serological evidence of bluetongue in game animals in botswana.using the agar gel precipitin technique the sera of 397 african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and 90 sera of other common game species were examined for bluetongue antibodies. of the adult buffalo 283 out of 325 (87 per cent) were positive. buffalo calves were positive in 25 out of 72 cases (35 per cent). positive reactions were also recorded in lechwe (kobus leche), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), red hartebeeste (alcelaphus buselaphus), gemsbok (oryx gazella), sable (hippotragus niger) and impala ( ...1978204086
comparative aspects of muscle fibre size and succinic dehydrogenase distribution in the longissimus dorsi muscle of several species of east african mammals.the distribution of succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated in frozen sections of longissimus dorsi muscle taken from several species of east african game animal (giraffe, hartebeest, wildebeest, oryx, gerenuk and dik-dik) as well as local zebu cattle. muscle fibres were classified as red (high succinic dehydrogenase activity), white (low activity) or intermediate. the mean diameter and percentage distribution of each fibre type were noted as well as the overall mean muscle fibre ...1979552778
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
nutritional studies on east african herbivores. 2. losses of nitrogen in the faeces.1. a series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (arman & hopcraft, 1975). 2. various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. food and faecal samples were analysed for n. 3. with the pelleted diets, the n content of the faecal dry matter (dm) was low for eland (taurotragus oryx pallas), high for sheep and cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus) and intermediate for the ...19751115763
nutritional studies on east african herbivores. 1. digestibilities of dry matter , crude fibre and crude protein in antelope, cattle and sheep.1. a series of digestibility trials was done using four animals of each of the following species: friesian cattle (bos taurus), boran zebu cattle (bos indicus), corriedale sheep, fat-tailed sheep, eland (taurotragus oryx pallas), coke's hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus cokei günther), thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii günther) and bush duiker (sylvicapra grimmia l.). 2. two batches of pelleted food were prepared from ground maize cobs, cassava, whs (a-e) were prepared containing 65 (a)-135 ( ...19751172929
alcelaphine herpesviruses 1 and 2 sds-page analysis of virion polypeptides, restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic dna and virus replication restriction in different cell types.herpesviruses have been isolated from white-tailed, white-bearded and blue wildebeest, as well as from jimela topi and cape hartebeest. these animals are members of the sub-family alcelaphinae of the family bovidae. viruses isolated from wildebeest cause malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible ruminant species. alcelaphine herpesviruses (ahv) isolated from wildebeest replicate in both fetal aoudad sheep kidney (fak) cells and bovine embryonic lung (bel) cells. however, virus isolates from ...19892549921
prevalence of antibodies to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 and nucleic acid hybridization analysis of viruses isolated from captive exotic ruminants.a serologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) in captive exotic ruminants within the united states. forty-six percent of the members of the subfamily alcelaphinae (wildebeest, topi, hartebeest) in the family bovidae had virus-neutralizing antibody to ahv-1. other subfamilies of bovidae with high prevalence of virus-neutralizing antibodies to ahv-1 included hippotraginae (oryx and addax) and caprinae (sheep and goats), with prevale ...19892552876
autoimmunity in trypanosome infections. iv. natural infections in hartebeest, hyaena and lion in the serengeti national park, tanzania. 19744155599
thermoregulation and water relations of two east african antelopes: the hartebeest and impala. 19714396824
the effect of season on reproduction in the black wildebeest and red hartebeest in south africa. 19734522365
the attenuation of a herpes virus (malignant catarrhal fever virus) isolated from hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus cokei gunther). 19734778485
helminth parasites of game in transkei.opportunities have been taken to examine sundry game animals for parasites over the past 2 years. a host parasite check list is presented from which it may be noted that oesophagostomum columbianum is recorded for the first time in the red hartebeest alcelaphus buselaphus and haemochus bedfordi for the first time in the eland taurotragus oryx.19846492055
anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. it is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana americana), rocky ...19846716555
gastrointestinal parasites and bacteria flora of wild animals in the borgu game reserve in nigeria.faecal droppings from animals in the borgu game reserve were examined between the months of january and march 1981. these animals included buffalo, hartebeest, kob, roan antelope, genu cat, mangoose, warthog and monkey. haemonchus contortus was identified from the faeces of five buffalos, oesophagostomum species was identified from one warthog while strongyloides species was identified from two monkeys. no pathogenic bacteria was isolated in any of the faecal samples examined. the influence of w ...19827174235
[epidemiologic study of bluetongue in sheep, cattle and different species of wild animals in the ivory coast].between 1992 and 1993, a serological survey was conducted in côte d'ivoire on 623 sera from sheep, 215 sera from cattle and 211 sera from wild herbivores. these sera were tested for bluetongue virus (btv) antibodies using an agar gel immunodiffusion test. the purpose of this survey was twofold: to establish the incidence of bluetongue in the country, and to analyse the putative role of btv in the reproductive pathology of sheep. seroprevalence was 52 +/- 4% in sheep, 95 +/- 3% in cattle, and 56 ...19947949349
cowdria ruminantium identified in amblyomma gemma using a dna probe pcs20.amblyomma gemma ticks were collected from wild animals on a 20,000 acre game ranch in a heartwater endemic area in kenya, close to nairobi. a. variegatum is the main vector of heartwater in kenya. e.a. lewis, 1947, in a one sentence report has implicated a. gemma to be a vector of heartwater without giving any details. adult a. gemma were collected from giraffe giraffa camelopardalis, hartebeest alcephalus busephalus, eland taurotragus oryx and ostrich struthio camelus during cropping exercises. ...19938134629
cytochrome b phylogeny of the family bovidae: resolution within the alcelaphini, antilopini, neotragini, and tragelaphini.the family bovidae is characterized by an incomplete fossil record for the period during which most bovid subfamilies emerged. this, coupled to extensive morphological convergence among species, has given rise to inconsistencies in taxonomic treatments, especially at the tribal and subfamilial levels. in an attempt to clarify some of these issues we analyzed the complete mtdna cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) from 38 species/subspecies representing at least nine tribes and six subfamilies. specific e ...199910222159
malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) naturally infected with a virus resembling alcelaphine herpesvirus 2.eight barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) developed clinical signs suggestive of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) over a 28-day period. these animals were housed outdoors with four other species of ruminants. affected red deer had lethargy, ocular signs, and nasal discharge and were euthanatized within 48 h. lesions included ulcers of the muzzle, lips, and oral cavity associated with infiltrates of neutrophils and lymphocytes. serologically, six of seven red deer tested during the outbreak ...200212202582
prevalence of theileriosis in red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) in namibia.a total of 23 blood samples from red hartebeest and 28 ticks of the subspecies rhipicephalus evertsi were collected in namibia during the summer 2003. for a piroplasmida species, theileria sp 95.7% of blood and 50.0% of tick samples (all r. e. mimeticus, none of r. e. evertsi were carrying the pathogen) were pcr positive. sequencing showed infection from a re-emerging mild species of theileria phylogenetically different from other african theileria species such as theileria parva, t. buffeli, t. ...200515986252
robustostrongylus aferensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in kob (kobus kob) and hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni) (artiodactyla) from sub-saharan africa, with further ruminations on the ostertagiinae.abomasal nematodes (ostertagiinae: trichostrongyloidea), representing a previously unrecognized genus and species, were discovered in kob (kobus kob) and kongoni (hartebeest) (alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni) from uganda during surveys of ungulate parasites in the 1960s. robustostrongylus aferensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a ventriculus-like, bilobed valve at the junction of the esophagus and intestine, a synlophe with unusually robust ridges, cervical papillae and excretory pore ...200919228080
trypanosoma brucei infection in asymptomatic greater kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in zambia.trypomastogotes of trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of lusaka, zambia. blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (aepyceros melampus), kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (hippotragus niger), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (kobus vardoni), zebra (equus burchelli), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushb ...201020333288
the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in study the role of african buffalos (syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 african buffalos, 21 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major national parks in uganda between 2005 and 2008. serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus ...201021143994
[serological evidence of the existence of a wild reservoir of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the pendjari biosphere reservation in the republic of benin].in the national park of pendjari, situated in the north-west of benin, 91 wild animals, belonging to seven species, were darted. thick and thin blood smears were examined for trypanosomes and plasma for trypanolytic antibodies against 6 antigenic variants of trypanosoma brucei gambiense. parasites were found in 13.92% and trypanolytic antibodies in 20.88% of the samples. a total of 28.57% of animals were positive by at least one of the two test systems used. morphologically trypanosoma congolens ...19921417158
vector competence of glossina pallidipes and g. morsitans centralis for trypanosoma vivax, t. congolense and t. b. brucei.vector competence of glossina pallidipes for pathogenic trypanosoma species was compared to that of g. morsitans centralis. cattle or goats were the hosts used to infect teneral tsetse, rabbits were used to maintain tsetse which were dissected on day 30. mean infection rates of g. pallidipes and g. m. centralis by t. vivax isolated from a cow in kenya were respectively 39.5 +/- 8.9% and 32.1 +/- 10.3% whilst for t. vivax isolated from a cow in nigeria, they were 30.0 +/- 7.5% and 19.8 +/- 4.3%. ...19921359753
neutralising antibody to herpesviruses dervied from wildebeest and hartebeest in wild animals in east africa.the sera of 728 game animals, collected in east africa, were tested for neutralising antibody to a strain (wc11) of wildebeest herpesvirus, which is an important cause of malignant catarrhal fever of cattle. in addition, 290 of these sera were tested for neutralising activity against a closely related herpesvirus (k/30) from hartebeest (alcelaphus sp.). antibody was frequently present in three species of the subfamily alcelaphinae (wildebest, hartebeest and topi) and one of the subfamily hippotr ...19751144919
the prevalence of antibody of antibody to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (mycoplasma strain f38) in some wild herbivores and camels in kenya.sera of 11 species of wild herbivores were tested for antibody to mycoplasma strain f38 which causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) in kenya. antibodies were found in buffalo (syncerus caffer) (32%), impala (aepyceros melampus) (10%) and camels (camelus dromedarius) (49%) but not in bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus), eland (taurotragus oryx), grant's gazelle (gazella granti), kongoni (alcelaphus buselaphus cokei), oryx (oryx beisa), thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii), waterbuck (kobu ...1978691121
identification of t. brucei-subgroup strains isolated from game.several t. brucei-subgroup strains isolated from game were investigated with the blood incubation infectivity test (biit) and in human volunteers. original isolates and their clones derivatives were tested. in order to check the validity of the biit, volunteer tested clones were used under modified biit conditions. inoculation of different trypanosome strains into volunteers yielded positive parasitaemia for original isolates from lion, hyaena, and coke's hartebeest. changing antibody titers dur ...19751983
seasonal reproductive characteristics of female and male jackson's hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni).this project examined reproductive characteristics of female and male jackson's hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus jacksoni), a subspecies that originates in africa and is currently a model for studies of endangered hartebeest subspecies. progestagen concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected thrice weekly for 1 year from three non-pregnant, adult females, in the northern hemisphere (31 degrees 37'n, 81 degrees 09'w). when their ovaries were active, the females exhibited regular lute ...200818440627
on the immobilization of hartebeest and kob in upper volta.24 hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus major), one waterbuck (kobus defassa) and 16 kobs (kobus kob) were immobilized during field work in upper volta. the use of the newly developed piperidine derivative r 33799 at weight treated dosage levels can be strongly recommended for the immobilisation of hartebeest. in this species the drug produces a sufficient deep analgesia within a reasonable short period for all handling purposes. it is safe, has a wide therapeutic index, can be used in syringes of ...19817195087
the fine structure of the urinary bladder epithelium in the hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus cokii and the masai giraffe, giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi.the microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the urinary bladder epithelium are described in the giraffe and the hartebeest. differences between the epithelial cell layers of the urinary bladder are described. cells belonging to different layers show variations in their cell organelles and inclusions. the surface cells contain relatively few fusiform and spherical vesicles.1975171975
the conflict between cheetahs and humans on namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis.large areas of namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. according to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: ...201425162403
milk composition of free-ranging red hartebeest, giraffe, southern reedbuck and warthog and a phylogenetic comparison of the milk of african artiodactyla.the composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. unique properties of milk composition have been observed. southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. milk compositio ...201727880889
extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers in kenya: what are the causes?there is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of africa, including western, central and eastern africa. here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of kenya's land surface. our results show that wildlife ...201627676077
molecular cytogenetics of tragelaphine and alcelaphine interspecies hybrids: hybridization, introgression and speciation in some african antelope.hybridization can occur naturally among diverging lineages as part of the evolutionary process leading to complete reproductive isolation, or it can result from range shifts and habitat alteration through global warming and/or other anthropogenic influences. here we report a molecular cytogenetic investigation of hybridization between taxonomically distinct species of the alcelaphini (alcelaphus buselaphus 2n = 40 × damaliscus lunatus 2n = 36) and the tragelaphini (tragelaphus strepsiceros 2n = ...026582842
anesthesia of boma-captured lichtenstein's hartebeest (sigmoceros lichtensteinii) with a combination of thiafentanil, medetomidine, and ketamine.a dose range was determined for anesthesia of recently boma-captured lichtenstein's hartebeest (sigmoceros lichtensteinii) (n = 13) with the synthetic opiate thiafentanil (thia) (formerly called a3080) combined with medetomidine (med) and ketamine (ket) in the kasungu national park, malawi on 4 to 5 september 1999. the dose range of 11-29 micrograms/kg thia (mean +/- sd = 21 +/- 4 micrograms/kg) combined with 5-10 mg/kg med (8 +/- 1 micrograms/kg) plus 0.7-1.4 mg/kg ket (1.1 +/- 0.2 mg/kg) was f ...200212038149
prevalence of nasal bots (diptera: oestridae) in some zambian hartebeest.nine lichtenstein's hartebeest ( alcelaphus lichtensteini ) were sampled for nasal bots ( oestrinae ) in a woodland area of central western zambia. larvae of the genera gedoelstia , oestrus and kirkioestrus were found in mixed infestations in the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. a maximum count of 252 larvae was recorded from one head but no obvious pathogenicity was detectable in this or any other hartebeest. the significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the host specifici ...197724228960
buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in botswana.brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in southern africa, particularly in botswana.201222412932
body size and the division of niche space: food and predation differentially shape the distribution of serengeti grazers.1. theory predicts that small grazers are regulated by the digestive quality of grass, while large grazers extract sufficient nutrients from low-quality forage and are regulated by its abundance instead. in addition, predation potentially affects populations of small grazers more than large grazers, because predators have difficulty capturing and handling large prey. 2. we analyse the spatial distribution of five grazer species of different body size in relation to gradients of food availability ...201121801174
distribution and extinction of ungulates during the holocene of the southern levant.the southern levant (israel, palestinian authority and jordan) has been continuously and extensively populated by succeeding phases of human cultures for the past 15,000 years. the long human impact on the ancient landscape has had great ecological consequences, and has caused continuous and accelerating damage to the natural environment. the rich zooarchaeological data gathered at the area provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes in wild species distribution, and ...200919401760
experience with drugs for capture and restraint of wildebeest, impala, eland and hartebeest in kenya.two hundred and sixteen wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), 111 impala (aepyceros melampus), 39 eland (taurotragus oryx) and 9 hartebeest (alcelaphlus buselaphus cokii) were drug-immobilized for capture or for handling in captivity. drugs used for capture were combinations of xylazine, etorphine and acepromazine, or xylazine and fentanyl, with or without the addition of azaperone. for restraint in captivity, xylazine alone proved to be satisfactory in most instances. drugs were injected with pro ...197616498891
ungulates rely less on visual cues, but more on adapting movement behaviour, when searching for forage.finding suitable forage patches in a heterogeneous landscape, where patches change dynamically both spatially and temporally could be challenging to large herbivores, especially if they have no a priori knowledge of the location of the patches. we tested whether three large grazing herbivores with a variety of different traits improve their efficiency when foraging at a heterogeneous habitat patch scale by using visual cues to gain a priori knowledge about potential higher value foraging patches ...201728533947
interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild this study, i explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, grant's gazelle, impala, thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). six ...200415013743
influence of diet on the rumen protozoal fauna of indigenous african wild ruminants.a study was carried out to determine if the protozoal fauna of indigenous african wild ruminants was different from that found in their domestic counterparts and if the animal's diet influenced the number and types of protozoa. samples of rumen contents were collected in 1997 and 2001 from various indigenous african wild ruminants in kenya. all three ruminant feeding types were sampled: browsers or concentrate selectors (giraffe and guenther's dik-dik); intermediate or adaptable mixed feeders (i ...200312836880
molecular insights into the evolution of the family bovidae: a nuclear dna perspective.the evolutionary history of the family bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. in an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear dna markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial dna genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. the nuclear dna fragments were ...200111420362
parasites of south african wildlife. xvi. helminths of some antelope species from the eastern and western cape provinces.the numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, three eland, taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, aicelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the karoo national park, western cape province; two bontebok, damaliscus pygargus dorca ...200010843320
the use of heterologous primers for analysing microsatellite variation in hartebeest alcelaphus buselaphus. 199910509144
systemic infection with an unidentified toxoplasma-like protozoan in a neonatal lichtenstein's hartebeest (sigmoceros lichtensteinii).an unidentified toxoplasma gondii-like disseminated infection was found in tissues of a 2-day-old hartebeest. protozoal tachyzoites were about 3.5 x 1.7 microns, had electron-dense rhoptries, and divided by endodyogeny. the organism did not stain with polyclonol antibodies to t. gondii, neospora caninum, or sarcocystis cruzi.19968636866
haematological reference values for east african wild ungulates.basic haematological values were obtained in the field from shot, clinically normal, wild east african ungulates. the species studied were: thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii), grant's gazelle (gazella grantii), blue wildebeest (conochaetes taurinus), coke's hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), impala (aepyceros melampus) and burchell's zebra (equus burchelli). red cell parameters compared well with previous reports although the mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were higher. the white ...19938460271
allozyme divergence among four representatives of the subfamily alcelaphinae (family: bovidae).we used protein gel electrophoresis to study genetic diversity within and between blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), black wildebeest (c. gnou), red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) and blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi). twenty-nine protein encoding loci were resolved, average heterozygosity ranged from 3.25-5.36% and between population gene diversity accounted for the major share of the total relative gene diversity (69.34%). genetic distance values ranged from 0.021 to 0.132 ...19957584860
the use of haloperidol as a long-acting neuroleptic in game capture operations.haloperidol (r1625, serenace) a potent, long-acting butyrophenone neuroleptic, was shown to be very effective in game capture operations for the neuroleptization of several species of african wild herbivores, especially the medium and small antelopes. with a rapid onset of action following intravenous injection and a duration of action of 10-12 h in the majority of cases, haloperidol produced profound pyschomotor effects and remarkable tractability in red hartebeest, blesbok, springbok, duiker, ...19816122740
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
peripolar cells form the majority of granulated cells in the kidneys of antelopes and goats.investigation of renal cortical tissue in 5 adult hartebeests (alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), 3 impalas (aepyceros melampus), 1 defassa waterbuck (kobus defassa) and 5 goats (capra hircus) revealed large granulated peripolar cells at the junction between the parietal and the visceral epithelial layers of the renal corpuscles. all four animal species under study contained 1 or more peripolar cells for the majority of renal corpuscles sectioned through the vascular pole. in the hartebeests, up to 3 ...19892750470
comparison of genomes of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses by restriction endonuclease analysis.the restriction endonuclease dna cleavage patterns of eight isolates of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses were examined using the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori. the eight viruses could be assigned to two distinct groups. virus isolates from a blue wildebeest, a sika deer and an ibex had restriction endonuclease dna cleavage patterns that were in general similar to each other. the restriction pattern of these three viruses was distinct from the other five. of these ...19892558629
observations on two strains of bovine malignant catarrhal fever virus in tissue culture.two cell-free strains of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus were examined by fluorescent antibody staining and for cytopathogenicity in secondary bovine thyroid (bth) and secondary bovine kidney cell cultures, and in a bovine embryo lung cell line. the hartebeest-derived strain (k30) induced syncytia and intra-nuclear inclusions in all three systems, whereas the widebeest-derived strain (wc11) induced intra-nuclear inclusions in all systems, but syncytia in only bth cells. fluorescent ...1976951518
uncertain links in host-parasite networks: lessons for parasite transmission in a multi-host system.for many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. we used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in botswana. bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. we used a bayesian hierarchical model to predict the fu ...201728289262
three african antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.the use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. we simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain coo ...201626920796
investigating the contributing factors to postmortem ph changes in springbok, eland, red hartebeest and kudu edible offal.the objective of the study was to assess ph measurements between offal organs of different species and the association between ph taken 4 h post-slaughter and different predictor variables in the liver and lungs. a linear regression analysis was conducted on selected variables to identify the main predictors and their interactions affecting the ph of meat 4 h post-slaughter. in an increasing order of magnitude during winter, the ph achieved at 16 h - 36 h post-slaughter in springbok heart, liver ...201323718196
molecular phylogeny and chromosomal evolution of alcelaphini (antilopinae).robertsonian (rb) translocations, in particular centric fusions, are thought to play a primary role in evolution and speciation of the bovidae family. however, rb fusions are often polymorphic within species, being suggested as phylogenetically uninformative characters. this work studies chromosome variation in 72 captive individuals of 6 species of alcelaphini (antilopinae): the hartebeest (genus alcelaphus), hirola (beatragus), black and blue wildebeests (connochaetes), and the topi and bonteb ...201424516191
climate and the landscape of fear in an african savanna.herbivores frequently have to make trade-offs between two basic needs: the need to acquire forage and the need to avoid predation. one manifestation of this trade-off is the 'landscape of fear' phenomenon - wherein herbivores avoid areas of high perceived predation risk even if forage is abundant or of high quality in those areas. although this phenomenon is well established among invertebrates, its applicability to terrestrial large herbivores remains debated, in part because experimental evide ...201524942250
morphology, constraints, and scaling of frontal sinuses in the hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus (mammalia: artiodactyla, bovidae).the frontal sinuses of bovid mammals display a great deal of diversity, which has been attributed to both phylogenetic and functional influences. in-depth study of the hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus), a large african antelope, reveals a number of previously undescribed details of frontal sinus morphology. in a. buselaphus, the frontal sinuses conform closely to the shape of the frontal bone, filling nearly the entire element. however, the horncores are never extensively pneumatized, contrasti ...200717278134
mammalian exocrine secretions. xviii: chemical characterization of interdigital secretion of red hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus caama.gas chromatography, coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (electron impact mode and chemical ionization with methane as reactant gas), gas chromatography-infrared spectroscopy, and derivatization techniques were used to identity 53 compounds in the interdigital secretion of the red hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus caama. these compounds included alkanes, isoalkanes, alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, oxiranes, furanoid linalool oxides, and a large number of branched and unbranched satu ...200314682509
environmental change and rates of evolution: the phylogeographic pattern within the hartebeest complex as related to climatic climate fluctuated considerably throughout the pliocene-pleistocene period, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide array of species. using the phylogeographic patterns within the hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus (pallas, 1766)) complex, we evaluated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental change for a typical large mammal ranging on the african savannah. our results, as generated from two mitochondrial dna markers (the d-loop and cytochrome b), suggest an origin of th ...200111321054
phylogeography of three closely related african bovids (tribe alcelaphini).the phylogeography of three species of african bovids, the hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus), the topi (damaliscus lunatus), and the wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), is inferred from sequence variation of 345 sequences at the control region (d-loop) of the mtdna. the three species are closely related (tribe alcelaphini) and share similar habitat requirements. moreover, their former distribution extended over africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent dur ...199910605114
trichostrongylus auriculatus n. sp. (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the steenbok, raphicerus campestris (thunberg, 1811).during a pilot survey of the parasites of some artiodactylids in the kalahari gemsbok national park a new species of trichostrongylus looss, 1905 was recovered from the small intestine of a steenbok, raphicerus campestris (thunberg, 1811), a gemsbok, oryx gazella (linnaeus, 1758), and a red hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus (pallas, 1766). the male spicules were 0,120-0,148 mm long and an ear-shaped protuberance was present on the shaft of the left spicule. the presence of only a single protuber ...19863796947
wildlife population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes under community-based conservation: the example of nakuru wildlife conservancy, kenya.wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in africa, including in kenya. we analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the nakuru wildlife conservancy (nwc), located in the nakuru-naivasha region of kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from march 1996 to may 2015. rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component an ...201728103269
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