the mycobiota of speck, a traditional tyrolean smoked and cured ham.speck is a ham specialty product traditionally produced in south tyrol (italy) and north tyrol (austria) by farmers, butcheries, and meat industries. to date, nothing has been learned about fungi associated with this smoked and cured meat. therefore, it was the main objective of this study to assess the typical mycobiota of speck in relation to the different production types and the geographic provenance. a total of 121 speck samples from north tyrol and south tyrol was analyzed. from 63 isolate ...200011041140
shelf life extension of pre-baked buns by an active packaging ethanol emitter.the paper reports the influence of an ethanol emitter (ethicap) on the microbiological condition and the shelf life extension of a bakery product. pre-baked buns, with a water activity of 0.95, were packaged with different amounts of ethicap and stored at room temperature. yeasts and moulds remained largely absent from the core of the pre-baked bun (< 10(2) cfu g(-1)) during storage, independent of the presence of ethanol. the total mesophilic count was low at the beginning of the storage experi ...200211834079
ct2108a and b: new fatty acid synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.a systematic screen for new natural products that displayed antifungal activity by inhibition of fungal fatty acid synthase (fas) led to the discovery of two new fungal metabolites, designated ct2108a (1) and ct2108b (2). the metabolites were produced by penicillium solitum (westling) strain ct2108 and were classified as azaphilones. the structures of these new metabolites were determined using a variety of 1d and 2d nmr experiments, including cosy, hmqc, and hmbc. the chemical conversion of ct2 ...200312932120
the presence of penicillium and penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes.a total of 97 samples (48 summer and 49 winter) of food waste from private households were investigated for penicillium and for mycotoxins. twenty-five penicillium species were isolated and penicillium crustosum, penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, penicillium roqueforti, penicillium spinulosum, penicillium viridicatum, penicillium commune, penicillium citrinum and penicillium solitum were, in decreasing order, the most frequently identified species. mycoto ...200414698099
biological control of apple blue mold with pseudomonas fluorescens.pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 1100-6 was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for apple blue mold caused by penicillium expansum or penicillium solitum. both the wild-type isolate 1100-6 and a genetically modified derivative labeled with the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (gfp) were compared. the p. fluorescens isolates with or without gfp equally reduced the growth of penicillium spp. and produced large zones of inhibition in dual culture plate assays. cell-free meta ...200516175208
production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates.most terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured meat products are toxigenic, but their ability to produce hazardous metabolites on meat-based substrates is not well known. the production of extrolites by selected terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured ham has been studied on carbohydrate-rich media (malt extract agar, czapek yeast autolysate agar, rice extract agar, and rice), meat extract triolein salt agar, and ham slices. chloroform extracts from the selected strains grown ...200718095438
in vivo esr spin trapping detection of carbon-centered alpha-farnesene radicals.lyophilisates of the ascomycetes penicillium solitum and aspergillus niger converted alpha-farnesene to 7-hydroxyfarnesene as the major product. the radical mechanism of this bioconversion was proven by electron spin resonance (esr) and gc-ms using the spin trapping technique. intermediate carbon-centered radicals of alpha-farnesene were captured using two spin traps, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane and alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)- n- tert-butylnitrone, respectively. the evaluation of the coupling const ...200818500815
complete mitochondrial genome of compactin-producing fungus penicillium solitum and comparative analysis of trichocomaceae mitochondrial genomes.we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the compactin-producing fungus penicillium solitum strain 20-01. the 28601-base pair circular-mapping dna molecule encodes a characteristic set of mitochondrial proteins and rna genes and is intron-free. all 46 protein- and rna-encoding genes are located on one strand and apparently transcribed in one direction. comparative analysis of this mtdna and previously sequenced but unannotated mitochondrial genomes of several medically and ind ...201222239643
monitoring the mycobiota of three plants manufacturing culatello (a typical italian meat product).this study reports the composition of the mycobiota growing on the surface of culatello (a typical italian meat product) and occurring in the environments of three processing plants. samples were collected in both winter and summer. a total of 84 culatelli and 14 samples from the plant environment were examined. a total of 331 (from food samples) and 2030 (from air samples) fungal isolates belonging to six genera and 29 species were identified. the substantial correspondence between air- and pro ...201525791253
survival of penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.this study aimed at determining whether penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. firstly, it was found that the conidia of penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at ph 7.2 in thermal death tubes (tdt) at 80 °c/30 min. subsequently, each penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 19 ...201626742610
an evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of penicillium spp. isolated from traditional greek sausages in submerged fermentation.a number of novel penicillium strains belonging to penicillium nalgiovense, penicillium solitum, penicillium commune, penicillium olsonii, and penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline ph, while the lipolytic activity was assessed ...201424122629
improved monoterpene biotransformation with penicillium sp. by use of a closed gas loop bioreactor.a closed gas loop bioprocess was developed to improve fungal biotransformation of monoterpenes. by circulating monoterpene-saturated process gas, the evaporative loss of the volatile precursor from the medium during the biotransformation was avoided. penicillium solitum, isolated from kiwi, turned out to be highly tolerant towards monoterpenes and to convert alpha-pinene to a range of products including verbenone, a valuable aroma compound. the gas loop was mandatory to reproduce the production ...200919322596
[dna concentration in the conidia of penicillium solitum during their initiation]. 20067392995
antigenic characterization of penicillium camemberti and related common cheese contaminants.twenty-four isolates of penicillium (including a green-spored mutant from a french brie cheese, penicillium camemberti) with a proposed relationship to the white cheese mold p. camemberti were investigated by immunological procedures. these penicillia, which are representative of species that have caused considerable taxonomic confusion, had common micromorphology (terverticillate penicilli with rough and smooth stipes and smooth ellipsoidal to subglobose [(3 to 5) x 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 microns] coni ...19873579286
[localization and dynamics of lipase accumulation in penicillium solitum hyphae].lipase localization in the mycelium of penicillium solitum was studied with cytochemical and immunofluorescent methods. the use of these methods provided detection of the enzyme on the cell walls of the fungus at all periods of its cultivation. the enzyme was not detected in the cell cytoplasm. measuring of lipase concentrations on the cell walls in relation to the cultivation period suggested that excretion of the exoenzyme into the medium followed its accumulation on the cell walls of the hyph ...19883142376
mould growth on traditional greek sausages and penicillin production by penicillium isolates.visible moulds were isolated and identified from traditional greek sausages from northern greece. penicillium species were isolated from 90.8% of visibly mouldy sausages. penicillium solitum, p. nalgiovense and p. commune species made up 60.6% of the total number of isolates. the most frequently occurring species was p. solitum (26.1%). p. nalgiovense and p. olsonii were found to be positive to penicillin production in an agar assay and further examination for antibiotic production in liquid cul ...200722061241
moulds contaminants on norwegian dry-cured meat products.dry-cured meat production has a long tradition in norway. however, uncontrolled mould growth on the surface of the dry-cured meat products is causing significant quality problems. as some moulds are mycotoxigenic, their growth on the dry-cured meat products could also pose a serious health risk. such quality problems and potential health risks can be better handled if the types of moulds growing on the products are known. in total, 161 samples were collected from the ripening and packaging stage ...200919000642
isolation, purification, and characterization of a polygalacturonase produced in penicillium solitum-decayed 'golden delicious' apple fruit.polygalacturonase (pg) was extracted and purified from decayed 'golden delicious' apple fruit inoculated with penicillium solitum. ammonium sulfate, gel filtration, and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. both chromatographic methods revealed a single peak corresponding to pg activity. the purified pg most likely originates from the fungus because pg activity from healthy and wounded apple tissue was undetectable. analysis of cation exchange-purified material using sod ...200919453221
penicillium solitum produces a polygalacturonase isozyme in decayed anjou pear fruit capable of macerating host tissue in vitro.a polygalacturonase (pg) isozyme was isolated from penicillium solitum-decayed anjou pear fruit and purified to homogeneity with a multistep process. both gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography revealed a single pg activity peak, and analysis of the purified protein showed a single band with a molecular mass of 43 kda, which is of fungal origin. the purified enzyme was active from ph 3.5-6, with an optimum at ph 4.5. pg activity was detectable 0-70 c with 50 c maximum. the purified is ...201222241612
caspase-1 and -3 inhibiting drimane sesquiterpenoids from the extremophilic fungus penicillium solitum.two new drimane sesquiterpene lactones and one new tricarboxylic acid derivative were isolated from the berkeley pit extremophilic fungus penicillium solitum. the structures of these compounds were deduced by spectroscopic analysis. berkedrimanes a and b inhibited the signal transduction enzymes caspase-1 and caspase-3 and mitigated the production of interleukin 1-β in the induced thp-1 (pro-monocytic leukemia cell line) assay.201222276851
structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide produced by the mangrove fungus penicillium solitum.a water soluble extracellular polysaccharide, designated gw-12, was obtained from the liquid culture broth of the mangrove fungus penicillium solitum by ethanol precipitation, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that gw-12 mainly consisted of d-mannose, and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 11.3 kda determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography. on the basis of chemical and spectroscop ...201425037379
penipyrols a-b and peniamidones a-d from the mangrove derived penicillium solitum gwq-143.chemical investigation the extract of penicillium solitum gwq-143 led to yield four new compounds penipyrols a-b (1-2) and peniamidones a-b (3-4), together with peniamidones c-d (5-6), which had been previously described as synthetic intermediates, not obtained from natural resource. the structures of those new compounds were established through extensive spectroscopic analysis. compounds 1-6 exhibited great radical scavenging activities against dpph with ic50 values ranged from 4.7 to 15.0 μm.201525370608
genome sequence of penicillium solitum rs1, which causes postharvest apple decay.penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits, such as apples and pears. to devise novel strategies to prevent and reduce economic losses during storage, the genome sequence of penicillium solitum rs1 is reported here for the first time.201627174276
biochemistry of lipolytic enzymes secreted by penicillium solitum and cladosporium cladosporioides.two distinct extracellular lipases were obtained from penicillium solitum 194a, isolated from domestic compost, and cladosporium cladosporioides 194b, isolated from dairy wastewater. these alkaline enzymes had molecular masses of 42 and 30 kda, respectively. the p. solitum 194a lipase differed in mass from previously reported enzyme, indicating that it is a novel lipase, and indicating that penicillia can secrete lipase isoenzymes. the c. cladosporioides lipase was more active on esters of mediu ...201425036677
gut microeukaryotes during anorexia nervosa: a case report.few studies have focused on eukaryote community in the human gut. here, the diversity of microeukaryotes in the gut microbiota of an anorexic patient was investigated using molecular and culture approaches.201424418238
[cytophysiology of penicillium solitum: a producer of lipase].the cell population of penicillin solitum was studied during maximum accumulation of lipase in the medium with electron microscopic and immunofluorescence methods. the data provided a conclusion that 2 types of lypolytic enzymes with various substrate and antigenic characteristics formed in the cells of p. solitum. it is likely that there is a specific inductor for exolipase synthesis as well as relationship endoenzymatic systems.20113064721
draft genome sequence of the fungus penicillium solitum nj1.penicillium solitum is one of the most prevalent species causing postharvest decay of pomaceous fruits during storage. here, we report the draft genome of p. solitum strain nj1, received as a transfer of a strain originally identified as p. griseofulvum by classical means.027881535
biocontrol of ochratoxigenic moulds (aspergillus ochraceus and penicillium nordicum) by debaryomyces hansenii and saccharomycopsis fibuligera during speck production.speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. during speck seasoning, eurotium rubrum and penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. however, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as aspergillus ochraceus and penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin a (ota ...201727889147
comments on "mycobiota and mycotoxins in traditional medicinal seeds from china. toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875"- in attributing ochratoxin a biosynthesis within the genus penicillium occurring on natural agricultural produce.the unusual attribution of trace amounts of ochratoxin a in some chinese food commodities to penicillium polonicum is questioned by european experience in searches for ochratoxinogenic food-spoilage penicillia, where mistaken attribution is now known to have been due to cryptic penicillium verrucosum contamination. consequently, selection of single-spore isolates is recommended as pre-requisite for attributing mycotoxin biosynthetic potential to fungi.201627258309
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