molecular cloning of verrucosidin-producing penicillium polonicum genes by differential screening to obtain a dna probe.a differential molecular screening procedure was developed to obtain dna clones enriched for verrucosidin-related genes that could be used as dna probes to detect verrucosidin-producing penicillium polonicum. permissive and nonpermissive conditions for verrucosidin production were selected to obtain differentiated poly (a)+ rna for the cloning strategy. p. polonicum yielded the highest amount of verrucosidin when cultured in malt extract broth at 25 degrees c without shaking. these conditions we ...200212038578
the mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from slovenia.the surface mycobiota of three types of slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. the predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was penicillium. eurotium spp., aspergillus versicolor and cladosporium spp. were isolated from only two of the products. eight penicillium species were identified. penicillium nordicum was recovered frequently. penicillium nalgiovense was recover ...201021356440
molecular and morphological identification of fungal species isolated from bealmijang meju.bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. however, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. we identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (bsm) and buckwheat meju (bwm), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and beta-tubulin g ...201122210613
duplex real-time pcr method with internal amplification control for quantification of verrucosidin producing molds in dry-ripened foods.verrucosidin, which is a tremorgenic mycotoxin responsible for neurological diseases, has been detected in different dry-ripened foods as consequence of the growth of toxigenic molds. to improve food safety, the presence of verrucosidin producing molds in these kind foods should be quantified. the aim of this study was to design a duplex real-time pcr (qpcr) protocol based on taqman methodology with an internal amplification control (iac). eleven verrucosidin producing and 11 non producing strai ...201122119450
fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) in northern spain.most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. this study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of pinus sylvestris l. twigs in northern spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. in all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 scots pines in fifteen stands. isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified b ...201526399183
bioactive constituents from an endophytic fungus, penicillium polonicum nfw9, associated with taxus fauna.endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus penicillium polonicum (nfw9) associated with taxus fuana.201728215169
hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (wse) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards penicillium roqueforti dppmaf1. agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. as shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, incl ...201728213038
a new quinolinone and its natural/artificial derivatives from a shark gill-derived fungus penicillium polonicum ap2t1.four quinolinones (1-4; 1 is a new compound) were isolated from the static fermentation culture of a shark gill-derived fungus penicillium crustosum ap2t1. in addition, five new quinolinone derivatives (5-9) and also 1 were obtained in a trimethylsilyldiazomethane-induced methylation reaction of 4. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. in bioassays, compounds 7 and 5 with lactim structures moderately inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cell line hct116 (wild-type) w ...201726186097
[study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi penicillium polonicum].the pdb culture medium was selected to ferment the endophyte strain, and the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi penicillium polonicum were studied. combined application of sephadex lh-20, ods and hplc chromatographies over the ethyl acetate extract of the fermented culture led to the isolation of 6 compounds. by spectral methods, the structures were elucidated as [3, 5-dihydroxy-2-(7-hydroxy-octanoyl)]-ethylphenylacetate (1), (3, 5-dihydroxy-2- octanoyl)-ethyl phenylacetate (2), (5, 7-di- ...201425751949
influence of storage temperature on growth of penicillium polonicum and penicillium glabrum and potential for deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets.the practice of freezing food is one of the main processes used by the industry to prolong the shelf life of foods. its use has expanded in recent years due to the increased consumption of convenience products, many of which are sold in frozen form. the temperature at which these foods are maintained during marketing in supermarkets or stored in the consumer's home is critical to ensure microbiological stability of products. temperature abuse can allow microbial growth, especially growth of fila ...201525647332
fungal and bacterial diversity isolated from aquilaria malaccensis tree and soil, induces agarospirol formation within 3 months after artificial infection.aquilaria malaccensis lam, commonly known as agarwood, is a highly valuable species used in production of agar oil from its infected wood, which is utilized in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. agar oil formation in agarwood takes years through the natural process which is induced by natural or artificial injury or microbial infection. the role of soil fungi and bacteria in artificial induction is still an unexplored area. in the present study, we isolated the fungal and bacterial community ...201728747900
comments on "mycobiota and mycotoxins in traditional medicinal seeds from china. toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875"- in attributing ochratoxin a biosynthesis within the genus penicillium occurring on natural agricultural produce.the unusual attribution of trace amounts of ochratoxin a in some chinese food commodities to penicillium polonicum is questioned by european experience in searches for ochratoxinogenic food-spoilage penicillia, where mistaken attribution is now known to have been due to cryptic penicillium verrucosum contamination. consequently, selection of single-spore isolates is recommended as pre-requisite for attributing mycotoxin biosynthetic potential to fungi.201627258309
comparison of methods for assessing temporal variation of growth of fungi on building materials.fungal growth on indoor surfaces can decay building materials and release hazardous substances that affect indoor air quality. despite the numerous methods available for growth determination, there is no commonly accepted standard. the goal of this study was to compare five different assay methods for the measurement of fungal growth: cultivation, ms-based determination of ergosterol, beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase activity, quantitative pcr and microscopic spore counting. three fungal species (asp ...201627655355
complete mitochondrial genome of the endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis fici: features and evolution.endophytic fungi (ef) live within plants and have profound impacts on plant communities. they are astonishingly diverse but poorly studied at the genome level. herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the ef pestalotiopsis fici, annotated and compared it with those of other relatives to better understand the evolution of the ef lineage. except for standard fungal mitochondrial genes, the 69,529-bp circular mitogenome of p. fici harbors 18 introns acquired possibly through la ...201728097404
survival of penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.this study aimed at determining whether penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. firstly, it was found that the conidia of penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at ph 7.2 in thermal death tubes (tdt) at 80 °c/30 min. subsequently, each penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 19 ...201626742610
increased chitin biosynthesis contributes to the resistance of penicillium polonicum against the antifungal protein pgafp.antifungal proteins from molds have been proposed as a valuable tool against unwanted molds, but the resistance of some fungi limits their use. resistance to antimicrobial peptides has been suggested to be due to lack of interaction with the mold or to a successful response. the antifungal protein pgafp produced by penicillium chrysogenum inhibits the growth of various ascomycetes, but not penicillium polonicum. to study the basis for resistance to this antifungal protein, localization of pgafp ...201626446386
penicillium strains isolated from slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.the secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. three slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. the speci ...201425109845
halotolerant ability and α-amylase activity of some saltwater fungal isolates.four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater lake urmia in iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. the isolates were identified based on sequencing the its region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as penicillium chrysogenum (isolate u1; cbs 132820), fusarium incarnatum (isolate u2; cbs 132821), and penicillium polonicum (isolate u3; cbs 132822, and isolate u4; cbs 132823). the growth of these isolates was determined by measuri ...201324250679
marine-derived penicillium in korea: diversity, enzyme activity, and antifungal properties.the diversity of marine-derived penicillium from korea was investigated using morphological and multigene phylogenetic approaches, analyzing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, β-tubulin gene, and rna polymerase subunit ii gene. in addition, the biological activity of all isolated strains was evaluated. we tested for the extracellular enzyme activity of alginase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, and antifungal activity against two plant pathogens (colletotrichum acutatum and fu ...201424908060
fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. in order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. rice straw was collected from 12 jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (mea, drbc, and dg18), and temperature (15°c, 25°c, and 35°c). in total, 937 strains were isolated and ide ...201324043125
secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungi penicillium polonicum and aspergillus fumigatus.two new compounds, rhodostegone (1) from endophytic fungus penicillium polonicum and cyclo-(l-val-l-leu) (2) from aspergillus fumigatus, together with six known diketopiperazines (3-8), were isolated. the structures of these compounds were characterized through a combination of extensive ir, ms, nmr, and cd analysis.201323600807
mycobiota and mycotoxins in traditional medicinal seeds from china.the multi-mycotoxin occurrence for internal and superficial fungi contamination were comprehensively assessed in medicinal seeds used as food or beverage. based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and its gene blast, a total of 27 species belonging to 12 genera were identified from surface-sterilized seeds. chaetomium globosporum was most predominant (23%), followed by microascus trigonosporus (12%) and alternaria alternata (9%). with respect to superficial mycobio ...201526404373
characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production.the background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. the microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. the latter group was dominated by penicillium spp. and aspergillus nig ...201223290240
contrasting nephropathic responses to oral administration of extract of cultured penicillium polonicum in rat and primate.liquid- or solid substrate-cultured penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. the amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. after several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion ...201022069673
influence of various growth parameters on fungal growth and volatile metabolite production by indoor molds.a penicillium polonicum, an aspergillus ustus and a periconia britannica strain were isolated from water-damaged environments and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) was investigated by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gc-ms analysis. the most important mvocs produced were 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin and daucane-type sesquiterpenes for p. polonicum, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, germacrene d, δ-cadinene and other sesquiterpenes for a. ustus and th ...201122169393
occurrence of toxigenic fungi in ochratoxin a contaminated liquorice root.fungi associated with ochratoxin a (ota)-contaminated liquorice root and their capabilities for ota production were investigated. medicinal materials of mouldy liquorice root were collected from herbal markets located in jiangxi, zhejiang, henan provinces and beijing, china, respectively. sixteen fungal species belonging to penicillium, aspergillus, eurotium, fusarium, mucor and scopulariopsis were isolated; the fungal composition was different in each liquorice root sample. penicillium polonicu ...201121790488
mycotoxic nephropathy in bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to balkan endemic nephropathy.spontaneous nephropathy in bulgaria, which is observed frequently during meat inspection and which differs morphologically from the classical description of mycotoxic porcine/chicken nephropathy as made in denmark, was found to have a multi-mycotoxic aetiology being mainly provoked by a combined effect of ochratoxin a, penicillic acid and fumonisin b1 in addition to a not-yet-known metabolite. mean contamination levels of ochratoxin a were consecutively low (188.8 and 376.4 microg kg(-1)) in con ...201019753495
multispecies interactions affect cytoplasmic incompatibility in tribolium flour beetles.previous studies established that cytoplasmic incompatibility in the confused flour beetle, tribolium confusum, is mediated by a maternally inherited rickettsia-like bacteria: crosses between infected males and uninfected females are sterile. all other crosses are fertile, and individuals can be cured of infection by treatment with tetracycline. we report that a third species-either actinomycete bacteria streptomyces or fungi penicillium-can cure beetles of infection with these parasites. progen ...199219426036
production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates.most terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured meat products are toxigenic, but their ability to produce hazardous metabolites on meat-based substrates is not well known. the production of extrolites by selected terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured ham has been studied on carbohydrate-rich media (malt extract agar, czapek yeast autolysate agar, rice extract agar, and rice), meat extract triolein salt agar, and ham slices. chloroform extracts from the selected strains grown ...200718095438
dna ploidy distribution in renal tumours induced in male rats by dietary ochratoxin a.dna ploidy distribution, measured in experimental renal tumours that occurred in twelve ageing male fischer rats derived from carcinogenicity experiments on ochratoxin a (ota) in response to chronic dietary exposure, was diploid in all renal adenomas and aneuploid in all carcinomas, correlating with their typical organised and disorganised histopathology, respectively. aneuploidy was also detected in renal tissue in which karyomegaly, induced by ota, was analogous to that caused by the fungus pe ...200717629687
comparative responses to mode of oral administration and dose of ochratoxin a or nephrotoxic extract of penicillium polonicum in rats.administration of penicillium polonicum extract to male sprague-dawley rats (200 g), either mixed in feed or given daily by gavage, for 5 days, had no clinical effects. however, at necropsy on day 6 marked histopathological changes occurred in renal tubule epithelia, including mitotic figures, karyomegalic nuclei, and frequent apoptosis identified specifically by tunel methodology and confocal microscopy. ochratoxin a given similarly to rats (daily, 1 mg or 0.2 mg) was also clinically asymptomat ...200312710714
effects of substrate, water activity, and temperature on growth and verrucosidin production by penicillium polonicum isolated from dry-cured ham.penicillium polonicum, a common mold on dry-cured meat products, is able to produce verrucosidin, a potent neurotoxin. the ability of p. polonicum isolated from dry-cured ham to grow and produce verrucosidin from 4 to 40 degrees c at water activities (a(w)) of 0.99, 0.97, and 0.95 on malt extract agar (mea) and a medium made up with meat extract, peptone, and agar (mpa) was evaluated. verrucosidin was quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. p. polonicum was able ...200010678429
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