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dermacentor albipictus on moose (alces alces) in ontario.fifty-five moose (alces alces) collected from 1963 to 1965 in the chapleau crown game preserve of northern ontario were examined for ectoparasites. dermacentor albipictus was the only parasite recovered. d. albipictus was absent from 15 moose examined during june, july and august; first observed on 1 or 2 moose examined in september; and present on all 38 moose collected from october to may. ticks were not evenly distributed on the body. infestations varied from 32 to 13,490 ticks/moose for 14 i ...1979480519
ecological observations on dermacentor albipictus (packard) in eastern oklahoma (acarina: ixodidae). 19751181450
changes in population density and distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in wisconsin during the 1980s.changes in the density and distribution of ixodes dammini, spielman clifford, piesman & corwin were assessed in wisconsin by examining hunter-killed deer for ticks in 1981 and 1989. deer examination sites were distributed widely across the state and included 23 sites in 1981 and 15 sites in 1989; 10 sites were visited both years. between 1981 and 1989, i. dammini became more abundant throughout its range, and i. dammini range expanded into the southwestern portion of wisconsin. i. dammini was no ...19921404249
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) from ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes scapularis say and dermacentor albipictus packard that were removed as partially fed adults from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, in oklahoma. isolation in media was accomplished only after homogenates of pooled field-collected ticks were inoculated into laboratory-reared peromyscus leucopus and reisolated from the urinary bladder into bsk ii media. both isolates were confirmed by western blot analysis and reactivity with monoclo ...19921495072
borrelia sp. in ticks recovered from white-tailed deer in alabama.six hundred sixty-five hunter-killed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from 18 counties in alabama (usa) were examined for ticks. most of the collections were made at state-operated wildlife management areas. four species of ticks (n = 4,527) were recovered: the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (n = 482); the gulf coast tick a. maculatum (n = 11); the winter tick dermacentor albipictus (n = 1,242); and the black-legged tick ixodes scapularis (n = 2,792). fifty-six percent of the tick ...19921512879
ectoparasites of the blackbuck antelope (antilope cervicapra).fifty-two free-ranging blackbuck antelope (antilope cervicapra) from texas were examined for ectoparasites. two species of sucking lice (anoplura), one species of chewing louse (mallophaga), one species of louse fly (diptera), and three species of ticks (acari) were found. this is the first report of the anoplurans linognathus cervicaprae and l. pithodes from the western hemisphere. the southern deer ked (lipoptena mazamae), the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus), and the rabbit tick (haemaphy ...19921512888
distribution, density, and lyme disease spirochete infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in maryland.a statewide survey of ticks parasitizing white-tailed deer was carried out in maryland during november 1989 to assess the status of the deer tick, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the major vector of lyme disease in the northeastern united states. ticks were collected from deer carcasses brought in by hunters at 23 check stations (one per county). a total of 3,437 i. dammini were collected from 538 of 1,281 deer (42%), together with 2,013 dermacentor albipictus (packard) and ...19921552529
tick infestations of white-tailed deer in alabama.four species of ticks were collected from 537 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), examined during the hunting seasons (november to january) of 1988-89 and 1989-90 at selected locations in alabama (usa). ixodes scapularis was the most common tick recovered (2,060 specimens) and infested 54% of the deer. dermacentor albipictus was the second most frequent tick (1,253 specimens) and infested 15% of the deer. amblyomma americanum was the third most frequent tick (315 specimens) and infested ...19911758026
ectoparasites from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from wyoming.hides of nine elk, collected during the winter of 1986-1987 from the national elk refuge, wyoming (usa) were examined for ectoparasites. parasites recovered were mites, psoroptes sp. (five elk); lice, solenopotes ferrisi and bovicola (bovicola) longicornis (seven elk); and winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (nine elk). three elk with severe scabies had an estimated 0.6 x 10(6), 3.8 x 10(6) and 6.5 x 10(6) mites, respectively. densities of mites were much higher in skin regions with severe derm ...19911920665
etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, detected in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected at a focus in alabama.the study was conducted at sites of known transmission of borrelia burgdorferi in east central alabama. the objectives were to determine species of ticks present at these sites, their host associations, and species of ticks and small mammals naturally infected with b. burgdorferi. a total of 451 hosts were examined for ticks, including cotton mice, peromyscus gossypinus (le conte); cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus say & ord; southern short-tailed shrews, blarina carolinensis (bachman); house mice, ...19911941933
dermacentor albipictus (acari, ixodidae) on captive reindeer and free-ranging woodland caribou.infestations of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) on two captive reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) are reported and may be associated with increased grooming and alopecia. over 400,000 ticks were recovered from one reindeer. few ticks (less than 25 ticks/animal) were found on three free-ranging woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou).19901974936
geographic occurrence of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) infesting white-tailed deer in north carolina.a state-wide survey to determine the occurrence and comparative numbers of ticks infecting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) was conducted in north carolina (usa). one thousand six hundred twenty nine deer were examined in 60 of 100 counties; with the exception of one county in the piedmont region, all tick-infested deer occurred in the coastal plain. ixodes scapularis (46%) and amblyomma americanum (53%) were the most prevalent species encountered and accounted for more than 98% of the ...19902250335
fecundity of partially engorged female dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) removed by cattle grooming.eight hereford heifer calves were infested 28 times over a 64-d period with approximately 49,560 dermacentor albipictus (packard) larvae per calf. the fecundity of partially engorged and small, fully engorged female ticks, prematurely removed by grooming behavior of the calves, were compared. a total of 3,532 females of various engorged weights was collected from all calves, resulting in a mean female tick yield of 1.78% based on the number of larvae used for all infestations. the ratio of parti ...19902299656
seasonality of natural transmission of bovine anaplasmosis under desert mountain range conditions.splenectomized cattle and mature, spleen-intact cattle were used as sentinels in a 4-year study to assess the seasonality of naturally transmitted anaplasmosis. sentinels were exchanged and/or monitored monthly on 4 study areas of desert mountain range land in idaho, oregon, and utah. acute anaplasma infections were diagnosed in sentinels every month of the year. of 44 total infections, 29 (66%) were detected during march through august, the primary arthropod season. from december through februa ...19902329080
effects of sequential infestations of dermacentor albipictus and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on overwintering beef cows in west-central texas.infestations of winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (packard), observed on mature black angus cows, reached peak levels in january and diminished through march. infestations of adult lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), began in mid-january and increased through may. cows receiving ectrin, taktic, or deltox treatments on 13 december and 21 february experienced significantly less weight loss and entered the subsequent breeding season with higher average body weight than untreated cows. in ...19902388237
bioenergetic consequences of alopecia induced by dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) on moose.fasting metabolic rates, respiration rates, respiratory minute volumes, and fasted weights were measured on three yearling moose (alces alces (l.)) (artiodactyla: cervidae) infested with 50,000 winter ticks. dermacentor albipictus (packard) (acari: ixodidae), and on two uninfested controls. infestations produced no detectable effects on fasting metabolic rates or weight changes. the influence of tick-induced alopecia on lower critical temperatures could not be assessed because of warm temperatur ...19902388241
factors influencing the potential establishment of the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus) in alaska.the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus) is not known to occur in alaska. survival and development of free-living (i.e., non-host-associated) stages of the tick were studied at three sites in central and southern alaska. female ticks survived, oviposited, and eggs hatched at all sites. hatch success was low at one site where summer temperatures were low. results suggest that establishment of winter ticks in alaska following accidental translocation is possible, but several factors would affect s ...19902388366
instar development and disengagement rate of engorged female winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (acari:ixodidae), following single- and trickle-exposure of moose (alces alces).seven hand-reared moose (alces alces) calves and one yearling were infested with 30,000 larvae each of the winter tick. dermacentor albipictus, either by single- or trickle-exposure (1000/day). they were examined weekly for instar changes from september/october until late may. by 2 and 3 weeks post-exposure, most larvae on single- and trickle-infested moose, respectively, had fed and molted to nymphs. thereafter, tick development was similar between both infestation techniques. nymphs dominated ...19892714120
effect of dermacentor albipictus (acari:ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose, alces alces.the physiological effects of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, on moose, alces alces, were investigated. blood composition, weight gain, food intake and change in the hair coat of moose calves, four infested with d. albipictus larvae, and eight uninfested, were monitored. infested moose groomed extensively, apparently in response to feeding nymphal and adult ticks, and developed alopecia. other clinical signs included: chronic weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypophosphatemia, and tr ...19892714121
locations of moose in northwestern canada with hair loss probably caused by the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae).five hundred two trappers representing 389 registered traplines in northern alberta, northern british columbia, northwest territories and yukon territory (canada) responded to a questionnaire on the occurrence of hair loss and the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus) on moose (alces alces). results suggested that winter ticks may occur as far as 62 degrees n. several sightings of moose with presumed tick-induced hair loss near kluane lake, yukon territory, suggest the possibility of introduction ...19892761020
evaluation of random sampling for estimating density of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) on moose (alces alces) hides.densities of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) were determined on each of 20 moose (alces alces) half-hides by dissolving 100 cm2 quadrats in potassium hydroxide solution. data were then used to determine the optimum sampling fraction for estimating tick densities. random sampling was applied to 20 additional half-hides of known tick density to assess the accuracy of the estimates. we conclude that random sampling of 15% of the quadrats produces a good estimate of tick density. total numbers ...19892807724
growth and development of winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, on moose, alces alces.moose, alces alces, were infested with 21,000 or 42,000 larval dermacentor albipictus at the end of september. larvae grew rapidly and molted to the nymphal stage 10-22 days after infestation. the nymphal stage lasted approximately 3 mo until mid-january and was characterized by a diapause. the diapause is likely an adaptation to survival in cold climates. nymphs started engorging in january and adults were seen with increasing abundance from mid-january to march and april. the minimum parasitic ...19883397828
tick (dermacentor albipictus)-induced winter hair-loss in captive moose (alces alces).five captive moose calves each infested with 42,000 larval dermacentor albipictus, six calves each infested with 19,000-21,000, and five control moose were observed for changes in hair-loss, body condition and number, stages, and distribution of the tick. winter hair-loss was observed only in moose infested with ticks and was correlated positively with the total number of adult ticks. hair-loss associated with ticks was minimal from october to january, but rapidly increased from february to apri ...19863503137
spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from connecticut, new york state, and north carolina.ticks were screened for spirochetes and serum samples from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were assayed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi during 1983-1984. using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit antibodies produced to b. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, spirochetes were detected in ixodes dammini (10.5% of 1,193) and dermacentor albipictus (0.6% of 157) adults from connecticut, i. dammini nymphs (49.1% of 108) and adults (64.7% of 99) from armonk, new yo ...19863520030
expression, inheritance, and linkage relationships among eight enzyme genes in dermacentor albipictus (packard) (acarina: ixodidae).starch gel electrophoresis was used to examine the inheritance, expression, and linkage relationships among eight enzyme genes in the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus. a fructose-specific hexokinase (fhk), adenylate kinase (adk), and two forms of aconitase (acon-a, acon-c) appeared to have monomeric quaternary structures. a glycylleucine peptidase (pep), isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh), and anodally migrating malate dehydrogenase (mdh-a) were apparently dimers. the quaternary structure of gluc ...19873582975
effects of season and area on ectoparasites of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in mississippi.nine species of ectoparasites (4 acari, 2 mallophaga, 1 anoplura, 1 diptera, and 1 siphonaptera) were recovered from 126 white-tailed deer collected in northern, central, and southern mississippi. intensity and prevalence of adults of ixodes scapularis and larvae, nymphs, and adults of amblyomma americanum varied significantly over collection periods, but not between host sexes. lipoptena mazamae occurred on deer from only one study area. although individual deer were heavily parasitized by tric ...19873586204
factors affecting transmission of larval winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (packard), to moose, alces alces l., in alberta, canada.the larval stage of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, was studied under field conditions in central alberta, canada. larvae ascended vegetation in autumn, possibly in response to photoperiod. numbers found by flagging increased from early september to early october and decreased gradually to zero by december. larvae clumped on the tips of vegetation approximately 1-1.5 m off the ground, and did not exhibit a diurnal, vertical migration. activity was temperature dependent and no obvious pr ...19854032625
an evaluation of burning for control of winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus, in central alberta. 19854032634
cytogenetics of ticks (acari: ixodoidea). 10. chromosomes of the winter tick. dermacentor albipictus (ixodidae). 19724641889
attempted hereditary transmission of anaplasma marginale theiler with dermacentor albipictus (packard). 19705421097
hormonal termination of larval diapause in dermacentor albipictus.the molting hormone, alpha-ecdysone, and an analog triangle up(7)-5beta-cholestene-2beta,3beta, 14alpha-triol-6-one when applied externally, terminates diapause in larvae of the winter tick, dermacentor albpictus. this is the first reported hormonal termination of diapause in an arthropod other than an insect.19695762774
photoperiodic induction of diapause in larvae of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus. 19695775900
reaction of the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus (packard), to co2. 19695820847
lyme disease in wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic findings.in 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 wisconsin residents) had confirmed lyme disease (ld-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible ld. all cases of ld-c occurred during may-november; 73 percent occurred during june-july; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. the mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). among ld-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector ixodes dammini (id) occurred in 22 different wisconsin counties. antibodies to the id spirochete that causes ld occurred i ...19846334942
immune responses of calves antigenically stimulated and challenge exposed with anaplasma marginale during tick infestation or treatment with dexamethasone.similar anamnestic antibody responses to a 2nd injection of a anaplasma marginale vaccinal antigen were observed in calves infested with the tick dermacentor albipictus and in tick-free calves. when challenge exposure of these calves to virulent a marginale was done, infestation with the tick boophilus microplus increased anemia (p less than 0.01), but did not suppress antibody production to a marginale or increase parasitemia. none of the vaccinated calves, regardless of infestation, experience ...19846711969
occurrence of 2,6-dichlorophenol in dermacentor albipictus and haemaphysalis leporispalustris (acari: ixodidae). 19836827568
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, serotype 17, septicemia in moose (alces alces) from algonquin park, ontario.erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae septicemia was diagnosed in three of four moose found dead in algonquin provincial park, ontario, canada, in the spring of 1989. type 17 e. rhusiopathiae was isolated from liver, lung, kidney, and lymph nodes of affected animals, which were in poor body condition, and suffering hair loss associated with tick (dermacentor albipictus) infestations. microscopic lesions consisted of mild, multifocal, necrotizing myocarditis, sarcocystosis, and lymph node atrophy. the bac ...19947933291
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in deer ticks (ixodes dammini) collected from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in saint croix state park, minnesota.during a special two-day hunt (11, 12 november 1989) in saint croix state park, minnesota (usa), one side of the neck for each of 146 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) was examined for ticks. of the 5,442 ticks collected, 90% (4,893) were the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus, and 10% (549) were the deer tick, ixodes dammini, the primary vector of the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi. adult males had the greatest frequency of infestation of either d. albipictus (1 ...19938445791
some factors affecting infestation of white-tailed deer by blacklegged ticks and winter ticks (acari:ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.a total of 5,669 ticks of 4 species was collected from 515 hunter killed, white-tailed deer. odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman), in southeastern missouri from 1993 through 1995. the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say) (4 adults), the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.) (57 adults, 2 nymphs), the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis (say) (3,120 adults), and the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus (packard) (2.059 adults, 436 nymphs, 1 larva) were collected. patterns of adult d. ...19979151505
a winter outbreak of anaplasmosis in a nonendemic area of oklahoma: a possible role for dermacentor albipictus. 19979211245
phylogenetic placement of rickettsiae from the ticks amblyomma americanum and ixodes scapularis.a rickettsial isolate (isolate moaa) belonging to the spotted fever group (sfg) was obtained from the lone star tick amblyomma americanum. we used pcr to characterize the genes for the rickettsial outer membrane proteins rompa and rompb. we sequenced the pcr products (domains i of both the rompa gene and the rompb gene) of moaa and wb-8-2, another rickettsial isolate from a. americanum. to place moaa and wb-8-2 and two other nonpathogenic isolates (rickettsia rickettsii hip2 and rickettsia monta ...19989574696
distribution, abundance, and seasonal activities of ticks collected from rodents and vegetation in south carolina.ixodid ticks were collected from live-trapped rodents and by flagging vegetation at sites in the piedmont, sandhills, coastal plain, and coastal zone of south carolina from may 1994 through december 1995. a total of 1,514 ticks was recovered from 237 live-trapped rodents. host-attached species included ixodes minor neumann (n = 818), dermacentor variabilis (say) (n = 346), amblyomma maculatum koch (n = 209), ixodes affinis neumann (n = 89), and ixodes scapularis say (n = 52). species of questing ...19989673934
the biological basis of grooming in moose: programmed versus stimulus-driven grooming.in domestic and wild mammals, tick infestation can be a significant fitness cost. grooming behaviour has been shown to be effective in removing ticks. we studied grooming by moose, alces alces, infested with winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus, to determine which of two nonexclusive models for the regulation of tick-removal grooming, programmed or stimulus driven, best fit this host-parasite relationship. the programmed grooming model states that most grooming is driven by an internal timing me ...19989933554
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
importation of dermacentor albipictus into europe. 200212164229
a ten-year study of tick biting in mississippi: implications for human disease transmission.to determine exactly which tick species bit people in mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, january 1, 1990-december 31, 1999. specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the institute of arthropodology and parasitology, georgia southern university. a total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone ...200212853269
climbing simulated vegetation to heights of ungulate hosts by larvae of dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae).larvae of winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (packard), ascend vegetation in autumn and form clumps that attach to passing ungulate hosts. we tested the hypothesis that vegetation height determines the height of clumps. during the vegetation-to-ungulate transmission period (early september to mid-november), larvae were released at the base of simulated vegetation (nylon rods 245 cm tall) in outdoor and laboratory trials and in the absence of host cues. rod height exceeded the height of the tal ...200015218914
failure of famphur treatment of wapiti (cervus canadiensis) to affect egg laying and embryogenesis in the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus. 198616031227
comparative study of anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.a comparative study on the prevalence of anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during february, march and april. thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively ...200516252338
factors influencing in vitro infectivity and growth of rickettsia peacockii (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae), an endosymbiont of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni (acari, ixodidae).rickettsia peacockii, a spotted fever group rickettsia, is a transovarially transmitted endosymbiont of rocky mountain wood ticks, dermacentor andersoni. this rickettsia, formerly known as the east side agent and restricted to female ticks, was detected in a chronically infected embryonic cell line, dae100, from d. andersoni. we examined infectivity, ability to induce cytopathic effect (cpe) and host cell specificity of r. peacockii using cultured arthropod and mammalian cells. aposymbiotic dae1 ...200516288906
a retrospective study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed elk (cervus elaphus).a survey of north american farmed elk (cervus elaphus) producers was performed to determine the causes of sickness and mortality in farmed elk and to estimate mortality rates. records over a 10-year period from 8 north american veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories were also examined and summarized. the primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. nonspecific trauma was the most frequently rep ...200516422063
county-level surveillance of white-tailed deer infestation by ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) along the illinois river.from 1998 to 2003, 4,935 hunter-killed deer in northern and central illinois were examined for ticks; 4,066 blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, and 6,530 winter ticks, dermacentor albipictus (packard) (acari: ixodidae), were collected. i. scapularis was the predominant tick species in the northern portion of the study area, with a decreasing north-to-south prevalence gradient. in contrast, d. albipictus was more common in the south with a decreasing south-to-north prevalence gradient. comp ...200617017213
fecal nirs: detection of tick infestations in cattle and horses.anti-tick treatments are often applied concurrent to routine livestock management practices with little regard to actual infestation levels. prescription treatments against ticks on grazing cattle would be facilitated by non-invasive detection methods. one such method is fecal near infrared spectroscopy (nirs). four studies utilizing cattle (bos spp.) and one with horses (equus caballus) fed varying diets and infested with either amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, a. cajennense or dermacentor a ...200717097809
the low seroprevalence of tick-transmitted agents of disease in dogs from southern ontario and quebec.infectious diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks and other insect vectors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both dogs and humans throughout north america. the purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of selected vector-transmitted pathogens in southern ontario and quebec. samples submitted to the vector borne disease diagnostic laboratory (vbddl) at the north carolina state university college of veterinary medicine were evaluated for antibodies to ...200617217089
a brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western canada and the northwestern united states.in this paper i review diseases reported in both captive and free-ranging wapiti in western north america, with some reference to diseases in captive red deer in great britain, europe, new zealand, and eastern north america.with the exception of coronavirus in neonates, few viral agents are reported to cause serious disease losses in wapiti in north america at this time. bacterial diseases of current significance include brucellosis (focus in wyoming), clostridial diseases, coliform enteritis of ...199117423839
differentiation of three species of ixodid tick, dermacentor andersoni, d. variabilis and d. albipictus, by pcr-based approaches using markers in ribosomal dna.three species of dermacentor, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor andersoni and dermacentor variabilis, commonly occur in canada. d. andersoni and d. variabilis are morphologically similar and are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. a practical polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, based on the amplification of part of the second internal transcribed spacer ribosomal dna (pits-2 rdna), was developed to distinguish d. andersoni from d. variabilis. in addition, single-strand conforma ...200717544620
experimental transmission of bovine anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma marginale) by means of dermacentor variabilis and d. andersoni (ixodidae) collected in western canada.canadian cattle are free of bovine anaplasmosis, with the exception of 4 isolated incursions since 1968, which were eradicated. it is not known why the disease has not become established in regions of canada adjacent to the united states where it is endemic. to assess the vector competence of wild-caught ticks in cattle-rearing regions, dermacentor variabilis and d. andersoni were collected in western canada and fed on calves experimentally infected with anaplasma marginale (st. maries strain). ...200717955901
serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of two ixodid tick species.immunocytochemistry was used to describe the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive (5ht-ir) neurons and neuronal processes in the central nervous system (cns), the synganglion, of two ixodid tick species; the winter tick, dermacentor albipictus and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. 5ht-ir neurons were identified in the synganglion of both tick species. d. albipictus had a significantly higher number of 5ht-ir neurons than a. americanum. the labeling pattern and number of 5ht-ir n ...200718040871
host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, ehrlichia canis.the ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. historically, advances in tick-borne dise ...200818963493
exploring the mialome of ticks: an annotated catalogue of midgut transcripts from the hard tick, dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae).ticks are obligate blood feeders. the midgut is the first major region of the body where blood and microbes ingested with the blood meal come in contact with the tick's internal tissues. little is known about protein expression in the digestive tract of ticks. in this study, for analysis of global gene expression during tick attachment and feeding, we generated and sequenced 1,679 random transcripts (ests) from cdna libraries from the midguts of female ticks at varying stages of feeding.200819021911
allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the morphological and genetic differences among r. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from america/africa and those from australia being different species. to test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we perfo ...200919243585
the relationship between spotted fever group rickettsiae and ixodid ticks.spotted fever group rickettsiae are predominantly transmitted by ticks. rickettsiae have developed many strategies to adapt to different environmental conditions, including those within their arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. the tick-rickettsiae relationship has been a point of interest for many researchers, with most studies concentrating on the role of ticks as vectors. unfortunately, less attention has been directed towards the relationship of rickettsiae with tick cells, tissues, and ...200919358804
transovarial transmission of francisella-like endosymbionts and anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae).dermacentor albipictus (packard) is a north american tick that feeds on cervids and livestock. it is a suspected vector of anaplasmosis in cattle, but its microbial flora and vector potential remain underevaluated. we screened d. albipictus ticks collected from minnesota white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, francisella, and rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) gene amplification and sequence analyses. we detected anaplasma phagoc ...200919496436
borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia spp. in ticks removed from persons, texas, usa.data regarding the type, frequency, and distribution of tick-borne pathogens and bacterial agents are not widely available for many tick species that parasitize persons in the southern united states. we therefore analyzed the frequency and identity of pathogens and bacterial agents in ticks removed from humans and subsequently submitted to the texas department of state health services, zoonosis control program, from october 1, 2004, through september 30, 2008. the data showed associations of bac ...201020202419
deep mitochondrial dna lineage divergences within alberta populations of dermacentor albipictus (acari: ixodidae) do not indicate distinct species.the winter tick dermacentor albipictus (packard) has a single-host life cycle that allows it to reach severe infestation levels on ungulates, particularly moose. genotypic variation within these and related ticks has been a source of taxonomic confusion, although the continuity in their morphology and life history has generally been interpreted as indicating the existence of a single species. to further investigate this variation, we sequenced regions of two mitochondrial dna (mtdna) genes (coi ...201020695271
mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with anaplasma phagocytophilum.anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. human infection by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. a. phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that replicates inside mammalian granulocytes and the salivary gland and midgut cells of ticks. a. phagocytophilum evolved the remarkable ability to hijack the regulatory system of host cells. a. phagocytophilum alters vesi ...201121734244
association of different genetic types of francisella-like organisms with the rocky mountain wood tick (dermacentor andersoni) and the american dog tick (dermacentor variabilis) from localities near their northern distributional limits.dermacentor andersoni and dermacentor variabilis from allopatric and sympatric populations near their northern distributional limits were examined for the presence of francisella species using molecular techniques that targeted 373 bp of the 16s ribosomal rna gene. although there was no evidence for the presence of francisella tularensis in any tick, francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) were common in d. andersoni and d. variabilis adults and immatures. a significantly greater proportion of fem ...201122179251
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
meeting the challenges of on-host and off-host water balance in blood-feeding arthropods.in this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. a well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase t ...201020206630
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. the question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptation ...201324109592
comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the ehrlichia muris-like (eml) agent, of ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern united states over a 15 year period (1997-2012).since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the department of defense human tick test kit program (httkp) of the us army public health command have been tested for pathogens by pcr. we noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. the aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of i. scapularis submitted from ...201425465046
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
emergence of ixodes scapularis and borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease vector and agent, in ohio.lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the united states, is caused by a tick-borne infection with borrelia burgdorferi. currently, ohio is considered by the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) to be non-endemic for lyme disease. the low incidence of lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. however, a tick surveillance program established by ohio department o ...201424926441
climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution.lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in canada, and climate change is likely a key driver of the northern spread of the disease in north america. we used field and modeling approaches to predict the risk of occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria causing lyme disease in north america. we combined climatic and landscape variables to model the current and future (2050) potential distribution of the black-legged tick and the white-footed mouse at the northeastern range limit of lyme diseas ...201425469157
passive surveillance for ticks on horses in saskatchewan.passive surveillance of ticks on horses in saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, dermacentor albipictus, d. andersoni, and d. variabilis. the nymphs and adults of d. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species.201525969582
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment.many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). the interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). the annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal tr ...201121392401
serological investigation of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in missouri 2012-2013.heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) has recently emerged as a causative agent of human disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in the united states. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) has been implicated as a vector. to identify candidate vertebrate amplification hosts associated with enzootic maintenance of the virus, sera and ticks were sampled from 160 mammals (8 species) and 139 birds (26 species) captured near 2 human case residences in andrew and no ...201525870419
detection of rickettsia amblyommii in ticks collected from missouri, usa. 201426038740
detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.as well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. dna and rna extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the roslin w ...201222743047
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
anaplasma phagocytophilum--a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies.the bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (tbf) in domestic ruminants in ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern europe. in recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. a. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. however, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal ...201323885337
growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
propagation of the israeli vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. while a. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for a. centrale. in the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the israeli vaccine strain of a. centrale and mon ...201526210950
an insight into the microbiome of the amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with rickettsia parkeri. pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16s rrna was used to determine the total bacterial population in a. maculatum. pyrosequencing analysis identified rickettsia in a. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. the identity of rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the ric ...024605461
prevalence and diversity among anaplasma phagocytophilum strains originating from ixodes ricinus ticks from northwest norway.the tick-borne pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum causes great concern for livestock farmers. tick-borne fever is a widespread disease in norway, and antibodies have been produced amongst sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose. the main vector ixodes ricinus is found along the norwegian coastline as far north as the arctic circle. a total number of 1804 i. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qpcr. the overall infection rate varied from ...201425215241
opening the black box of anaplasma phagocytophilum diversity: current situation and future perspectives.anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic obligate intracellular bacterium known to be transmitted by ticks belonging to the ixodes persulcatus complex. this bacterium can infect several mammalian species, and is known to cause diseases with variable symptoms in many domestic animals. specifically, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (tbf), a disease of important economic impact in european domestic ruminants, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), an emerging zoonotic disease in asi ...201526322277
reinstatement of dermacentor kamshadalus neumann (acari: ixodidae) as a valid species parasitizing mountain goats and sheep in the united states, canada, and russia.reexamination of dermacentor albipictus (packard, 1869) holdings stored in the united states national tick collection revealed several collections of a morphologically distinct dermacentor species. comparison of these specimens with other dermacentor taxa showed that they are identical to an old taxon originally described as dermacentor variegatus kamshadalus neumann, 1908. for more than a century, this taxon was known only from the male holotype specimen collected in russia, and the name was co ...023926766
tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae.rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as rocky mountain spotted fever, mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic, and murine typhus, etc. although the vector ranges of each rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group (sfg) and typhus group (tg) rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mec ...201222737150
molecular detection and characterization of anaplasma spp. in sheep and cattle from xinjiang, northwest china.anaplasmosis is caused by obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus anaplasma. these bacterial pathogens are transmitted by ticks and impact both human and animal health. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of anaplasma spp. in ruminants sampled in xinjiang, northwest china.201525889906
genetic interrelationships of north american populations of giant liver fluke fascioloides magna.population structure and genetic interrelationships of giant liver fluke fascioloides magna from all enzootic north american regions were revealed in close relation with geographical distribution of its obligate definitive cervid hosts for the first time.201526017023
a walk on the tundra: host-parasite interactions in an extreme environment.climate change is occurring very rapidly in the arctic, and the processes that have taken millions of years to evolve in this very extreme environment are now changing on timescales as short as decades. these changes are dramatic, subtle and non-linear. in this article, we discuss the evolving insights into host-parasite interactions for wild ungulate species, specifically, muskoxen and caribou, in the north american arctic. these interactions occur in an environment that is characterized by ext ...201425180164
factors affecting deer ked (lipoptena cervi) prevalence and infestation intensity in moose (alces alces) in norway.the deer ked (lipoptena cervi), a hematophagous ectoparasite of cervids, is currently spreading in scandinavia. in norway, keds are now invading the south-eastern part of the country and the abundant and widely distributed moose (alces alces) is the definitive host. however, key factors for ked abundance are poorly elucidated. the objectives of our study were to (i) determine deer ked infestation prevalence and intensity on moose and (ii) evaluate if habitat characteristics and moose population ...201223146387
integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in usa is required to mitigate the impact of global change.the ticks rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. (b.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. they affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. the monumental scientific discovery of certain arth ...201222712018
genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. we used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across lake superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in isle royale national park ...201121450731
seroprevalence of anaplasma marginale in texas cattle.to our knowledge the seroprevalence of anaplasma marginale in texas has not been reported. the objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of texas cattle persistently infected with a. marginale. this was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected texas auction markets during the second week of july 2011. a random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for ...201424931130
prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central oklahoma.ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. to determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during may, june, and july of 2010. adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., and ...201324843940
necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (alces alces) from minnesota, usa (2003-13).the minnesota, us moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. all 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or department of natural resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the minnesota veterinary diagnostic laboratory and included in our study. the majority of the animals were underweight ...201525390764
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