Publications

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response of the doppler echolocation system in the bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum. 19744415592
hair cells and tectorial membrane in the cochlea of the greater horseshoe bat. 19807447045
basilar membrane and its anchoring system in the cochlea of the greater horseshoe bat. 19807447044
[use of antero- and retrograde horseradish peroxidase transport to analyze interneuronal connections of the bat auditory system].tpe experiment were performed on the horsseshoe-nosed bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum). horseradish peroxidase (hrp) 25% solution was administered into the central nucleus of the inferior tubercles of the corpora quadrigemina. after two days, in the contralateral similar nucleus a great number of labelled multipolar neurons was revealed. terminal axonal branchings which get into the nucleus studied via the interquadrigeminal commissure were detected near these neurons. antero- and retrograde axo ...19807416978
the connections of the inferior colliculus and the organization of the brainstem auditory system in the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).the connections of the inferior colliculus, the mammalian mid-brain auditory center, were determined in the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum), using the horseradish peroxidase method. in order to localize the auditory centers of this bat, brains were investigated with the aid of cell and fiber-stained material. the results show that most auditory centers are highly developed in this echolocating bat. however, the organization of the central auditory system does not generally diff ...19817276250
a histochemical study on the innervation of the cerebral blood vessels in bats.the adrenergic and cholinergic nerves innervating the cerebral blood vessels of four species of japanese chiropterids (rhinolophus ferrumequinum, murina leucogaster, vespertilio superans and miniopterus schreibersi) have been investigated using specific histochemical techniques. in all these species of bats arteries of the internal carotid system are poorly developed, whereas those of the vertebro-basilar system are well developed. the adrenergic and cholinergic nerves innervating these cerebral ...19817249047
basilar membrane tuning properties in the specialised cochlea of the cf-bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum.the greater horseshoe bat has greatly expanded frequency mapping, and morphological specialisations, in the first half turn of its cochlea and a sudden transition to normal mapping. amplitude and phase of vibration have been measured on various structures in the expanded and normal regions and have not revealed any sharply tuned responses. amplitudes are much lower than those found in other species and frequently show a deep notch in the 77-84 khz region. the high-frequency cut-off frequencies a ...19836841277
middle-ear mechanics in the cf-bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum.the acoustic vibrations of the eardrum at the umbo and of the stapes have been measured in the greater horseshoe bat. the displacement amplitude response of the eardrum shows a second-order low-pass characteristic, typical of a lumped mass and stiffness system with a resonance frequency of about 55 khz. the effective mass was calculated to be about 8 micrograms, and the specific stiffness 40 x 10(6) dyne/cm3, which is one hundred times greater than guinea pig. the measured level ratio appears to ...19836841274
coccidia from bats (chiroptera) of the world: a new eimeria species in pipistrellus javanicus from japan.fecal samples from 56 japanese bats representing 6 species in 2 families were examined for coccidian oocysts. two of the 56 (< 4%) were infected with coccidia; however, only 1 animal was infected with sufficient numbers of sporulated oocysts to allow the description of a new species of eimeria. sporulated oocysts (n = 150) of this new species are subspheroidal, 20.3 x 18.1 (16-25 x 14-21) microns, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.6 x 6.6 (8-12 x 5-8) microns; this species occurred in 1 of 4 (25%) ...19979105311
sperm invasion of the oviducal mucosa, fibroblastic phagocytosis and endometrial sloughing in the japanese greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.in the japanese greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon, a vast number of spermatozoa invade the oviducal epithelial cells of the caudal isthmus and become concentrated in the endometrial lamina propria of the bicornuate horns. they are subsequently phagocytised and digested by fibroblasts. then, finally, they become deposited in the uterine lumen together with a large quantity of secretory material from the endometrial connective tissue which, prior to this event, undergoes a ma ...19846733759
studies on the vaginal plug of the japanese greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.the vaginal plug of the japanese greater horseshoe bat is composed of an outer, thick, hard and homogeneous layer originating from the stratum disjunctum of the vaginal mucosa and a thin, soft and opaque central core containing accidentally trapped dead spermatozoa. the vaginal plug appeared to be expelled just before or after ovulation in spring. immediately after copulation in autumn, uterine spermatozoa were dead but few leucocytes were present. as time passes after copulation, however, the i ...19836683318
[participation of the auditory centers of rhinolophus ferrum-equinum in echolocational tracking of a moving target].behavioral and bioacoustic techniques were used to investigate the role of the auditory cortex and inferior colliculi in echolocative detection and tracking of moving targets by the greater horseshoe bat as well as their role in the regulation of vocal apparatus. it is demonstrated that complete bilateral auditory cortex destruction leads to considerable and irreversible changes in the process of tracking of moving targets but produce no detectable effect on the functioning of the vocal apparatu ...19846521783
prolonged survival of the graafian follicle and fertilization in the japanese greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.after the mating season of the japanese greater horseshoe bat in mid- or late october, only the right ovary maintained a single graafian follicle throughout hibernation until early april. during this time the ovum was in prophase of meiosis i (resting stage) with many large lipid droplets as a nutrient source. in synchrony with stigma formation, there was resumption of meiotic activity, separation of the cumulus oophorus from the granulosa layer and dispersion of the follicle cells just before o ...19853968649
kinematics and aerodynamics of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in horizontal flight at various flight speeds.the kinematics and aerodynamics of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in horizontal flight at a range of velocities are described. as flight speed increases there is a gradual change in the bat's wingbeat kinematics, wingbeat frequency decreasing and wingbeat strokeplane angles increasing. associated with these changes are changes in the wings' incidence angles, particularly during the upstroke. at low speeds these are large and negative, suggesting thrust generation, while at ...19863806000
turning flight of bats.the turning flight of six microchiropteran bat species is described. the bats' abilities to turn tightly were determined by their abilities to fly slowly and to generate high lateral accelerations. rhinolophus ferrumequinum developed high lateral accelerations by flapping its banked wings while flying at very low speed. plecotus auritus turned at relatively low speed and at low lateral acceleration. the other species were all moving fast as they turned and generated lateral accelerations either ...19873559468
[characteristics of the areas of synchronization of the neuronal responses of the inferior colliculi in greater horseshoe bats to the presentation of amplitude-modulated stimuli].response areas of synchronized discharges measured at different values of modulation rates were studied in inferior colliculus of bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum). single neurons showed a variety of synchronized response areas to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated stimuli (thresholds of synchronized discharge plotted versus modulation rates, carrier frequency and modulation depth are constant). all neurons showed best modulation frequency where minimal thresholds could be obtained. synchronized re ...19873448496
european bat lyssavirus infection in spanish bat populations.from 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in spain. specific anti-european bat lyssavirus 1 (ebl1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in myotis myotis, miniopterus schreibersii, tadarida teniotis, and rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of aragon and the balearic islands. positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and es ...200211971777
functional laminar and columnar organization of the auditory centers in echolocating japanese greater horseshoe bats.during echolocation, bats coordinately employ the vocalization system to emit orientation sounds and the auditory system to hear returning echoes. the brain in these animals should be functionally organized to process such biologically significant sounds. here we utilized the autoradiographic 2-deoxy-[14c]glucose (dg) method to visualize functional organization of the auditory centers of echolocating japanese greater horseshoe bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon. autoradiographic color images ...19883399127
oxygen-binding properties of bat hemoglobins.the functional properties of hemolysates from the bats rhinolophus ferrumequinum, miniopterus schreibersi and pipistrellus pipistrellus were studied at 25 degrees c and 37 degrees c over the ph range 7.0-7.4. the concentrations of 2,3-dpg and their effect on hemoglobin o2 affinity were also studied under the same conditions. at ph 7.4 and 37 degrees c hemoglobin o2 affinity was higher than in similarly-sized non-flying, normothermic mammals. the bohr effect values in the three bat species were s ...19911713490
comparative study on the innervation of nerves with calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance p and neurokinin a immunoreactivity in the walls of the cerebral arteries of small bats (mammalia: microchiroptera).the distribution and origin of nerves with calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance p or neurokinin a immunoreactivity in the walls of the cerebral arteries were investigated in three microchiropteran species. the supply of nerves immunoreactive for substance p and neurokinin a to the bat cerebral arteries is confined mostly to the vertebral and basilar arteries. the density of innervation of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves and that of nerves with substance p or neurokini ...19901699170
enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in cochlear efferents in the bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum [corrected].the cochlear efferent of the bat is anatomically different from other mammals. the olivocochlear bundle of the greater horse shoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, projects only to inner hair cells. to examine the neurochemical nature of the olivocochlear bundle, we examined methionine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in this species. we observed immunoreactivity in the inner spiral bundles and in nerve fibers in the osseous spiral lamina. sometimes immunostained inner spiral bundles were found to ...19921629041
seasonal changes in blood parameters in the bat species rhinolophus ferrumequinum and miniopterus schreibersi.intersexual and seasonal comparisons of erythrocyte number, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted for two old world temperate bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum and miniopterus schreibersi. both species had many small erythrocytes and elevated hemoglobin concentrations. seasonal differences in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and mean cell volume were found in each species. the increase in the number of small erythrocytes in the warm season may be related to heightened ...19921282393
[physiologic mechanisms of use of the doppler effect in echolocation by rhinolophus ferrumequinum bats].during the flight, the greater horse-shoe bat r. ferrumequinum decreases the frequency in the medial part of the emmited signal in proportion to the relative target--bat velocity. the value of the decrease is approximately equal to the doppler shift; as a result, the animal picks up the echo at its species specific frequency irrespectively of the flight velocity. threshold curve of bat's auditory system plotted in terms of n4, exhibits a sharp turning peak with a slope of about 83 db/khz towards ...1976983573
coding of small sinusoidal frequency and amplitude modulations in the inferior colliculus of 'cf-fm' bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum.single neurons in the inferior colliculus of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, showed two broad categories of response patterns to sinusoidally frequency (sfm) or amplitude (sam) modulated stimuli. tonic responding cells (best excitatory frequency (bef) between 10 and 90 khz) showed a rough sinusoidal modulation of the discharge pattern to sfm. transient responding neurons generally showing on- or off-responses to pure tones, (bef between 65 and 88 khz), displayed highly sync ...1979759220
vocal communication in adult greater horseshoe bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum.whereas echolocation in horseshoe bats is well studied, virtually nothing is known about characteristics and function of their communication calls. therefore, the communication calls produced by a group of captive adult greater horseshoe bats were recorded during various social interactions in a free-flight facility. analysis revealed that this species exhibited an amazingly rich repertoire of vocalizations varying in numerous spectro-temporal aspects. calls were classified into 17 syllable type ...200616418857
nature and origin of cerebrovascular nerves with substance p immunoreactivity in bats (mammalia: microchiroptera), with special reference to species differences.double staining immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the origin and projection of nerves with substance p (sp) immunoreactivity (-ir) in the walls of the major cerebral arteries in two microchiropteran species. in the greater horseshoe bat, most of the cerebral perivascular nerves with sp-ir did not exhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp)-ir, but emitted bright immunofluorescence for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip). in this species, a large number of cell bodies with both ...19947529774
[effect of destruction of the inferior colliculi on the performance of the echolocating system of horseshoe-nosed bats].the effect of unilateral and bilateral destruction of the inferior colliculi on the auditory system sensitivity, sonar signals' parameters and the doppler shift compensation in echoes was studied in horseshoe bats rhinolophus ferrumequinum. complete bilateral destruction of the inferior colliculi did not produce the auditory system disfunction, but it sharply decreased auditory sensitivity of this system which was manifested in a reduction of the maximum detection range and inability to detect a ...19807422027
helminth parasites in some spanish bats.nineteen bats of the species rhinolophus ferrumequinum, r. hipposideros, myotis myotis, m. nattereri, pipistrellus pipistrellus, barbastella barbastellus, eptesicus serotinus and plecotus auritus captured in n. w. spain in 1983-85 were found to contain the following helminth parasites: mesotretes peregrinus (found in 4 host species and making up 31% of all helminths); plagiorchis vespertilionis (10.5%, in 2 host species); strongylacantha glycirrhiza, molinostrongylus alatus, molineidae gen. sp., ...19911822047
distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the diencephalon of the japanese horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum. an immunohistochemical study.the distribution of oxytocin (oxt) and vasopressin (vp) neurons in the diencephalon of the hibernating japanese horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, was immunohistochemically investigated by the avidin-biotin complex method. magnocellular oxt and vp neurons were localized mainly in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus. in addition to these main nuclei, both kinds of magnocellular neurons were also found in the periventricular nucleus, perifornical area and lateral hypothal ...19921514365
use of integrated modeling to enhance estimates of population dynamics obtained from limited data.demographic data of rare and endangered species are often too sparse to estimate vital rates and population size with sufficient precision for understanding population growth and decline. yet, the combination of different sources of demographic data into one statistical model holds promise. we applied bayesian integrated population modeling to demographic data from a colony of the endangered greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum). available data were the number of subadults and adult ...200717650245
cochlear innervation in the greater horseshoe bat: demonstration of an acoustic fovea.the innervation of the cochlea of the greater horseshoe bat was investigated by different methods. the regional densities of the spiral ganglion neurons and of the inner and outer receptors were determined from surface specimens and histological sections. the pattern of the unmyelinated fibers was reconstructed in em serial sections and the efferent pattern separately by localization of cholinesterase activity. the study reveals three regions each adapted to different auditory functions: (1) the ...19807400046
characterization of microsatellite loci in the greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum. 199910620240
genetic variation and population structure in the endangered greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum.following a dramatic decline last century, the british population of the endangered greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum is highly fragmented. to examine the consequences of fragmentation and limited dispersal on patterns of genetic structure and variation, we used microsatellite markers to screen bats from around 50% of the known maternity colonies in britain, and two areas from continental europe. analyses revealed that welsh and english colonies were genetically isolated. this, and ...200010964232
outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).the factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west britain were studied. the effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. in addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modelled ...200111375090
processing of noise by single units of the inferior colliculus of the bar rhinolophus ferrumequinum.for inferior colliculus units the response patterns and the thresholds for pure tones and noise of variable bandwidth were determined. in a threshold-bandwidth plot the noise thresholds usually fell along two regression lines whose point of intersection established the size of the neuronal critical bandwidth (ncb). the relevance of the small ncbs (0.2-0.4 khz) obtained for the frequency range of the constant frequency part of the orientation call is discussed. no fixed relation was found either ...19807451377
[the role of the central substantia grisea of the midbrain in regulating the sound emission process in the bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum].using axonal transport of hrp, relatively small region of the lateral part of the central gray matter of the midbrain was revealed the neurones of which send afferents to motoneurones of the vagal nucleus. it was shown that practically complete damage of the central gray matter does not affect temporal and frequency parameters of echo-sounding signals produced by animals during total location, do es not affect complex mechanism of stabilization of the filling frequency of these signals, as well ...19948721310
on-board telemetry of emitted sounds from free-flying bats: compensation for velocity and distance stabilizes echo frequency and amplitude.to understand complex sensory-motor behavior related to object perception by echolocating bats, precise measurements are needed for echoes that bats actually listen to during flight. recordings of echolocation broadcasts were made from flying bats with a miniature light-weight microphone and radio transmitter (telemike) set at the position of the bat's ears and carried during flights to a landing point on a wall. telemike recordings confirm that flying horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum n ...200818663454
cloning and expression of pdk4, foxo1a and dyrk1a from the hibernating greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (pdk4) cdna was cloned from the brain of greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum). the deduced amino acid sequence shares strong homology with these pdk4 of other mammals. moreover, we partially cloned homologues of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and regulated protein kinase 1a (dyrk1a), and forkhead box protein o1a (foxo1a) from greater horseshoe bat. among five different tissues tested, pdk4 mrna was highly expressed in the heart, wh ...200717140834
differential expression and functional constraint of prl-2 in hibernating bat.circannual hibernation is a biological adaptation to periods of cold and food shortage and the role of the brain in its control is poorly understood. an ssh library of hibernating bat brains (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) was constructed in order to explore the molecular mechanism of hibernation. an up-regulated gene, prl-2, was obtained from hibernating bat brains. prl-2 is a member of ptp family and has an important function in controlling cell growth. alignment of sequences showed that prl-2 is ...200717683965
phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum: contrasting results from mitochondrial and microsatellite data.phylogeographical studies are typically based on haplotype data, occasionally on nuclear markers such as microsatellites, but rarely combine both. this is unfortunate because the use of markers with contrasting modes of inheritance and rates of evolution might provide a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of a species' history. here we present a detailed study of the phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, using 1098 bp of the mitochondrial nd2 gene from ...200919192181
echolocation signals of the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in transfer flight and during landing.echolocation signals of horseshoe bats (rhinolophidae) consist of a relatively long component of constant frequency (cf) which is preceded by an initial frequency-modulated (ifm) component and followed by a terminal frequency-modulated (tfm) component. to examine the role of these components in echolocation, four bats were trained to fly from a perch to a landing bar. a dual camera system allowed reconstruction of the flight paths in three dimensions. echolocation signals were recorded, analyzed ...19979104033
[the fine structure of the gustatory cells of the circumvallate, foliate and fungiform papillae in hibernating bats].the cells of vallate, foliate and fungiform papillae were studied in insectivore hibernating bats (pipistrellus pipistrellus and rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in the various epochs of the year in order to show cell types the seasonal changes. on the basis of the ultrastructural aspects and the relationships with nerve endings, besides the few basal cells, three types of sensorial cells can be identified: dark type i cells, light type ii cells and light type iii cells. all gustatory cells, long and ...199610021731
detection of a virus related to betacoronaviruses in italian greater horseshoe bats.the association between coronaviruses and bats is a worldwide phenomenon and bats belonging to genus rhinolophus are the reservoir host for several coronaviruses, including a large number of viruses closely related genetically to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (sars-cov). we carried out a survey in colonies of italian bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) for the presence of coronaviruses. two of 52 r. ferrumequinum captured from different italian areas tested positive by reverse trans ...201120478089
rangewide phylogeography in the greater horseshoe bat inferred from microsatellites: implications for population history, taxonomy and conservation.the distribution of genetic variability across a species' range can provide valuable insights into colonization history. to assess the relative importance of european and asian refugia in shaping current levels of genetic variation in the greater horseshoe bats, we applied a microsatellite-based approach to data collected from 56 localities ranging from the uk to japan. a decline in allelic richness from west asia to the uk and analyses of f(st) both imply a northwestward colonization across eur ...200717927706
parentage, reproductive success and breeding behaviour in the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).female greater horseshoe bats form maternity colonies each summer in order to give birth and raise young. during the mating period, females visit males occupying territorial sites, copulation takes place and sperm are stored until ovulation occurs, normally in april. using microsatellite markers and a likelihood method of parentage analysis, we studied breeding behaviour and male reproductive success over a five-year period in a population of bats in south-west britain. paternity was assigned wi ...200010787156
a real-time pcr assay for bat sars-like coronavirus detection and its application to italian greater horseshoe bat faecal sample surveys.bats are source of coronaviruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) virus. numerous studies have been carried out to identify new bat viruses related to sars-coronavirus (bat-sars-like covs) using a reverse-transcribed-polymerase chain reaction assay. however, a qualitative pcr could underestimate the prevalence of infection, affecting the epidemiological evaluation of bats in viral ecology. in this work an sybr green-real time pcr assay was developed for diagnosing ...201122654650
secretory activity of gonadotropin and the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the annual reproductive cycle of male bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum: analysis by cell immunoblot assay.the purpose of this study was to examine secretory activity of gonadotropin (gn) and the responsiveness of gn secretion to gn-releasing hormone (gnrh) in male horseshoe bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, during the annual reproductive cycle. anterior pituitary cells were monodispersed and subjected to cell immunoblot assay for gn. cell blots specific for follicle stimulating hormone (fsh) or luteinizing hormone (lh) were quantified using a microscopic image analyzer. the percentages of lh- or fsh- ...200010900441
screening of hibernation-related genes in the brain of rhinolophus ferrumequinum during hibernation.the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) is a widely distributed small mammal that hibernates annually. a systematic study was initiated to identify differentially expressed genes in hibernating and aroused states of the greater horseshoe bat brain by using suppressed subtractive hybridization technique and dot blot. forty-one over-expressed ests in the hibernating state were found and 17 were known genes reported in ncbi. among these 17 genes, three were further checked by real tim ...200818055242
molecular detection and genotypic characterization of toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in four provinces of china.toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. limited information about t. gondii infection in bats is available in china. the objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic characterization of t. gondii infection in bats in jilin, liaoning, jiangxi and guangdong provinces, china.201425465220
the photoreceptor populations in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum.recently, we reported the existence of aii "rod" amacrine cells in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum (jeon et al., 2007). in order to enhance our understanding of bat vision, in the present study, we report on a quantitative analysis of cone and rod photoreceptors. the average cone density was 9,535 cells/mm2, giving a total number of cones of 33,538 cells/retina. the average rod density was 368,891 cells/mm2, giving a total number of rods of 1,303,517 cells. on a ...200818612246
basic properties and annual changes of follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in the testis of horseshoe bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum.the unique reproductive patterns, delayed fertilization in females, and asynchrony between spermatogenesis and mating behavior in males are well documented in bats living in temperate latitudes. the present study was undertaken to examine follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) receptors in the testis of bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, during the annual reproductive cycle. male bats were captured at natural roosting sites and testicular preparations were subjected to a radioligand binding assay for ...200211857464
doppler-shift compensation behavior in horseshoe bats revisited: auditory feedback controls both a decrease and an increase in call frequency.among mammals, echolocation in bats illustrates the vital role of proper audio-vocal feedback control particularly well. bats adjust the temporal, spectral and intensity parameters of their echolocation calls depending on the characteristics of the returning echo signal. the mechanism of audio-vocal integration in both mammals and birds is, however, still largely unknown. here, we present behavioral evidence suggesting a novel audio-vocal control mechanism in echolocating horseshoe bats (rhinolo ...200212000805
encoding of sound motion by binaural brainstem units in a horseshoe bat.in order to study how and if single brainstem units respond to moving compared with stationary sounds, radially moving sound sources were presented to the bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum. this time-variant binaural stimulation was simulated dichotically through earphones (closed-acoustic-field for the virtual azimuth range of +/-40 degrees from the midline). neurophysiologically recorded responses primarily showed a function of interaural intensity difference (iid) which is considered a direct co ...200212135778
molecular phylogeny of japanese rhinolophidae based on variations in the complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.microchiroptera have diversified into many species whose size and the shapes of the complicated ear and nose have been adapted to their echolocation abilities. their speciation processes, and intra- and interspecies relationships are still under discussion. here we report on the geographical variation of japanese rhinolophus ferrumequinum and r. cornutus using the complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to clarify the phylogenetic positions of the 2 species as well as that of rh ...200312773818
ultrastructural aspects of the follicular cells of the pars tuberalis in bats related to the seasonal cycle.the topography and structure of the follicular cells and the follicular cavity of the hypophyseal pars tuberalis (pt) were studied in adult hibernating bats (pipistrellus pipistrellus and rhinolophus ferrumequinum) of both sexes, during the annual seasonal cycle and the reproductive cycle. the follicular cells were found to be organized around a central cavity. they showed a polyhedral shape and apical microvilli protruding into central cavities. during hibernation, the follicular cells showed a ...200312845712
acoustic identification of eight species of bat (mammalia: chiroptera) inhabiting forests of southern hokkaido, japan: potential for conservation monitoring.assessing the impact of forest management on bat communities requires a reliable method for measuring patterns of habitat use by individual species. a measure of activity can be obtained by monitoring echolocation calls, but identification of species is not always straightforward. we assess the feasibility of using analysis of time-expanded echolocation calls to identify free-flying bats in the tomakomai experimental forest of hokkaido university, hokkaido, northern japan. echolocation calls of ...200415459453
pcr-based approach to sine isolation: simple and complex sines.highly repeated copies of short interspersed elements (sines) occur in eukaryotic genomes. the distribution of each sine family is usually restricted to some genera, families, or orders. sines have an rna polymerase iii internal promoter, which is composed of boxes a and b. here we propose a method for isolation of novel sine families based on genomic dna pcr with oligonucleotide identical to box a as a primer. cloning of the size-heterogeneous pcr-products and sequencing of their terminal regio ...200515777739
long-term paternity skew and the opportunity for selection in a mammal with reversed sexual size dimorphism.most mammalian groups are characterized by male-biased sexual size dimorphism, in which size-dependent male-male competition and reproductive skew are tightly linked. by comparison, little is known about the opportunity for sexual selection in mammalian systems without male-biased dimorphism, where the traits under sexual selection might be less obvious. we examined 10 years of parentage data in a colony of greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) to determine the magnitude of male rep ...200616911219
seroprevalence of rabies virus antibodies in bats from southern china.members of the order chiroptera are the natural reservoirs of lyssaviruses and play an important role in the transmission of rabies to animals and humans. in this present study, the seroprevalence for rabies virus was determined for bats sampled from four southern provinces on the chinese mainland. a total of 685 bats of 8 species representing 4 families were collected from 10 sites, and were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc)-conjugated prot ...201019492948
pulse-echo interaction in free-flying horseshoe bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon.because horseshoe bats emit a long-duration pulse, the returning echo temporally overlaps with the emitted pulse during echolocation. here, the pulse-echo interaction that horseshoe bats actually experience during flight was examined using onboard telemetry sound recordings. doppler-shifted returning echoes produced beats in the amplitude patterns of constant-frequency components. bats shortened the pulse duration with target distance, but the overlap duration was at least 8 ms within the approa ...200919739702
structural and functional studies of leptins from hibernating and non-hibernating bats.leptin, a 16-kda hormone produced by mature adipocytes, has been shown to regulate the hibernation of mammals. in this study, the leptin gene sequences of both hibernating (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and non-hibernating (rousettus leschenaultii) bats were determined, and the leptin proteins from these two different species of bats were expressed in escherichia coli for the first time. results showed that the amino acid sequence of the leptin protein from hibernating bats had a lower degree of id ...201020394750
co-distribution of glycoconjugates and h(+), k(+)-atpase in the parietal cells of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum (schreber, 1774).histochemical, lectin-histochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on parietal cells of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, to clarify the composition and distribution of oligosaccharide chains in the beta-subunit of the protonic pump h(+),k(+)-atpase. pas, alcian blue (ph 2.5) and alcian blue (ph 1.0) stainings detected only neutral glycoconjugates. lectin-binding analyses included lta, uea-i, cona, sba, bsi-b4, aaa, dba, pna, and wga. wga-and pna-bindings we ...201020443691
phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in northeast asia.the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. previous studies revealed the population history of r. ferrumequinum from europe and most asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in northeast asia. in this study, we obtained mitochondrial dna cyt b and d-loop data of r. ferrumequinum from northeast china, south korea and japan to clarify their phylogenetic relations ...201627761309
full-length genome sequences of two sars-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats and genetic variation analysis.bats were recently identified as natural reservoirs of sars-like coronavirus (sl-cov) or sars coronavirus-like virus. these viruses, together with sars coronaviruses (sars-cov) isolated from human and palm civet, form a distinctive cluster within the group 2 coronaviruses of the genus coronavirus, tentatively named group 2b (g2b). in this study, complete genome sequences of two additional group 2b coronaviruses (g2b-covs) were determined from horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum (g2b-cov rf1) ...200617030870
[structure and seasonal aspects of the bat gallbladder].the gallbladder of the insectivorous hibernating bats (pipistrellus pipistrellus et rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in fullness, shows a fundus, a corpus and a neck. its wall is formed by three layers: mucous membrane, with simple columnar epithelium on a thin basal lamina, beneath which is a "lamina propria" of connective tissue with blood and lymphatic vessels; lamina muscularis, constituted by three of four parallel bundles of smooth muscle cells, arranged in circular pattern; serous membrane of l ...19937941908
echolocation calls of bats are influenced by maternal effects and change over a lifetime.the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is a model species in echolocation studies, and emits calls containing long constant-frequency (cf) components. the bats have auditory systems tuned sharply to frequencies close to the resting cf (rf) values. call frequency and neural processing are both flexible within individual bats which use this mode of echolocation. the simple structure of the calls makes them ideal for sonographic analysis. here, in a large-scale and long-term analysis ...19938391702
The complete mitochondrial genome of the greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).The total length of the mitogenome of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai is 16,839 bp with a total base composition of 31.8% A, 25.4% T, 28.7% C, and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.201122040078
horseshoe bats and old world leaf-nosed bats have two discrete types of pinna motions.horseshoe bats (rhinolophidae) and the related old world leaf-nosed bats (hipposideridae) both show conspicuous pinna motions as part of their biosonar behaviors. in the current work, the kinematics of these motions in one species from each family (rhinolophus ferrumequinum and hipposideros armiger) has been analyzed quantitatively using three-dimensional tracking of landmarks placed on the pinna. the pinna motions that were observed in both species fell into two categories: in "rigid rotations" ...201728599557
adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats.hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparα). the role of pparα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether pparα is adapted to hibernation in bats.201525980933
lectin histochemistry of gastrointestinal glycoconjugates in the greater horseshoe bat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum (schreber, 1774).mucins in the gastrointestinal tract of rhinolophus ferrumequinum were investigated by histochemistry and lectin histochemistry to evaluate morphofunctional variations of different regions and their possible physiological and evolutionary implications. histochemical methods included periodic acid-schiff (pas), alcian blue (ab) at ph 2.5 and 1.0 and high-iron-diamine ab ph 2.5. binding of lectins con a, dba, wga, lta, lfa, pna and sba; lfa, pna and sba with prior sialidase treatment; and paradoxi ...200717570476
characteristics of echolocating bats' auditory stereocilia length, compared with other mammals.the stereocilia of the organ of corti in 4 different echolocating bats, myotis adversus, murina leucogaster, nyctalus plancyi (nyctalus velutinus), and rhinolophus ferrumequinum were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (sem). stereocilia lengths were estimated for comparison with those of non-echolocating mammals. the specialized lengths of outer hair cells (ohc) stereocilia in echolocating bats were shorter than those of non-echolocating mammals. the specialized lengths of inner hair ...200717653670
spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).during a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland china and transported to the united states for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. all animals were in good body condition at the time of death. at necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. the liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. microscopic examinat ...200516370581
severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus orf8 protein is acquired from sars-related coronavirus from greater horseshoe bats through recombination.despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-related coronaviruses (sarsr-covs), the origin of sars-cov orf8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. although two sars-related rhinolophus sinicus bat covs (sarsr-rs-batcovs) previously detected in chinese horseshoe bats (rhinolophus sinicus) in yunnan, rsshc014 and rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet sarsr-covs, th ...201526269185
bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism.recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the earth's magnetic field. to unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (miniopterus fuliginosus, chaerephon plicata, and nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (hipposideros armiger, myotis ricketti, and rhinolophus ferrumequinum). room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed tha ...201020607738
insights into persistence mechanisms of a zoonotic virus in bat colonies using a multispecies metapopulation model.rabies is a worldwide zoonosis resulting from lyssavirus infection. in europe, eptesicus serotinus is the most frequently reported bat species infected with lyssavirus, and thus considered to be the reservoir of european bat lyssavirus type 1 (eblv-1). to date, the role of other bat species in eblv-1 epidemiology and persistence remains unknown. here, we built an eblv-1-transmission model based on local observations of a three-cave and four-bat species (myotis capaccinii, myotis myotis, miniopte ...201424755619
taxonomic evaluation of the greater horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum (chiroptera: rhinolophidae) in iran inferred from the mitochondrial d-loop gene.to examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial d-loop gene of rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of iran. twenty-two published d-loop sequences from europe (switzerland, united kingdom, bulgaria, and tunisia), and anatolia (south, west, and east tu ...201728770672
a new trematode (digenea: mesotretidae) from the horseshoe bat rhinolophus ferrumequinum (chiroptera: rhinolophidae) in china.a new species of mesotretes (trematoda: mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in henan province, china, from august 2003 to january 2005. this species, mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to mesotretes orientalis and mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anter ...200919642799
parasites of parasites of bats: laboulbeniales (fungi: ascomycota) on bat flies (diptera: nycteribiidae) in central europe.bat flies (streblidae and nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order diptera. members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. however, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order laboulbeniales. in europe, members of the nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus arthrorhynchus. we carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fun ...201728222795
advantages of using fecal samples for stable isotope analysis in bats: evidence from a triple isotopic experiment.stable isotope analysis in ecological studies is usually conducted on biomaterials, e.g. muscle and blood, that require catching the animals. feces are rarely used for stable isotope analysis, despite the possibility of non-invasive sampling and short-term responsiveness to dietary changes. this promising method is neglected due to a lack of calibration experiments and unknown diet-feces isotopic difference (δ(diet-feces)).201323939961
adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. in contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (pah), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (hgd), fumarylacetoacetase (fah), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism w ...201323620802
vocalization of echolocation-like pulses for interindividual interaction in horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).although much is known about the echolocation of horseshoe bats (rhinolophus spp.), little is known about the characteristics and function of their communication calls. this study focused on a stereotyped behavior of a bat approaching a companion animal in the colony, and examined their interaction and vocalization during this behavior. the bats emit echolocation-like vocalizations when approaching each other and these vocalizations contain a "buildup" pulse sequence, in which the frequency of t ...201223145704
geographic variation in the acoustic traits of greater horseshoe bats: testing the importance of drift and ecological selection in evolutionary processes.patterns of intraspecific geographic variation of signaling systems provide insight into the microevolutionary processes driving phenotypic divergence. the acoustic calls of bats are sensitive to diverse evolutionary forces, but processes that shape call variation are largely unexplored. in china, rhinolophus ferrumequinum displays a diverse call frequency and inhabits a heterogeneous landscape, presenting an excellent opportunity for this kind of research. we quantified geographic variation in ...201323950926
gene expression and adaptive evolution of zbed1 in the hibernating greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum).mammalian hibernators experience physiological extremes, e.g. ischemia, muscle disuse and hypothermia, which are lethal to non-hibernators, implying the existence of underlying mechanisms that allow hibernators to withstand these physiological extremes. increased cell proliferation is suggested to be such a strategy, but its molecular basis remains unknown. in this study, we characterized the expression pattern of zbed1 (zinc finger, bed-type containing 1), a transcription factor that plays a cr ...201626787476
convergence of reference frequencies by multiple cf-fm bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) during paired flights evaluated with onboard microphones.the constant frequency component of the second harmonic (cf(2)) of echolocation sounds in rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon were measured using onboard telemetry microphones while the bats exhibited doppler-shift compensation during flights with conspecifics. (1) the cf(2) frequency of pulses emitted by individual bats at rest (f (rest)) showed a long-term gradual decline by 0.22 khz on average over a period of 3 months. the mean neighboring f (rest) (interindividual differences in f (rest) betwe ...201222717760
different auditory feedback control for echolocation and communication in horseshoe bats.auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. we tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocatio ...201323638137
differential expression of hepatic genes of the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) between the summer active and winter torpid states.hibernation is one type of torpor, a hypometabolic state in heterothermic mammals, which can be used as an energy-conservation strategy in response to harsh environments, e.g. limited food resource. the liver, in particular, plays a crucial role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. studies on ground squirrels and bears reveal that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during hibernation. especially, the genes involved in carbohydrate catabolism are down-r ...201526698122
immunocytochemical localization of cholinergic amacrine cells in the bat retina.the purpose of this study was to localize the cholinergic amacrine cells, one of the key elements of a functional retina, in the retina of a microbat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum. the presence and localization of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive (chat-ir) cells in the microbat retina were investigated using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and quantitative analysis. these chat-ir cells were present in the ganglion cell layer (gcl) and inner part of the inner nuclear layer (inl), a ...201728483062
complete mitochondrial genomes of two subspecies (rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus) of the greater horseshoe bat (chiroptera: rhinolophidae).rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in china. in this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. phylogenetic analyses indicated that r. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of r. ferrumequinum from korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.201726678669
maintenance of neural activities in torpid rhinolophus ferrumequinum bats revealed by 2d gel-based proteome analysis.bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flying. many bat species hibernate in winter. a reversible control of cerebral activities is critical for bats to accommodate a repeated torpor-arousal cycle during hibernation. little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal activities in torpid bats. in this study, rhinolophus ferrumequinum bat brain proteins were fractionated, and their abundance in active and torpid states was compared. results of 2d gel-based proteomics ...201728473298
size and quality information in acoustic signals of rhinolophus ferrumequinum in distress situations.many animals produce alarm or distress calls when they encounter predators. previous studies have shown that the distress calls of some birds can also signal the quality of the bird as prey to predators. in this case, both predator and prey may benefit from sharing information about prey's ability to escape. however, little is known about whether echolocation pulses and distress calls in bats convey size and quality information in distress situations. this study investigates the relationship bet ...201728238774
determinants and patterns of reproductive success in the greater horseshoe bat during a population recovery.an individual's reproductive success will depend on traits that increase access to mates, as well as the number of mates available. in most well-studied mammals, males are the larger sex, and body size often increases success in intra-sexual contests and thus paternity. in comparison, the determinants of male success in species with reversed sexual size dimorphism (rsd) are less well understood. greater horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) exhibit rsd and females appear to exert mate choic ...201424551052
interplay of lancet furrows and shape change in the horseshoe bat noseleaf.horseshoe bats emit biosonar pulses through the nostrils and diffract the outgoing ultrasonic pulses with baffles, so-called "noseleaves," that surround the nostrils. the noseleaves have complex static geometries and can furthermore undergo dynamic shape changes during emission of the biosonar pulses. the posterior noseleaf part, the lancet, has been shown to carry out anterior-posterior flicking motions during biosonar emissions with average lancet tip displacements of about 1 mm. here, the aco ...201526627792
localization of choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities in the superior colliculus of the microbat, rhinolophus ferrumequinum.the purpose of this study was to determine whether the superior colliculus (sc) of the microbat has the same neurochemical makeup as that of other mammals. we examined the organization of choline acetyltransferase (chat)- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (th-ir) fibers/cells using standard immunohistochemistry with antibodies against chat and th. chat-ir fibers observed in the superficial layers were denser than those in the deeper layers, and these fibers were classified into two types: ...201727681043
a test of rensch's rule in greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum) with female-biased sexual size dimorphism.sexual size dimorphism (ssd) is widespread within the animal kingdom. rensch's rule describes a relationship between ssd and body size: ssd increases with body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. rensch's rule is well supported for taxa that exhibit male-biased ssd but patterns of allometry among taxa with female-biased size dimorphism are mixed, there is evidence both for and against the rule. furthermore, most studies have investiga ...201424465886
novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity, and hints for recombination.papillomaviruses (pvs) are widespread pathogens. however, the extent of pv infections in bats remains largely unknown. this work represents the first comprehensive study of pvs in iberian bats. we identified four novel pvs in the mucosa of free-ranging eptesicus serotinus (eserpv1, eserpv2, and eserpv3) and rhinolophus ferrumequinum (rferpv1) individuals and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships within the viral family. we further assessed their prevalence in different populations of e. sero ...201424391150
prey pursuit strategy of japanese horseshoe bats during an in-flight target-selection task.the prey pursuit behavior of japanese horseshoe bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) was investigated by tasking bats during flight with choosing between two tethered fluttering moths. echolocation pulses were recorded using a telemetry microphone mounted on the bat combined with a 17-channel horizontal microphone array to measure pulse directions. flight paths of the bat and moths were monitored using two high-speed video cameras. acoustical measurements of returning echoes from fluttering m ...201424958227
high duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (ldc) bat calls. depending on the re ...201526549128
bats and rodents shape mammalian retroviral phylogeny.endogenous retroviruses (ervs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. in this study, we target high quality pol sequences from 7,994 class i and 8,119 class ii ervs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. by analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined erv clades ...201526548564
adaptive beam-width control of echolocation sounds by cf-fm bats, rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon, during prey-capture flight.the echolocation sounds of japanese cf-fm bats (rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) were measured while the bats pursued a moth (goniocraspidum pryeri) in a flight chamber. using a 31-channel microphone array system, we investigated how cf-fm bats adjust pulse direction and beam width according to prey position. during the search and approach phases, the horizontal and vertical beam widths were ±22±5 and ±13±5 deg, respectively. when bats entered the terminal phase approximately 1 m from a moth, d ...201323487269
localization of nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the bat visual cortex and co-localization with calcium-binding proteins.microchiroptera (microbats) is a suborder of bats thought to have degenerated vision. however, many recent studies have shown that they have visual ability. in this study, we labeled neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nnos)-the synthesizing enzyme of the gaseous non-synaptic neurotransmitter nitric oxide-and co-localized it with calbindin d28k (cb), calretinin (cr), and parvalbumin (pv) in the visual cortex of the greater horseshoe bat (rhinolophus ferrumequinum, a species of microbats). nnos-immun ...201526379314
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