used to evaluate the stifles of one tiger after euthanasia. ossicles were found in the region of the cranial horn of ...200212088319
cytauxzoonosis in bobcats.blood from 4 wild-trapped bobcats (lynx rufus rufus) with naturally occurring infection by an intraerythrocytic piroplasm morphologically indistinguishable from the piroplasm form of cytauxzoon felis was inoculated parenterally into domestic cats. none of the bobcats had signs of disease at the time of capture or subsequently, but all remained parasitemic. erythroparasitemia developed in all 4 of the domestic cats inoculated with parasitemic bobcat blood. one of the domestic cats later died and ...19836417088
fatal cytauxzoonosis in a free-ranging bobcat (lynx rufus).in september 2000, a free-ranging bobcat (lynx rufus) cub was presented to the kansas state university veterinary teaching hospital (manhattan, kansas, usa) in a moribund state with signs of severe anemia and respiratory difficulty. the cub was euthanized. gross necropsy findings included multifocal atelectasis, splenomegaly, and pericardial effusion. microscopic examination revealed subacute pulmonary thrombosis, mild vasculitis in the brain, and large schizont-filled macrophages within blood v ...200212238380
sarcocystosis of sarcocystis felis in cats.the features of s. felis sarcocystosis in muscles of the domestic cats (felis domesticus) were studied. a complete clinical history, post mortem, and histo-pathologic examinations were done for each cat. multiple protozoan elliptical cysts were in the skeletal muscles, heart, and diaphragm muscles of 3/17 (17.6%) adult cats. ultrastructural characteristics of the bradyzoites and cyst wall were consistent with those described for s. felis in bobcat and domestic cat. clinico-pathological study in ...200617153714
helminths of the ocelot from southern the usa, the ocelot (leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the lower rio grande valley (lrgv) of extreme southern texas. from 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. all cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. all were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- se = 32 +/- 7) toxascaris leonina. other helminths from these ocelots were alaria ...200314567231
seroprevalence of bartonella infection in american free-ranging and captive pumas (felis concolor) and bobcats (lynx rufus).bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. we conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of american wild felids as a potential reservoir of bartonella species. a total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (lynx rufus) in north america, central americ ...200415099499
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
identification and genetic characterization of cytauxzoon felis in asymptomatic domestic cats and bobcats.the objectives of the current study were to assess the prevalence of cytauxzoon felis infection among a population of domestic cats that were clinically healthy but at higher risk for parasite exposure and to determine if the strains present in these asymptomatically infected cats were genetically unique as compared to those present both in domestic cats that were fatally infected and in the natural reservoir host, the bobcat. using real-time pcr analysis targeting a portion of the parasite 18s ...201020605334
hematology and serum chemistry of bobcats in northcentral minnesota.hematology and serum chemistry values were determined for 27 (18 male, 9 female) wild-caught bobcats (felis rufus schreber) greater than or equal to 1.0 yr old from northcentral minnesota. most blood parameters were similar to normal values for both captive bobcats and domestic cats. deviations from these normals were likely the result of capture stress, nutritional status, and/or reproductive condition.19853981740
prevalence of cryptosporidium species in wildlife populations within a watershed landscape in southeastern new york state.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium in wildlife in the new york city (nyc) watershed in southeastern new york state. a total of 6227 fecal samples were collected and evaluated from 5892 mammals (38 species), 263 birds (14 species), 2 reptiles (2 species), 8 amphibians (4 species), and 62 fish (15 species). cryptosporidium was detected in 30 species. of the species found positive for cryptosporidium, 16 represented new records for this parasite-alo ...200717466459
increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western kentucky from 2001 to 2011.feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, cytauxzoon felis. the primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (lynx rufus). in this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at murray state university's breathitt veterinary center, a regional diagnostic facility located in hopkinsville, kentucky, between january 2001 and december 2011. center re ...201324035030
relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments.habitat remnants in urbanized areas typically conserve biodiversity and serve the recreation and urban open-space needs of human populations. nevertheless, these goals can be in conflict if human activity negatively affects wildlife. hence, when considering habitat remnants as conservation refuges it is crucial to understand how human activities and land uses affect wildlife use of those and adjacent areas. we used tracking data (animal tracks and den or bed sites) on 10 animal species and infor ...200818254856
temporal occurrence and environmental risk factors associated with cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats.cytauxzoon felis is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite of domestic and wild felids in the south-central and southeastern united states. infection of domestic cats (felis domesticus) with c. felis is typically acute and characterized by fever, anorexia, listlessness, anemia, icterus and usually death within 19-21 days. to determine the temporal occurrence and environmental risk factors associated with infection of c. felis in domestic cats from oklahoma, information in the electronic medical r ...200818272289
modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (lynx rufus) using verified records.helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. bobcats, lynx rufus (schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in north america. the increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their imp ...201425549497
epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (lynx rufus) in illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the american midwest.a total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in illinois. infections caused by alaria mustelae, diphyllobothrium latum, and macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. from all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: taenia rileyi, alaria marcianae, and toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, ...201424521984
aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in nova scotia, canada.aleutian mink disease virus (amdv) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging american mink in canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. this paper describes the prevalence of amdv of 12 furbearing species in nova scotia (ns), canada.201323394546
cytauxzoon felis infections are present in bobcats (lynx rufus) in a region where cytauxzoonosis is not recognized in domestic cats.this study was performed to determine the prevalence of cytauxzoon felis (c. felis) infections in bobcats (lynx rufus) from a region where c. felis is recognized in domestic cats, north carolina (nc), and a region where c. felis is not recognized in domestic cats, pennsylvania (pa). samples from nc (n=32) were obtained post-mortem via cardiac puncture from legally trapped bobcats. samples from pa (n=70) were collected post-mortem onto nobuto blood collecting strips by the pa game commission. eac ...200818295403
notes on the comparative osteology of the bobcat and the house cat. 194620996666
detection of persistent cytauxzoon felis infection by polymerase chain reaction in three asymptomatic domestic cats.repeated polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing of 3 asymptomatic domestic cats were positive for cytauxzoon felis dna, suggesting persistent infection. two cats initially presented with clinical signs consistent with acute cytauxzoonosis and, in both cases, signs of illness resolved after treatment. parasitemia was detected in peripheral blood smears from these cats upon presentation with illness and, at subsequent follow-up appointments, in the absence of clinical illness. polymerase chain re ...200818599854
molecular and biologic characteristics of toxoplasma gondii isolates from wildlife in the united states.toxoplasma gondii isolates can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages. type i isolates are considered more virulent in outbred mice and have been isolated predominantly from clinical cases of human toxoplasmosis, whereas types ii and iii isolates are considered less virulent for mice and are found in humans and food animals. little is known of genotypes of t. gondii isolates from wild animals. in the present report, genotypes of isolates of t. gondii from wildlife in the united states are described. ...200415040668
canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (lynx canadensis) and bobcats (lynx rufus) of eastern canada.between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (lynx rufus) in the eastern canadian provinces of new brunswick and nova scotia. five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. a second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. the virus was identif ...200919617471
non cat-like ovarian cycle in the eurasian and the iberian lynx - ultrasonographical and endocrinological analysis.the iberian lynx is considered the most endangered felid species. therefore, an ex situ conservation program was initiated to protect this species from extinction. additional knowledge on lynx reproduction biology and reliable methods for reproductive monitoring are important for developing a captive breeding program. the aim of this study in lynx was to implement transrectal ultrasonography to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to ...200919754543
cytauxzoon infections in wild felids from carpathian-danubian-pontic space: further evidence for a different cytauxzoon species in european felids.parasitic protists of the genus cytauxzoon are detected in a wide range of wild and domestic felids. bobcats are a confirmed reservoir of cytauxzoon felis in north america while domestic cats are susceptible hosts suffering from severe or fatal illness. cytauxzoon infections are mainly reported from american felids and, recently, several sub-clinical and clinical findings were reported from european, asian, and african felids. in 2014, the collection of organs of 4 eurasian lynx and 12 wild cats ...201626741977
restrictions to cross-species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of fiv.more than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. in nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. a notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of fiv between bobcats (lynx rufus) ...201019896218
type x toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal california: new linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters.sea otters in california are commonly infected with toxoplasma gondii. a unique type x strain is responsible for 72% of otter infections, but its prevalence in terrestrial animals and marine invertebrates inhabiting the same area was unknown. between 2000 and 2005, 45 terrestrial carnivores (lions, bobcats, domestic cats and foxes) and 1396 invertebrates (mussels, clams and worms) were screened for t. gondii using pcr and dna sequencing to determine the phylogeographic distribution of t. gondii ...200818452923
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