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serological evidence of bluetongue in game animals in botswana.using the agar gel precipitin technique the sera of 397 african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and 90 sera of other common game species were examined for bluetongue antibodies. of the adult buffalo 283 out of 325 (87 per cent) were positive. buffalo calves were positive in 25 out of 72 cases (35 per cent). positive reactions were also recorded in lechwe (kobus leche), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), red hartebeeste (alcelaphus buselaphus), gemsbok (oryx gazella), sable (hippotragus niger) and impala ( ...1978204086
the incidence of tuberculosis in lechwe (marsh antelope).of the 238 specimens of tissue collected from 70 lechwe (marsh antelope) 79 yielded m. bovis, 1 yielded a mixed growth of m. bovis and an 'atypical' mycobacterium and 6 yielded 'atypical' mycobacteria; the 'atypical' mycobacteria were probably contaminants. of the 63 lechwe killed as a 1 in 10 random sample from four herds, m. bovis was obtained from 21 animals, indicating that 33% of wild lechwe are infected with tuberculosis.1977339450
blood parasites of some wild bovidae in botswana.blood smears from a total of 282 wild bovidae from ngamiland, botswana were examined for the presence of blood parasites. the following species were sampled: 190 african buffalo, 23 impala, 10 blue wildebeest, 18 tsessebe, 1 eland, 13 lechwe, 16 kudu and 11 sable antelope. in addition, blood from 36 of the above antelope and from a further 48 buffalo was inoculated into rodents to test for the presence of trypanosomes. an anaplasm morphologically indistinguishable from anaplasma marginale theile ...1975813170
biochemical genetics in the study of schistosomes and their intermediate hosts.this paper considers the contributions that studies on electrophoresis of enzymes have made to the understanding of the biology of schistosomiasis. the use of enzymes for characterisation of schistosomes is reviewed and particular attention is given to investigations concerning hybridisation, mating behaviour and population structure. results are presented on variation between isolates of s. haematobium detected by analysis of a g6pdh polymorphism and variation of g6pdh and mdh-1 within natural ...19853870634
pulmonary tuberculosis in free-living lechwe antelope in zambia. 19724210442
basic haematological values in antelopes--iii. the reduncinae and the antelopinae.basic haematological values were measured in 50 individuals of five species falling under the subfamily reduncinae, including the mountain reedbuck (reduncula fulvorufula), the eastern waterback (kobus ellipsiprymnus ellipsiprymnus), the defassa waterbuck (kobus ellipsipyrmnus defassa), the lechwe waterbuck (kobus leche) and the lady gray's waterbuck (kobus megaceros) and in 45 animals of three species of the subfamily antelopinae, including the springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), the grant's ga ...19846149055
the anatomy of the omasum of some zambian game species.the gross anatomy of the omasum of 11 different zambian game species are described. these include roan antelope, sable antelope, wildebeest, kudu, kafue lechwe, puku, reedbuck, impala, bushbuck, oribi and duiker. lamellar area and papilla density and shape are reported.19938129169
helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, zambia.helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the central province of zambia. new host-parasite records are: calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and kafue lechwe kobus leche kafuensis; avitellina centripunctata, gaigeria pachyscelis and gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe damaliscus lunatus lunatus; cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck redunca arundinum; dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu tragelaphus strep ...19989741058
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
seroprevalences of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortions in cattle. little is known about the prevalence of antibodies to this parasite in zoo animals. sera from 556 animals, from 13 czech and slovak zoos were tested for antibodies to n. caninum and toxoplasma gondii by indirect fluorescent antibody test. antibodies to n. caninum were found in 31 of 556 zoo animals (5.6%), representing 18 of 114 species tested: eurasian wolf (canis lupus lupus), maned ...200616387445
trypanosoma brucei infection in asymptomatic greater kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in zambia.trypomastogotes of trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of lusaka, zambia. blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (aepyceros melampus), kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (hippotragus niger), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (kobus vardoni), zebra (equus burchelli), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushb ...201020333288
experimental tuberculosis in lechwe antelope in zambia. 19744213106
a review of diseases of parasites of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis).the diseases of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) are reviewed in this paper. kafue lechwe are an important natural resource for zambia. bovine tuberculosis is widespread within the lechwe population and they are host to many parasites, especially the warble strobiloestrous vanzyli.19911758033
ciliate protozoa in the rumen of kafue lechwe, kobus leche kafuensis, in zambia, with the description of four new species.the composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family ophryoscolecidae were identified. four new species belonging to diplodiniinae were recognized and described as diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., diplodinium leche n. sp., diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and metadinium ossiculi n. sp. in addition, ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum dogiel, 1932 was found fo ...19921522538
preliminary observations on the distribution, definitive hosts and possible relation with other schistosomes, of schistosoma margrebowiei, le roux, 1933 and schistosoma leiperi, le roux, 1955.in attempting to define the south western limits of the distribution of schistosoma margrebowiei and s. leiperi and investigating their apparent limited distribution in relation to their snail hosts it was found that there was little overlap in the distribution of s. margrebowiei and s. leiperi and that of the human parasites s. haematobium and s. mansoni, and no overlap with s. mattheei within the area surveyed. it is suggested that the presence of either or both lechwe schistosomes prevented t ...1976965705
a review of bovine tuberculosis in the kafue basin ecosystem.the kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered kafue lechwe antelope (kobus leche kafuensis). however, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. further, increasing human settlements within and around the kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in ...201121547232
dermatophilosis (cutaneous streptothricosis) in kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis).extensive dermatitis caused by dermatophilus congolensis was identified in two kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) in lochinvar national park of zambia. the lesions were characterized by thickening of the skin, crusts, and nodfule formation. almost all parts of the body were affected. histologically there was an exudative dermatitis with acanthosis, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and an exudate rich in neutrophils. this is the first known report of dermatophilosis in lechwe.19947760496
bluetongue antibody in botswana's domestic and game animals.bluetongue precipitating antibody was demonstrated in sera of cattle, camels, sheep, goats and seven game species. of the domestic species the percentage of sera positive were; cattle 92%, camels 81%, goats 83% and sheep 36%. sheep sera, unlike those of other domestic species, varied greatly from area to area in the percentage positive. seroconversions were recorded in adult sheep between september and april. in adult cattle there was a gradual decline in the percentage positive with increasing ...1979220761
investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) in the kafue basin.abstract:201021182793
further observations on the relationship and distribution of schistosoma margrebowiei and s. leiperi in central southern africa.a further survey in east caprivi, chobe national park, okavango swamps and kavango was undertaken in june 1976. no evidence of lechwe schistosomes was found in droppings of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) nor baboons (papio ursinus) living in lechwe habitats. it was thought that they were not capable of spreading or maintaining these parasites outside the confines of the known distribution of kobus sp. the role of goats was equivocal but probably they too are poor hosts. kavango, an endemic ar ...1977599275
serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-i and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 in eight hoofstock species.the somatotropic axis, which includes growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (igf)-i, and igf binding proteins (igfbp), is involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism. measures of the somatotropic axis can be predictive of nutritional status and growth rate that can be utilized to identify nutritional status of individual animals. before the somatotropic axis can be a predictive tool, concentrations of hormones of the somatotropic axis need to be established in healthy individuals. t ...201020853408
tuberculosis in kafue lechwe antelopes (kobus leche kafuensis) of the kafue basin in zambia.tuberculosis (tb) has been reported in the kafue lechwe antelopes (kobus leche kafuensis) of zambia. however, previous reports are restricted to the southern parts in lochinvar, where only old male animals were investigated. this study was conducted to gather epidemiological information on tb in lechwe antelopes across sexes and age groups in relation to other explanatory variables of disease occurrence in the kafue basin. animals were hunted under a special licence to investigate diseases in th ...201020417978
brucella seroprevalence of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (kobus leche smithemani): exposure associated to contact with cattle.we investigated brucella seroprevalence in kafue (kobus leche kafuensis) and black (kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: kafue lechwe from kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the bangweulu swamps. fourteen kafue lechwe and thirty black lechwe were sl ...201121536335
genotyping of clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and exotic ruminants and swine.clostridium perfringens types a, b, c, d and e are known to cause severe enteritis/enterotoxaemia and diseases (especially caused by type a) belonging to the gas oedema complex in many species. samples from the small intestine as well as faeces of domestic and exotic animals suffering from enterotoxaemic signs or having died within days after first occurance of toxaemia were submitted for typing c. perfringens toxovars by multiplex pcr. the following species have been investigated: domestic shee ...200314535937
disease investigation into free-ranging kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) on the kafue flats in zambia. 200212418533
thelazia rhodesii in the african buffalo, syncerus caffer, in zambia.we report 2 cases of thelazia rhodesii infection in the african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, in zambia. african buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the kafue basin in the dry season of august 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. at capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. two (4.3%) were infecte ...201121461276
failure to detect tuberculosis in black lechwe antelopes (kobus leche smithemani) in zambia.abstract:201121729320
a review of the biology and transmission ecology of african bovine species of the genus schistosoma.the present paper reviews the information available concerning the biology and transmission ecology of the african bovine species schistosoma bovis, s. mattheei, s. margrebowiei and s. leiperi. criteria for species identification (egg morphology, intermediate host spectra, definitive host-parasite relationships, etc.) are listed and the geographical distribution of the four species and factors determining the relative occurrence within their overall distributional ranges are described. s bovis a ...19836356670
serosurvey of brucella spp. infection in the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) of the kafue flats in zambia.one of the diseases of veterinary and public health importance affecting the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) on the kafue flats is brucellosis, for which only scant information is available. during the 2003 (october), 2004 (december), and 2008 (july-december) hunting seasons in the kafue flats, we conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence of brucella spp. in the kafue lechwe and to evaluate serologic tests for detection of brucella spp. antibodies in lechwe. the rose bengal test (rb ...201020966257
tuberculosis in kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in central province, zambia.mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in zambia. a kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near lusaka. acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. a bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, ...19989850514
taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the bangweulu and kafue flood plains ecosystems of zambia.taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. during the course of 2 separate surveys in zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), black lechwe (kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the kafue and bangweulu flood plains. examinations involved post-mortem inspecti ...201425090953
epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis mansoni in communities living on the cuando river floodplain of east caprivi, namibia.the cuando river area of eastern caprivi, namibia, is highly endemic for schistosoma mansoni whereas s. haematobium transmission, due to the scarcity of its intermediate host snail, bulinus africanus, does not occur. chemotherapy (6-monthly blanket treatments with praziquantel) combined with focal mollusciciding (monthly application of niclosamide) was used in a project in the area to control the disease. although as many adults and pre-school children as possible were tested and treated, the pr ...19958745938
bovine tuberculosis in southern african wildlife: a multi-species host-pathogen system.this review examines the current situation of bovine tuberculosis (btb) in southern african savannah systems, and uses theory on multi-species host-pathogen systems to suggest possible options for future research and management. in southern africa, the buffalo (syncerus caffer) and the kafue lechwe [marsh antelope] (kobus leche) have been found to be maintenance hosts for this disease, but the importance of other host species is becoming apparent. the role of other host species in the maintenanc ...200716959052
determination of endocrine disruptors in kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the lochinvar national park of zambia.analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from kafue lechwe in the lochinvar national park of zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction followed by an analysis using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (gc-ecd). the following endocrine disruptors were analyzed: deltamethrin, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-ddd, hep ...200616624410
isolation and molecular characterization of mycobacterium bovis from kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) from zambia.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium bovis. infections due to m. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. this study aimed at isolating and characterizing m. bovis from kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in zambia. the samples with lesions compatible with btb collected during th ...201424146292
mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in zambia.in zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. elucidation of the circulating mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important.201223151267
detection of parasites and parasitic infections of free-ranging wildlife on a game ranch in zambia: a challenge for disease control.ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by rhipecephalus spp. haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus); anaplasma marginale in impala (aepyceros melampus) and puku (kobus vardonii) for the fir ...201222701163
handline lechwe antelope for vaccination and tuberculin testing. 20154722794
the nucleotide sequence of metallothioneins (mt) in liver of the kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) and their potential as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution of the kafue river.the study determined heavy metal concentrations and mt1 nucleotide sequence [phylogeny] in liver of the kafue lechwe. applicability of mt1 as a biomarker of pollution was assessed. cdna-encoding sequences for lechwe mt1 were amplified by rt-pcr to characterize the sequence of mt1 which was subjected to blast searching at ncbi. phylogenetic relationships were based on pairwise matrix of sequence divergences calculated by clustal w. phylogenetic tree was constructed by nj method using phillip prog ...201222796127
a review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in zambia.zambia's estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (tb) is 707/100,000. high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (btb) - infection with mycobacterium bovis - in cattle and the kafue lechwe antelopes (kobus leche kafuensis) has been reported in the kafue basin. consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. despite the reported high prevalence of btb in both liv ...201323849550
an acute multispecies episode of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in captive wild animals in an italian zoo.in july 2011, in a zoological garden in rome, italy, malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), a fatal, systemic disease of artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. an mcf type-specific pcr with subsequent sequencing of the pcr amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, vi ...201625598396
host cellular components adhering to the tegument of schistosomes from cattle, buffalo, hippopotamus and lechwe.the teguments of adult schistosoma mattheei from cattle and buffalo, s. hippopotami from hippopotamus and s. margrebowiei from lechwe were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy for cells possibly engaged in immunological action. leukocytes were observed on the teguments of the schistosomes from all 4 host species. although certain of these cells seemed to be fused to the surface membrane of the worms, they did not display pseudopodia. the tegument of certain schistosomes from buffalo ...19902216347
buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in botswana.brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in southern africa, particularly in botswana.201222412932
isolation and characterization of non tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and animals in namwala district of zambia.the genus mycobacterium contains more than 100 species, most of which are classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria (ntm). in zambia, the ntm are slowly becoming recognized as pathogens of major public health significance with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). this study aimed at reporting the isolated ntm and ascertains their zoonotic potential and diagnostic significance in zambia.201425204270
on a new paramphistomid trematode, gigantocotyle lerouxi sp. n. from the stomach of the red lechwe, onotragus leche from northern rhodesia. 195713504863
investigations on the prevalence of trypanosome carriers and the antibody response in wildlife in northern botswana.605 buffalo, 60 lechwe, 23 kudu, 23 impala, 15 tsessebe, 22 sable and two reedbuck from northern botswana were examined for trypanosome infections by serological and/or parasitological means. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), the haematocrit centrifugation technique (hct) and rodent subinoculation were used. the overall prevalence of patent infection with trypanosomes in buffalo, lechwe and reedbuck was 15,7%. in the case of buffalo and lechwe it was possible to classify their origi ...1978675844
helminth parasites of the kafue lechwe antelope ( kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the kafue wetlands of zambia.the kafue lechwe antelope (kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around lochinvar and blue lagoon national parks in the kafue wetlands of zambia. this interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. a survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the kafue lechwe during the 2008 (july-december) hunting season, in ...201120388247
an investigation of heavy metal exposure and risks to wildlife in the kafue flats of zambia.exposure and ecological risks to heavy metals (copper, zinc, manganese, iron) at lochnivar and blue lagoon national parks in wildlife dependent on the kafue river contaminated with mining waste was evaluated. samples included water, fish, grasses and kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis) liver. at both parks copper ranged from 0.03-0.04 mg/l; 3.0-6.0 mg/kg; 11.0-44.0 mg/kg; trace -199.0 mg/kg; while zinc was 0.01 mg/l; 32.0-82.0 mg/kg; 15.0-21.0 mg/kg; and 52.0-138.0 mg/kg; in water, fish, grasse ...200111307933
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