the elliptocyte: a study of the relationship between cell shape and membrane structure using the camelid erythrocyte as a model.1. the elliptocytic shape of the camelid erythrocyte is very stable and has a high resistance to modification by drugs and treatment which alter the shape of the discocytic erythrocytes of scimitar-horned oryx and man. 2. differences in the erythrocyte membrane proteins have been found which indicate that proteins play an important role in stabilisation of the camelid elliptocyte. 3. the organisation of the cytoskeletal network in camelid elliptocytes differs from that established for human disc ...19892605918
haemolytic effect of pasteurella haemolytica on blood from young mammals.on agar plates containing young lamb blood, pasteurella haemolytica produces a wide outer zone of partial haemolysis in addition to the narrow zone of complete clearing seen on adult sheep blood agar. to determine whether this phenomenon was limited to lamb blood, samples from young animals of 20 mammalian species were examined. two species--the barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia) and scimitar horned oryx (oryx tao)--possessed blood that gave this effect provided that the samples were taken from y ...19883194597
perinatal mortality and season of birth in captive wild ungulates.the magnitude of perinatal mortality in 50 species of captive wild ungulates born at the zoological society of london's collections at regent's park and whipsnade between 1975 and 1985 is reviewed. thirty-five per cent of 2471 ungulates born during this 11 year period died before six months old and most deaths occurred in the first week after birth. similar findings have been reported at other zoos and in the wild. the seasonal distribution of births is described in 43 species. significantly hig ...19873590601
basic haematological values in antelopes--ii. the hippotraginae and the tragelaphinae.basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope hippotragus equinus, sable antelope hippotragus niger, adax antelope addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck tragelaphus scriptus, nyala tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland tautotragus oryx and bongo bocercu ...19846149054
epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the british isles.since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the british isles. the affected animals have comprised members of the family bovidae: one nyala (tragelaphus angasi), four eland (taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (oryx gazella), one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and members of the family felidae: four ...19947817514
the c-, g-, and r-banded karyotype of the scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah).karyotypes of five males and one female scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah) were prepared using lymphocyte and skin cells. cbg-, gtg-, and rbg-banded chromosomes were analysed and the banding patterns were compared with those of cattle, revealing a high level of homoeology except for chromosomes 9, 14, 21, y, and x. standard karyotypes are proposed for the scimitar-horned oryx karyotype, which contains 58 chromosomes with one pair of large submetacentric autosomes and 27 acrocentric autosomal pai ...19948206781
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
long-term viral serology of semi-free-living and captive ungulates.between 1973 and 1994, blood samples were collected at whipsnade wild animal park (uk) from three ungulate species kept in enclosures, including 28 european bison (bison bonasus), 37 scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and 49 père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), and also from 144 semi-free-living chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis). these samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against three bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv)-like strains, three alpha-herpesvirus strains, enz ...19989732031
scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah) spermatozoa are functionally competent in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system after cryopreservation on dry ice, in a dry shipper, or over liquid nitrogen vapor.a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization (ivf) system was used to study the functional competence of scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa after cryopreservation. four sperm-freezing methods were compared after dilution of ejaculates from six oryx with an equine semen extender: 1) dry ice, 2) dry shipper one-step, 3) dry shipper two-step, and 4) liquid nitrogen vapor. post-thaw sperm motility, longevity, and acrosomal status were assessed and zona pellucida penetration, fertilization, and embryo ...19999916019
centric fusion differences among oryx dammah, o. gazella, and o. leucoryx (artiodactyla, bovidae)g- and c-banded karyotypes of the genus oryx were compared using the standard karyotype of bos taurus. chromosomal complements were 2n = 56 in o. gazella gazella, 2n = 58 in o. g. beisa and o. g. callotis, 2n = 56-58 in o. dammah, and 2n = 57-58 in o. leucoryx. the number of autosomal arms in all karyotypes was 58. nearly all variation in diploid number was the result of three independent centric fusions, but one 2n = 57 specimen of o. g. gazella deviated from the normal complement of 2n = 56 du ...199910516440
vegetative endocarditis in a scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah).streptococcus uberis was cultured from vegetative endocarditis lesions in a scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah) from the parc de la haute touche, france. this is the first reported single isolation of s. uberis from an oryx with vegetative endocarditis leading to fatal congestive heart failure.199910749451
a generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species.noninvasive fecal glucocorticoid analysis has tremendous potential as a means of assessing stress associated with environmental disturbance in wildlife. however, interspecific variation in excreted glucocorticoid metabolites requires careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. we compared four antibodies for detecting the major fecal cortisol metabolites in yellow baboons following (3)h cortisol administration, acth challenge, and hplc separation of fecal glucocorticoid metab ...200011121291
functional capacity and fertilizing longevity of frozen-thawed scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah) spermatozoa in a heterologous in vitro fertilization system.this study was conducted to determine if cryopreservation and thawing reduces the quality of scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa and thus might be responsible for sub-optimal artificial insemination (al) efficiency. functional capacity of frozen thawed oryx spermatozoa was compared in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization (ivf) system after being prepared by four methods. fertilizing longevity was also assessed after thawing and pre-incubating spermatozoa for 12 or 24 h before ivf. sperm cha ...200011545181
species-specific sperm-egg interaction affects the utility of a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system for evaluating antelope sperm.the purpose of this study was to evaluate cryopreserved fringe-eared (fe) oryx (oryx gazella callotis) sperm function using a heterologous in vitro fertilization (ivf) system previously developed to study scimitar-horned (sh) oryx (oryx dammah) spermatozoa. semen was collected by electroejaculation from fe oryx (n = 2) and sh oryx (n = 2), evaluated immediately postcollection, and cryopreserved. thawed spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, forward progression, and acrosomal status immediately ...200111566750
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.the intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (oryx dammah). the animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the schirmer tear test i was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonomet ...200212233828
occurrence of listeria spp. in captive antelope herds and their environment.two juvenile scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah) at the wild animal park planckendael died from acute septicemia caused by listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b. subsequently, listeria spp. were isolated from the feces, food, and environment of seven antelope species and examined using a two-stage enrichment procedure in fraser broth, followed by isolation on palcam agar. a total of 40/170 samples (23.5%) was positive for listeria spp. no organisms were cultured in 83/170 samples (48.8%), and 47 samp ...200112785709
a 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in belgium.faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. the ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the royal zoological society of antwerp, the antwerp zoo and the animal park planckendael. artiodactylids involved were arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), bongos (tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (trage ...200415710531
field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.the efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (gazella leptoceros), eight soay sheep (ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), six red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 nelson's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. the efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count r ...200516272545
evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. the objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. in the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. the next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. in the thir ...200617312807
clostridial myocarditis in a scimitar-horned oryx. 200919767644
fecal parasite identification by microscopy and pcr in scimitar-horned oryx, oryx dammah, managed at two sites.the scimitar-horned oryx, oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. parasite studies in o. dammah are lacking. in this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of o. dammah in two captive herds, ...201627942456
bayesian, maximum parsimony and upgma models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.this investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16s rrna, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial dna using three different computational models including bayesian (ba), maximum parsimony (mp) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (upgma). the respective nucleotide sequences of three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) and an out-group (addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to ba, ...200819204824
comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi-free ranging hippotragini: addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger).basic biomedical data from 164 neonates of four species of the tribe hippotragini, addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger), were compared at one zoological institution over a 9-year period. measured biomedical parameters included body weight, temperature, pulse and respiratory rates, packed cell volume (pcv), total plasma protein, glucose, igg assessment via zinc sulfate turbidity, and white blood cell ...200111319780
effects of copper oxide wire particle bolus therapy on trichostrongyle fecal egg counts in exotic artiodactylids.four species of artiodactylids (scimitar-horned oryx [oryx dama]), roan antelope [hippotragus equinus], blackbuck [antilope cervicapra]), and blesbok [damaliscus pygargus phillipsi]) totaling 13 animals were treated with a one-time 12.5-g dose of copper oxide wire particles (cowps) in a bolus form. pretreatment, individual trichostrongyle fecal egg counts (fecs) were performed using the mcmaster technique. individual posttreatment fecs were performed every 7 days for 35 days beginning 7 days aft ...200819110710
pulmonary arterial disease associated with right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure in zoo mammals housed at 2,100 m above sea level.subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. the authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mam ...201526667539
heterologous in vitro fertilization and sperm capacitation in an endangered african antelope, the scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah).scimitar-horned oryx sperm function was studied using protocols developed for domestic cattle. objectives were to assess sperm 1) viability and motility in vitro over time, 2) capacitation in heparin- or calcium-supplemented medium, and 3) function in an in vitro fertilization system using heterologous (domestic cow) oocytes. seminal aliquots were washed, and sperm were resuspended in 1) talp with 5% fetal calf serum (talp), 2) talp + 10 microm heparin, 3) talp + 20 microm heparin, and 4) talp + ...19989475404
cryptosporidiosis in young artiodactyls.cryptosporidium was found in the intestinal tract of 10 blackbuck, 2 scimitar-horned oryx, 2 fringe-eared oryx, 2 addax, and 1 sable antelope that had diarrhea. cryptosporidia were most numerous in the small intestine, but also were found in the cecum, spiral colon, and colon. the small intestine had minimal inflammation in association with the cryptosporidia. salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 10 of the 51 animals evaluated, with extensive inflammation of the cecum, spiral colon, and colo ...19854077628
a new coccidian parasite (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the scimitar-horned oryx, oryx dammah.oocysts of eimeria oryxae sp. n. are described from the faeces of the scimitar-horned oryx, oryx dammah (cretzschmar, 1826), from zoo garden, riyadh city, saudi arabia. sporulated oocysts were ellipsoid in shape measuring 20.9 x 17.1 (16.7-24.2 x 15.5-20.2) microm, with smooth brownish-yellow double layered wall. micropyle and ellipsoidal polar granules are present, but micropylar cap and oocyst residuum are absent. sporocysts are ovoid, reaching 10.0 x 5.7 (9.2-11.0 x 5.2-6.5) microm with stied ...200212049259
resource partitioning between ungulate populations in arid environments.herbivores are major drivers of ecosystem structure, diversity, and function. resilient ecosystems therefore require viable herbivore populations in a sustainable balance with environmental resource availability. this balance is becoming harder to achieve, with increasingly threatened species reliant on small protected areas in increasingly harsh and unpredictable environments. arid environments in north africa exemplify this situation, featuring a biologically distinct species assemblage expose ...201627656279
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