genomic and phenotypic characterization of xanthomonas cynarae sp. nov., a new species that causes bacterial bract spot of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.).a bacterial disease of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) was first observed in 1954 in brittany and the loire valley, france. this disease causes water-soaked spots on bracts and depreciates marketability of the harvest. ten strains of the pathogen causing bacterial spot of artichoke, previously identified as a member of the genus xanthomonas, were characterized and compared with type and pathotype strains of the 20 xanthomonas species using a polyphasic study including both phenotypic and genomic ...200010939652
molecular properties and prebiotic effect of inulin obtained from artichoke (cynara scolymus l.).a high molecular weight inulin has been prepared from artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) agroindustrial wastes using environmentally benign aqueous extraction procedures. physico-chemical analysis of the properties of artichoke inulin was carried out. its average degree of polymerization was 46, which is higher than for jerusalem artichoke, chicory, and dahlia inulins. gc-ms confirmed that the main constituent monosaccharide in artichoke inulin was fructose and its degradation by inulinase indicated ...200515960982
cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in brazil.samples of herbal medicine used in brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of brazilian ginseng (pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (paulli ...200415019183
electrospray characterization of selected medicinal plant extracts.extracts of selected medicinal plants were examined by electrospray mass spectrometry (esi-ms). this technique allowed identification of the main components of each extract, thereby providing a typical finger-print of the examined plants. more specifically, anthocyanins (vaccinium myrtillus), isoflavones (glycine max, soybean), flavonol-glycosides and terpenes (ginkgo biloba), triterpenes (centella asiatica), caffeoyl-quinic acids (cynara scolymus, artichoke), ginsenosides (panax ginseng), catec ...200010898155
differences in chain length distribution of inulin from cynara scolymus and helianthus tuberosus are reflected in a transient plant expression system using the respective 1-fft cdnas.a newly isolated cdna clone, cy3, encoding the fructan fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-fft) from artichoke was expressed using tobacco protoplasts as expression system. analysis of the inulin molecules synthesized upon incubation of protoplast extracts with a mixture of oligofructans (dp3-5) shows the production of inulins with a degree of polymerization (dp) of up to 23, whereas parallel experiments performed using a 1-fft cdna from jerusalem artichoke led to the production of fructans with a ...19989613593
pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom--i. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.we have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. from the list prepared by rizzini, mors and pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions) and anti-inflammatory activity (evans blue dye diffusion--1% solution) according to whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 n-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g) in mice. previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant) or 20% (fresh p ...19911842002
[the action of the artichoke (cynara scolymus) on the male gonads in an experiment].the gonadotropic effect of the bulgarian preparation artichoke, developed on the basis of cynara scolymus is studied. the preparation is used under the form of 50% aque emulsion, stabilized by emulgent twin-80, in doses 35.70 and 150 mg/kg-1, 5 times weekly for 75 days. the evaluation is made on sexually mature white male rats wistar, distributed into groups of 10. the results are compared with a control group. a complex of functional, quantitative morphological, classic histological tests are u ...19947845981
antispasmodic activity of fractions and cynaropicrin from cynara scolymus on guinea-pig ileum.this study describes the antispasmodic activity of some fractions and cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from cynara scolymus, cultivated in brazil, against guinea-pig ileum contracted by acetylcholine. the dichloromethane fraction showed the most promising biological effects, with an ic(50) of 0.93 (0.49-1.77) mg/ml. its main active component, the sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin, exhibited potent activity, with ic(50) of 0.065 (0.049-0.086) mg/ml, being about 14-fold more active than dich ...200515863902
anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) and of their is well known that water-soluble extracts of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) leaves exert choleresis. when studying this effect in vitro using primary cultured rat hepatocytes and cholephilic fluorescent compounds, it was noticed that the artichoke leaf extracts not only stimulated biliary secretion, but that they also reestablished it when secretion was inhibited by addition of taurolithocholate to the culture medium. furthermore, taurolithocholate-induced bizarre bile canalicular membrane di ...200112211745
choleretic activity and biliary elimination of lipids and bile acids induced by an artichoke leaf extract in rats.the therapeutic properties of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) preparations have been known since ancient times. the traditional use of artichoke leaf extract (ale) in gastroenterology is mainly based upon its strong antidyspeptic actions which are mediated by its choleretic activity. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ale on bile flow and the formation of bile compounds in anaesthetised wistar rats after acute and repeated (twice a day for 7 consecutive days) oral administrat ...200212587687
flavonoids from artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells.nitric oxide (no) produced by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (enos) represents an antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic principle in the vasculature. hence, an enhanced expression of enos in response to pharmacological interventions could provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. in ea.hy 926 cells, a cell line derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs), an artichoke leaf extract (ale) increased the activity of the human enos promoter (determined by luciferase re ...200415123766
antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes.primary rat hepatocyte cultures exposed to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-bhp) or cumene hydroperoxide were used to assess the antioxidative and protective potential of water-soluble extracts of artichoke leaves. both hydroperoxides stimulated the production of malondialdehyde (mda), particularly when the cells were pretreated with diethylmaleate (dem) in order to diminish the level of cellular glutathione (gsh). addition of artichoke extracts did not affect basal mda production, but prevented the h ...19979194411
herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic systematically review the clinical evidence for herbal medicinal products in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.200312791229
cloning, developmental, and tissue-specific expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase from taraxacum officinale. fructan localization in roots.sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-sst) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in asteraceae. using reverse transcriptase-pcr, we isolated the cdna for 1-sst from taraxacum officinale. the cdna-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other asteracean 1-ssts (cichorium intybus 86%, cynara scolymus 82%, helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-sst from allium cepa (46%) and aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. fructan concentrations, 1-sst activities, 1-s ...200010806226
inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) extracts.high-dose aqueous extracts from artichoke leaves were found to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis from 14c-acetate in primary cultured rat hepatocytes in a concentration-dependent biphasic manner with moderate inhibition (approximately 20%) between 0.007 and 0.1 mg/ml and more strong inhibition at 1 mg/ml. cytotoxic effects detected by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dephenyl tetrazolium bromide-assay were restricted to higher concentrations. replacement of ...19989732368
transgenic potato tubers accumulate high levels of 1-kestose and nystose: functional identification of a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase of artichoke (cynara scolymus) blossom screening a cdna library of artichoke (cynara scolymus) blossom discs for fructosyltransferases, we isolated a clone designated cy21. the deduced amino acid sequence shows homology to acid beta-fructosyl hydrolases and to the sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-sft) of barley. transiently expressed in nicotiana tabacum protoplasts, the cy21 gene-product synthesized 1-kestose, indicating that cy21 codes for a sucrose sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-sst). the enzyme worked at physiologi ...19979418047
[an experimental study of the effect of an artichoke preparation on the activity of the sympathetic-adrenal system in carbon disulfide exposure].artichoke, a new bulgarian preparation based on the plant cynara scolymus, was tested for influence on sympatho-adrenal system (sas) activity in experimental inhalation exposure to carbon disulfide. this chronic (six-month) inhalation experiment was done on wistar albino rats of either sex. activity of sas was assessed through excretion of noradrenalin and adrenalin. findings indicated a phasic sas response depending on concentration and duration of carbon disulfide exposure. with exposure to 30 ...19958524739
traditional medicine in health care.the state of research on plants used in traditional medicine and its development in egypt is indicated by the number of scientific institutions devoted to this problem: universities, the national research centre, the desert institute and the horticulture department of the ministry of agriculture. moreover, the use of certain medicinal plants has been "industrialised', e.g., ammi visnaga, cymbopogon proximus, nigella sativa and aloe vera. other plants are under investigation: urginea maritima, ph ...19807464176
hepatoprotective effects of turkish folk remedies on experimental liver plants which are used in turkish folk medicine were studied for possible hepatoprotective effects. these plants are carduus acanthoides and c. nutans (asteraceae), cichorium intybus (asteraceae), fumaria asepalae and f. vailantii (fumariaceae), gentiana olivieri (gentianaceae) and plantago lanceolata (plantaginaceae). stems, bracts and receptaculum of cynara scolymus were used as natural reference drugs. effects of the ethanolic extracts were studied using the carbon tetrachloride-induced ...200011025147
[effect of the atherogenic diet and cynara scolymus l, and cynara cardunculus l. on the histopathological picture of the coronary vessels and myocardium in rats]. 196213991323
hepatoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds from cynara scolymus against ccl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.the hepatoprotective activity against ccl4 toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes of some polyphenolic compounds, such as cynarin, isochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, and two organic acids, caffeic and quinic, from cynara scolymus, is tested. only cynarine and, to a lesser extent, caffeic acid showed cytoprotective action. the possible relationship between the molecular structure and the protective effect found is discussed.19873430163
efficacy of different cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints.cynara scolymus leaves extracts have long been used in folk medicine for their choleretic and hepatoprotective activities, that are often related to the cynarin content. these therapeutic properties are also attributed to mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids and since commercial c. scolymus preparations can differ for their activities, we studied four extracts to evaluate, if present, a relationship between the hepatobiliary properties of the different preparations and their content in phenolics. t ...200312738088
[effects of cynara scolymus extracts on the regeneration of rat liver. 1]. 19666014003
[effect of cynara scolymus-extracts on the regeneration of rat liver. 2]. 19685755836
inhibitory effect of taraxastane-type triterpenes on tumor promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.two taraxastane-type hydroxy triterpenes, taraxasterol and faradiol, isolated from the flowers of compositae plants cynara scolymus (artichoke) and chrysanthemum morifilolium (chrysanthemum), respectively, showed strong inhibitory activity against 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa)-induced inflammation in mice. at 2.0 mumol/mouse, these compounds inhibited markedly the tumor-promoting effect of tpa (1 microgram/mouse) on skin tumor formation following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[al ...19968692541
plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in porto alegre, south this study, 14 herbalists (herb sellers) were interviewed about popular use of plants with weight loss purpose in porto alegre, a south brazil city. for all identified species, scientific data were reviewed aiming to establish a correlation between popular use and biological properties. seventy-eight samples were reported as having weigh loss properties. these samples come from 23 species and asteraceae encompasses the greatest number of representatives. the greatest number of herbalist's cit ...200716963210
extracts of edible and medicinal plants in inhibition of growth, adherence, and cytotoxin production of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter spp. is recognized as one of the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. campylobacter infection causes campylobacteriosis, which can range from asymptomatic to dysentery-type illnesses with severe complications, such as guillian-barre syndrome. epidemiological studies have revealed that consumption of poultry products is an important risk factor of this disease. adherence and cytotoxic activity of the bacteria to host mucosal surfaces have been propose ...201122417513
kinetic study of the effects of calcium ions on cationic artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) peroxidase: calcium binding, steady-state kinetics and reactions with hydrogen peroxide.the apparent catalytic constant (k(cat)) of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) peroxidase (akpc) with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (abts) increased 130-fold in the presence of calcium ions (ca2+) but the affinity (k(m)) of the enzyme for abts was 500 times lower than for ca2+-free akpc. akpc is known to exhibit an equilibrium between 6-aquo hexa-coordinate and penta-coordinate forms of the haem iron that is modulated by ca2+ and affects compound i formation. measurements of ...200415556277
global analysis of type three secretion system and quorum sensing inhibition of pseudomonas savastanoi by polyphenols extracts from vegetable of plants against bacterial diseases still mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides, which in europe correspond essentially to copper-based compounds. however, recently plant diseases control is oriented towards a rational use of molecules and extracts, generally with natural origin, with lower intrinsic toxicity and a reduced negative environmental impact. in this work, polyphenolic extracts from vegetable no food/feed residues of typical mediterranean crops, as olea europaea, ...201627668874
in vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.artichoke (cynara scolymus l.), an edible vegetable from the mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin c, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. the antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (frap), and (c) inhibition of copper(ii)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (ldl) oxidation. in ad ...200312926911
evidence of glycemia-lowering effect by a cynara scolymus l. extract in normal and obese rats.several recent preliminary clinical studies have suggested that artichoke (cynara scolymus l., asteraceae family) preparations may be capable of lowering post-prandial glycemia. the present study was designed to test this hypothesis in laboratory rats. to this aim, non-selected wistar and genetically obese zucker rats were treated acutely with a purified extract of cynara scolymus flowering heads (500-1500 mg/kg by gavage) immediately prior to 1 h access to a fixed amount of food. glycemia was r ...201120737658
evaluation of the relaxant action of some brazilian medicinal plants in isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum.the present study aimed to evaluate the possible antispasmodic activity in vitro of methanolic extracts (me) of six brazilian medicinal plants.200515946599
prevention of taurolithocholate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by hplc-characterized extracts of artichoke (cynara scolymus) leaves.the effects of water-soluble extracts of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) leaves on taurolithocholate-induced cholestatic bile canalicular membrane distortions were studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes using electron microscopy. artichoke extracts at concentrations between 0.08 and 0.5 mg/ml were able to prevent the formation of bizarre canalicular membrane transformations in a dose-dependent manner when added simultaneously with the bile acid. however, prevention also occurred when the hep ...200212357385
a novel amperometric biosensor based on artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) tissue homogenate immobilized in gelatin for hydrogen peroxide detection.a biosensor for specific determination of hydrogen peroxide was developed by using homogenized artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) tissue in combination with a dissolved oxygen probe and applied in determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples. artichoke tissue, which has catalase activity, was immobilized with gelatine by means of glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. the electrode response was maximum when 0.05 m phosphate buffer was used at ph 7.0 and at 30 degrees c. upon ...200415974189
isolation and functional characterization of a cdna coding a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in cynara cardunculus l.cynara cardunculus l. is an edible plant of pharmaceutical interest, in particular with respect to the polyphenolic content of its leaves. it includes three taxa: globe artichoke, cultivated cardoon, and wild cardoon. the dominating phenolics are the di-caffeoylquinic acids (such as cynarin), which are largely restricted to cynara species, along with their precursor, chlorogenic acid (cga). the scope of this study is to better understand cga synthesis in this plant.200717374149
isolation and mapping of a c3'h gene (cyp98a49) from globe artichoke, and its expression upon uv-c stress.globe artichoke represents a natural source of phenolic compounds with dicaffeoylquinic acids along with their biosynthetic precursor chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as the predominant molecules. we report the isolation and characterization of a full-length cdna and promoter of a globe artichoke p-coumaroyl ester 3'-hydroxylase (cyp98a49), which is involved in both chlorogenic acid and lignin biosynthesis. phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this gene belongs to the cyp98 family. cy ...200919301010
the effect of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) extract on ros generation in huvec cells.the effect of an artichoke extract on induced reactive oxygen species (ros) generation in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (huvecs) and its reductive properties were evaluated. preincubation of huvec cells with the artichoke extract at concentrations of 25-100 microg/ml for 24 h abolished ros generation induced by lps and oxyldl as evaluated by the fluorescence intensity of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (dcf). potent, concentration-dependent reductive properties of the artichoke extract we ...200818780283
antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma hepg2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (ae). the hepatocytes were exposed to h2o2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either ae, or pure chlorogenic acid (cha) or with the well known antioxidant, n, n'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (dppd). addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (gsh) content, ...200818444161
effect of artichoke extract (cynara scolymus l.) on palmitic-1-14c acid oxidation in rats.studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (ae) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14c acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14co2 expiration rate and 14co2 recovery in the expired air. the extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14c acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. the effects of the extract on 14co2 expiration rate, 14co2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14c acid were dose depende ...200818384091
a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.there is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. in the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (vlci), derived from globe artichoke (cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. a double-blind, cross-over study was carried ...201020591206
cloning and functional analysis of a high dp fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase from echinops ritro (asteraceae): comparison of the native and recombinant enzymes.inulin-type fructans are the simplest and most studied fructans and have become increasingly popular as prebiotic health-improving compounds. a natural variation in the degree of polymerization (dp) of inulins is observed within the family of the asteraceae. globe thistle (echinops ritro), artichoke (cynara scolymus), and viguiera discolor biosynthesize fructans with a considerably higher dp than cichorium intybus (chicory), helianthus tuberosus (jerusalem artichoke), and dahlia variabilis. the ...200616449376
production of novel antioxidative phenolic amides through heterologous expression of the plant's chlorogenic acid biosynthesis genes in yeast.phenolic esters like chlorogenic acid play an important role in therapeutic properties of many plant extracts. we aimed to produce phenolic esters in baker's yeast, by expressing tobacco 4cl and globe artichoke hct. indeed yeast produced phenolic esters. however, the primary product was identified as n-(e)-p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid by nmr. this compound is an amide condensation product of p-coumaric acid, which was supplied to the yeast, with 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, which was unex ...201019941969
interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review of randomised controlled assess the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of any medical intervention for preventing or treating alcohol hangover.200516373736
extraction and partial characterization of a coagulant preparation from silybum marianum flowers. its action on bovine outstanding parameter in cheese making is the type of coagulant, which greatly influences the characteristics of the final products. proteolysis is the most important set of biochemical changes during ripening of most cheeses, and is carried out, in different magnitude, by proteolytic agents originated in milk, rennet (or rennet substitute), and starter and non-starter micro-organisms (silva & malcata, 2000). the demand for alternative sources of milk coagulants, to replace the expensive and ...200516174356
proteomics in globe artichoke: protein extraction and sample complexity reduction by peg, we report the first leaf proteome analysis for globe artichoke. three protein extraction protocols were tested and a reproducible mg/np-40-based method was established. ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (rubisco) is a highly abundant leaf protein, and its presence masks co-localizing, less abundant proteins. to remove rubisco from the sample, and thereby improve spot resolution, a peg fractionation approach was elaborated. 2-de profiles of various peg fractions showed that the ...200919425003
flavonoids of cynara scolymus possess potent xanthinoxidase inhibitory activity in vitro but are devoid of hypouricemic effects in rats after oral application.artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) leaves have been historically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, however whether artichoke is truly efficacious for this indication, is still a matter of debate. thus, the goal of the present study was first to examine the xanthine oxidase (xo) inhibitory activity of an artichoke leaf extract (ale) and some of its main compounds in vitro and then further test potentially active substances for possible hypouricemic effects using an in vivo rat model. ...200818300193
the effect of artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.the effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (mrc) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. the effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited mrc activity. the succinate oxidase system (mrc complexes ii-iv) was the most pote ...201020091747
genetic mapping and identification of qtl for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex.the asteraceae species cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34) includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus l.) and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis dc). as both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach.201222621324
mineral profile in globe artichoke as affected by genotype, head part and environment.the globe artichoke is an important vegetable, widely consumed in the mediterranean basin, and is spreading also to other parts of the world. the mineral profile of globe artichoke has been very little investigated. the purpose of this work was to evaluate the content of some essential macrominerals (na, k, ca, mg) and microminerals (fe, cu, mn, zn) in nine genotypes of globe artichoke in relation to different head parts (bracts and receptacle), locations and seasons.201120954162
laboratory and field experimental evaluation of host plant specificity of aceria solstitialis, a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle.centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle, asteraceae) is an invasive annual weed in the western usa that is native to the mediterranean region and is a target for classical biological control. aceria solstitialis is an eriophyid mite that has been found exclusively in association with ce. solstitialis in italy, greece, turkey and bulgaria. the mite feeds on leaf tissue and damages bolting plants, causing stunting, witch's broom and incomplete flower development. field experiments and laborator ...201222012302
novel hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme a quinate transferase genes from artichoke are involved in the synthesis of chlorogenic acid.artichoke (cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus) extracts have high antioxidant capacity, due primarily to flavonoids and phenolic acids, particularly chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid [cga]), dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeic acid, which are abundant in flower bracts and bioavailable to humans in the diet. the synthesis of cga can occur following different routes in plant species, and hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme a transferases are important enzymes in these pathways. here, we report on the ...201020431089
utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. to utilize inulin as its carbo ...201728341907
su-8/pyrex microchip electrophoresis with integrated electrochemical detection for class-selective electrochemical index determination of phenolic compounds in complex samples.a su-8/pyrex single-channel microchip integrating three 100 μm pt electrodes (mce-ed) for class-selective electrochemical index determination (cseid) of phenolic acids and flavonoids in complex extracts of tagetes lucida (tl), mentha piperita (mp), cymbopogon citratus (cc), calendula officinalis (co), and cynara scolymus (cs) is proposed. under strategic conditions controlled by a mes buffer (ph 5.0; 25 mm) and accordingly to the antioxidant acid-base properties, the simultaneous measurement of ...201323595251
effects of artichoke extract supplementation on gonads of cadmium-treated rats.the present study was designed to determine whether artichoke (cynara scolymus) exerts a protective effect on gonads of cadmium-treated rats and if there is a relationship between artichoke supplementation and nitric oxide (no) formation in cells. forty wistar albino male rats, weighing an average of 90 g each, were equally divided into four groups receiving 1 mg/100 g cadmium chloride by injection (group 1), the same dose cdcl2 plus 3 mg/100 g artichoke extract (group 2), the same dose of artic ...200717914219
choleretic effects of yarrow (achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver.different species from the achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional european medicine. in this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (dccas) and luteolin-7-o-beta-d-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (iprl) compared to cynarin (1,3-dcca), the main choleretic compound of cynara scolymus l. a fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-dcca and luteolin-7-o-beta-d-gluc ...200616303291
genetic mapping and characterization of the globe artichoke (+)-germacrene a synthase gene, encoding the first dedicated enzyme for biosynthesis of the bitter sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin.globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus l., asteraceae) is a perennial crop traditionally consumed as a vegetable in the mediterranean countries and rich in nutraceutically and pharmaceutically active compounds, including phenolic and terpenoid compounds. its bitter taste is caused by its high content of sesquiterpene lactones (stls), such as cynaropicrin. the biosynthetic pathway responsible for stl biosynthesis in globe artichoke is unknown, but likely proceeds through germacrene a, ...201222608514
determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the asteraceae family.the hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the astreraceae family, achillea millefolium, arnica montana, artemesia dracunculus, cichorium intybus, cnicus benedictus, cynara scolymus, echinops humilis, inula helenium, lactuca sativa, petasites hybridus, solidago virgaurea, and tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by lc-ms(n). thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem m ...201121453943
investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (cynara scolymus, matricaria chamomilla, artemisia absinthium l., achillea millefolium, and inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, ir ...200818408895
ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke est database.the globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus l.) is a significant crop in the mediterranean basin. despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired est (expressed sequence tag) sequence data (composite genome project - cgp) to develop an extensive set of microsatellite markers.200919785740
evaluation of the bioactive properties of avenanthramide analogs produced in recombinant yeast.saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proven to be a valuable tool for the expression of plant metabolic pathways. by engineering a s. cerevisiae strain with two plant genes (4cl-2 from tobacco and hct from globe artichoke) we previously set up a system for the production of two novel phenolic compounds, n-(e)-p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (yeast avenanthramide i, yav i) and n-(e)-caffeoyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (yeast avenanthramide ii, yav ii). these compounds have a structural similari ...201625639351
establishment of fungal entomopathogens beauveria bassiana and bionectria ochroleuca (ascomycota: hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke cynara scolymus.entomopathogenic fungi (epf) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. in tunisia, a wide range of indigenous epf isolates from different species, such as beauveria bassiana and bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur i ...201424681358
radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. part vi. mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. the commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, let ...19883280249
plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in rio grande do sul, southern brazil.plants are widely as antidiabetics. the study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or their use may even delay or discourage the adoption of the proper and effective treatment.201222079795
use of artichoke (cynara scolymus) flower extract as a substitute for bovine rennet in the manufacture of gouda-type cheese: characterization of aspartic proteases.artichoke (cynara scolymus l.) flower extract was assayed with the aim of replacing animal rennet in the manufacture of gouda-type cheeses from bovine milk. floral extract coagulated milk within a suitable time for use on an industrial scale, while the yield of cheese obtained was equal to that achieved with bovine abomasum. five proteolytic fractions with milk-clotting activity were isolated in a two-step purification protocol, three belonging to the cardosin group. cheeses made with c. scolymu ...201424767026
differential inductions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase during wounding, salicylic acid treatment, and salinity stress in safflower, carthamus tinctorius.safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.) serves as a reference dicot for investigation of defence mechanisms in asteraceae due to abundant secondary metabolites and high resistance/tolerance to environmental stresses. in plants, phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways are considered as two central defence signalling cascades in stress conditions. here, we describe the isolation of two major genes in these pathways, ctpal (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and ctchs (chalcone synthase) in safflower along wi ...201424865400
evaluation of antioxidant activity of some natural polyphenolic compounds using the briggs-rauscher reaction method.a new method based on the inhibitory effects of antioxidants on the oscillations of the hydrogen peroxide, acidic iodate, malonic acid, and mn(ii)-catalyzed system (known as the briggs-rauscher reaction), was used for the evaluation of antioxidative capacity. with this method, which works near the ph of the fluids in the stomach (ph approximately 2), a group of natural compounds present in fruits and vegetables or in medicinal plants assumed to have antioxidant capacity, was tested successfully. ...200212475261
xylanase production by aureobasidium pullulans on globe artichoke stem: bioprocess optimization, enzyme characterization, and application in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.statistical optimization of the factors affecting xylanase production by aureobasidium pullulans nrrl y-2311-1 on globe artichoke stem was performed for the first time. the optimization strategies used resulted in almost 6-fold enhancement of xylanase production (66.48 u/ml). biochemical and thermal characterization of the crude xylanase preparation was performed in order to elucidate its feasibility for different industrial applications. the optimum conditions for xylanase activity were: ph 4.0 ...201627537074
[cloning and bioinformation analysis of flavone synthase ii gene of erigeron breviscapus].erigeron breviscapus is a medicinal plant with the most developmental potential in yunnan province, which is belongs to erigeron genus of compositae family. scutellarin, the main active component of erigeron breviscapus is one of flavone 7-o-glucuronide derivatives, its biosynthesis pathway is still not clear.201324199545
the isolation and mapping of a novel hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in the globe artichoke chlorogenic acid pathway.the leaves of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (cynara cardunculus l.) have significant pharmaceutical properties, which mainly result from their high content of polyphenolic compounds such as monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acid (dcq), and a range of flavonoid compounds.200919292932
absorption and metabolism of bioactive molecules after oral consumption of cooked edible heads of cynara scolymus l. (cultivar violetto di provenza) in human subjects: a pilot study.the current growing interest for natural antioxidants has led to a renewed scientific attention for artichoke, due not only to its nutritional value, but, overall, to its polyphenolic content, showing strong antioxidant properties. the major constituents of artichoke extracts are hydroxycinnamic acids such as chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acids caffeic acid and ferulic acid, and flavonoids such as luteolin and apigenin glycosides. in vitro studies, using cultured rat hepatocytes, have shown ...200717408528
in-silico and in-vivo analyses of est databases unveil conserved mirnas from carthamus tinctorius and cynara cardunculus.micrornas (mirnas) are small rnas (21-24 bp) providing an rna-based system of gene regulation highly conserved in plants and animals. in plants, mirnas control mrna degradation or restrain translation, affecting development and responses to stresses. plant mirnas show imperfect but extensive complementarity to mrna targets, making their computational prediction possible, useful when data mining is applied on different species. in this study we used a comparative approach to identify both mirnas ...201222536958
effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet.hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation play complementary roles in atherosclerosis. artichoke (cynara scolymus l., asteraceae) leaf extract (ale), rich in antioxidants, has cholesterol-reducing effect. we investigated the effect of ale on serum and hepatic lipid levels and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in the liver and heart of hypercholesterolemic rats. rats were fed on 4% (w/w) cholesterol and 1% cholic acid (w/w) supplemented diet for 1 month. ale (1.5 g/kg/day) was given by gavage dur ...201019652921
prunella vulgaris l. upregulates enos expression in human endothelial cells.the purported effects of "circulation-improving" herbs used in traditional chinese medicine (tcm) show striking similarities with the vascular actions of nitric oxide (no) produced by the endothelial no synthase (enos). we have previously reported that salviae miltiorrhizae radix and zizyphi spinosae semen upregulate enos expression. in the present study, we studied the effect on enos gene expression of 15 chinese herbs with potential effects on the vasculature, and identified prunella vulgaris ...201020503475
phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones profile in leaves of nineteen artichoke cultivars.leaves of globe artichoke are food industry byproducts gaining interest due to their therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. the total phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols content as well as radical scavenging capacity and reducing antioxidant power were determined in leaves of 19 artichoke cultivars. an untargeted analysis based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was then carried out to profile phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones (stls). the phenolic profile of leaf extracts from d ...201627792334
isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (ppo) cdna from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.the polyphenol oxidase (ppo) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. this phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. a full-length cdna encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as csppo) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting atg codon was characterized for the first time from [cynara cardunculus var. scolymus ( ...201323628925
genome-wide identification of bahd acyltransferases and in vivo characterization of hqt-like enzymes involved in caffeoylquinic acid synthesis in globe artichoke.globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus l. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (cqas), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (cga), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (dicqas). the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of bahd acyltransferases. following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 bahd proteins carrying the catalytic site (hxxxd). their phylogenetic analysis together w ...201627721818
a genome-wide survey of the microsatellite content of the globe artichoke genome and the development of a web-based database.the recently acquired genome sequence of globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome's content of simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers. more than 177,000 perfect ssrs were revealed, equivalent to an overall density across the genome of 244.5 ssrs/mbp, but some 224,000 imperfect ssrs were also identified. about 21% of these ssrs were complex (two stretches of repeats separated by <100 nt). some 73% of the ssrs were composed of dinucleotide motifs. the ss ...201627648830
αntioxidant activity of cynara scolymus l. and cynara cardunculus l. extracts obtained by different extraction techniques.extracts of different parts (heads, bracts and stems) of cynara cardunculus l. (cardoon) and cynara scolymus l. (globe artichoke), obtained by two different extraction techniques (ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae) and classical extraction (ce)) were examined and compared for their total phenolic content (tpc) and their antioxidant activity. moreover, infusions of the plant's parts were also analysed and compared to aforementioned samples. results showed that cardoon's heads extract (obtained ...201727687506
mild potassium chloride stress alters the mineral composition, hormone network, and phenolic profile in artichoke leaves.there is a growing interest among consumers and researchers in the globe artichoke [cynara cardunculus l. subsp. scolymus (l.) hegi] leaf extract due to its nutraceutical and therapeutic properties. the application of an abiotic stress such as salinity can activate the stress-signaling pathways, thus enhancing the content of valuable phytochemicals. the aim of this study was to assess the metabolic changes in artichokes by probing the leaf metabolome of artichoke plants grown in a floating syste ...201627446175
metabolomic fingerprinting of romaneschi globe artichokes by nmr spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus l. var. scolymus l. fiori) and cardoon (cynara cardunculus l. var. altilis dc) are sources of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds.201627437863
the genome sequence of the outbreeding globe artichoke constructed de novo incorporating a phase-aware low-pass sequencing strategy of f1 progeny.globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is an out-crossing, perennial, multi-use crop species that is grown worldwide and belongs to the compositae, one of the most successful angiosperm families. we describe the first genome sequence of globe artichoke. the assembly, comprising of 13,588 scaffolds covering 725 of the 1,084 mb genome, was generated using ~133-fold illumina sequencing data and encodes 26,889 predicted genes. re-sequencing (30×) of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon ...201626786968
nucleotide sequence, genomic organization and synthesis of infectious transcripts from a full-length clone of artichoke mottle crinkle virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of artichoke mottle crinkle virus (amcv), a member of the tombusvirus group, has been determined. the genome is 4790 nucleotides (nt) in length. a full-length cdna of the amcv genome has been cloned in puc9 downstream of the t7 rna polymerase promoter. transcripts were infective when inoculated onto nicotiana clevelandii and n. benthamiana plants. the amcv genome contains five open reading frames (orfs). the first orf from the 5' terminus (orf1) enc ...19948021582
determination of pesticide residues in globe artichoke leaves and fruits by gc-ms and lc-ms/ms using the same quechers procedure.aiming to select the most suitable sample preparation for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus l.), a modified quechers, a matrix solid phase dispersion and a dispersive ethyl acetate extraction were compared. trueness and precision were determined at 0.2mgkg(-1) for the three methods. the modified quechers showed the best performance. the scope of the method was enlarged to 35 gc and 63 lc amenable pesticides, its overall performance was evaluated and v ...201728274427
determination of water-soluble vitamins in multivitamin dietary supplements and in artichokes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.several procedures of extraction with solvents for the simultaneous determination of vitamin c and some vitamins belonging to the b group (thiamine, riboflavine, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) in multivitamin preparations and in artichokes (cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus [l.] hegi) were developed. different experimental conditions were used, in terms of heat treatment, composition and ph of the extraction mixture, with particular attention to high-temperature steps; purification of the ext ...201323731489
accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the asteraceae family, in which one of the most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (stls). in globe artichoke the principal stl is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of its characteristic bitter taste. cynaropicrin content was assessed in globe artichoke tissues and was observed to accumulate in leaves of different developmental stages. in the receptacle, a progress ...201526398797
pharmacological studies of artichoke leaf extract and their health benefits.artichoke (cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal q ...201526310198
leaf polyphenol profile and ssr-based fingerprinting of new segregant cynara cardunculus genotypes.the dietary value of many plant polyphenols lies in the protection given against degenerative pathologies. their in planta role is associated with the host's defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. the polyphenol content of a given plant tissue is strongly influenced by the growing environment, but is also genetically determined. plants belonging to the cynara cardunculus species (globe artichoke and the cultivated and wild cardoon) accumulate substantial quantities of polyphenols ma ...201425653660
spatial genetic structure in wild cardoon, the ancestor of cultivated globe artichoke: limited gene flow, fragmentation and population history.nuclear and chloroplast markers and phenotypic characters were integrated to analyse the population genetic structure of wild cardoon, cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated globe artichoke, cynara cardunculus var. scolymus on the island of sardinia, italy. the spatial scale ranged from a few metres to ∼200km. wild cardoon appears to be genetically fragmented, with significant genetic divergence at various scales, indicating that gene flow is insufficient to counterbalanc ...201627968988
metabolite and mineral profiling of "violetto di niscemi" and "spinoso di menfi" globe artichokes by (1)h-nmr and icp-ms.globe artichoke has been long considered a nutraceutical food for its valuable content of bioactive compounds. however, beside a well-known polyphenol profile, poor information is available about its metabolite and mineral composition. the aim of this study was to investigate edible parts of sicilian artichokes, 'spinoso di menfi' and 'violetto di niscemi', by (1)h nmr and icp-ms for elucidating these compositional aspects. although bracts and hearts of both artichokes shared a very similar meta ...201727855490
an integrated approach to the evaluation of a metabolomic fingerprint for a phytocomplex. focus on artichoke [cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus] leaf.the availability of reliable herbal formulations is essential in order to assure the maximal activity and to limit unwanted side-effects. the correct concentration of declared components of herbal products is a matter of health legislation and regulation, but is still a topic under debate in the field of quality control assessment. in the present work specific constituents of artichoke leaf extracts, considered as a test herbal product, were measured by standard spectrophotometric and hplc metho ...201424868885
first detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use asteraceae crops.traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. so far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. in this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on g ...201627830052
cytochrome p450s from cynara cardunculus l. cyp71av9 and cyp71bl5, catalyze distinct hydroxylations in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthetic pathway.cynara cardunculus (asteraceae) is a cross pollinated perennial crop which includes the two cultivated taxa globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon. the leaves of these plants contain high concentrations of sesquiterpene lactones (stls) among which cynaropicrin is the most represented, and has recently attracted attention because of its therapeutic potential as anti-tumor and anti-photoaging agent. costunolide is considered the common precursor of the stls and three enzymes are involved in its bi ...201424767116
[the status of herbal antilipemic agents].a favourable effect on serum lipids may be achieved with herbal medicinal products, if they are administered at sufficient high dosages and sufficient long term use. their efficacy is not so strong than that documented for chemically defined products, however their tolerability is superior. maximal effects are more than that of a strong lipid lowering diet, however, lipid lowering herbal drugs are allium sativum l., cynara scolymus l., curcumae longa l. all of them exert some more beneficial eff ...200212244889
micropropagation of globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus l. var. scolymus).the globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus l. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the mediterranean region and the americas for its edible young flower heads. although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. the propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems p ...201323179714
properties of fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases from chicory and globe thistle, two asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin.remarkably, within the asteraceae, a species-specific fructan pattern can be observed. some species such as artichoke (cynara scolymus) and globe thistle (echinops ritro) store fructans with a considerably higher degree of polymerization than the one observed in chicory (cichorium intybus) and jerusalem artichoke (helianthus tuberosus). fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-fft) is the enzyme responsible for chain elongation of inulin-type fructans. 1-ffts were purified from chicory and glob ...200312970504
artichoke induces genetic toxicity in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (cbmn) cytome assay.artichoke leaves are used in traditional medicine as an herbal medicament for the treatment of hepatic related diseases, as well as choleretic and diuretic. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of cynara scolymus l. leaves extract (le) to cause chromosomal instability and cytotoxicity in chinese hamster ovary cells (cho) employing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (cbmn) cytome assay. cells were treated with four concentrations of c. scolymus for two exposure times: 1h and ...201323274746
protective activity of cynara scolymus l. leaf extract against chemically induced complex genomic alterations in cho cells.cynara scolymus l., popularly known as artichoke, has been widely used in traditional medicine as an herbal medicament for therapeutic purposes. the study aimed at assessing the protective activity of cynara scolymus leaf extract (le) against dna lesions induced by the alkylating agent ethylmethnesulphonate (ems) in chinese hamster ovary cells (cho). the ability of c. scolymus l. le to modulate the mutagenicity of ems was examined using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (cbmn) cytome assay in t ...201323830816
purification and characterization of a new cationic peroxidase from fresh flowers of cynara scolymus l.a basic heme peroxidase isoenzyme (akpc) has been purified to homogeneity from artichoke flowers (cynara scolymus l.). the enzyme was shown to be a monomeric glycoprotein, m(r)=42300+/-1000, (mean+/-s.d.) with an isoelectric point >9. the native enzyme exhibits a typical peroxidase ultraviolet-visible spectrum with a soret peak at 404 nm (epsilon=137,000+/-3000 m(-1) cm(-1)) and a reinheitzahl (rz) value (a(404nm)/a(280nm)) of 3.8+/-0.2. the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of compounds i, ...200312628704
construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).the genome organization of globe artichoke (cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to asteraceae (=compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. the species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (c. cardun ...200919787331
population structure of cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon.globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. the two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. the domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence a ...201323877076
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