attraction of culex pipiens pipiens (diptera: culicidae) to flower volatiles.methylene chloride extracts of flowers from 4 plants (common milkweed, asclepias syriaca l; ox-eye daisy, leucanthemum vulgare lamarck; canada goldenrod, solidago canadensis l.; and yarrow, achillea millefolium l.) were tested in a dual-port olfactometer for attractiveness to female northern house mosquitoes, culex pipiens pipiens l. fifty milligrams of extract was used for each test, which was equivalent to the amount of extract from flowers of 0.58 common milkweed inflorescences, 1.75 ox-eye d ...199910467780
(+)-(10r)-germacrene a synthase from goldenrod, solidago canadensis; cdna isolation, bacterial expression and functional analysis.profiling of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in extracts of goldenrod, solidago canadensis, by gc-ms revealed the presence of both enantiomers of germacrene d and lesser amounts of germacrene a, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. a similarity-based cloning strategy using degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on conserved amino acid sequences in known plant sesquiterpene synthases and rt-pcr, resulted in the isolation of a full length sesquiterpene synthase cdna. functional expression of the ...200212127586
in-vitro effect of flavonoids from solidago canadensis extract on glutathione s-transferase.solidago canadensis is typical of a flavonoid-rich herb and the effect of an aqueous ethanol extract on glutathione-s-transferase (gst) activity using hepg2 cells was compared with those of the flavonol quercetin and its glycosides quercitrin and rutin, found as major constituents. the composition of the extract was determined by hplc and rutin was found to be the major flavonoidal component of the extract. total gst activity was assessed using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. the gly ...200616451754
relatedness of macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean and sorghum.agricultural and wild ecosystems may interact through shared pathogens such as macrophomina phaseolina, a generalist clonal fungus with more than 284 plant hosts that is likely to become more important under climate change scenarios of increased heat and drought stress. to evaluate the degree of subdivision in populations of m. phaseolina in kansas agriculture and wildlands, we compared 143 isolates from maize fields adjacent to tallgrass prairie, nearby sorghum fields, widely dispersed soybean ...201019943894
antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by haudenosaunee peoples of new york state.the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. this study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in haudenosaunee traditional medicine. we tested the hypothesis that extracts from haudenosaunee medicin ...201021054887
bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination.the bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that achillea millefolium, solidago canadensis, trifolium aureum, and dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. a total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. the i ...201627252685
larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. so, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of eugenia jambolana, solidago canadensis, euodia ridleyi, and spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus. the larval bioassay was conducted follow ...201424562451
synergistic effect of eugenia jambolana linn. and solidago canadensis linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector aedes aegypti linn. at mysore.with the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at university of mysore. the extracts of solidago canadensis and eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. the deltamethrin when analyzed separately, lc50 and lc90 value ...201323179216
potential for phytoextraction of pcbs from contaminated soils using weeds.a comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (etobicoke and lindsay) in southern ontario, canada. soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. all species accumulated pcbs in their root and shoot tissues. mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for ...201020483449
effective half-lives of ¹³⁷cs in giant butterbur and field horsetail, and the distribution differences of potassium and ¹³⁷cs in aboveground tissue parts.concentrations of (137)cs and (40)k in different tissues of edible wild herbaceous plants, that is, leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur (petasites japonicas (siebold et zucc.) maxim.), and leaf, stem and strobilus for fertile shoot of field horsetail (equisetum arvense l.) were measured in 2012-2014 to clarify the effect in japan from the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident. the concentrations of (137)cs decreased with time with effective half-lives of ca. 450 d and 360 d for g ...201525588954
application of lipid extracts from solidago canadensis to phytomonitoring of pcb126 in transgenic arabidopsis plants.the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of lipid extracts from solidago canadensis for phytomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) 126 in the transgenic arabidopsis plant xgd2v11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr)-mediated β-glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene expression system. a lipid extract was prepared from s. canadensis and separated into simple lipid, glycolipid, and phospholipid fractions by silica gel column chromatography. sterylgluco ...201424530184
effects of n on plant response to heat-wave: a field study with prairie vegetation.more intense, more frequent, and longer heat-waves are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic ecological impacts. increasing nitrogen (n) availability and its dynamics will likely impact plant responses to heat stress and carbon (c) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. this field study examined the effects of n availability on plant response to heat-stress (hs) treatment in naturally-occurring vegetation. hs (5 d at ambient or 40.5 degrees c) and n treatments ...200819017129
glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings.crops engineered to contain genes for tolerance to multiple herbicides may be treated with several herbicides to manage weeds resistant to each herbicide. thus, nearby non-target plants may be subjected to increased exposure to several herbicides used in combination. of particular concern are native plants, as well as adjacent crops which have not been genetically engineered for tolerance to herbicides. we evaluated responses of seven species of native plants grown in a greenhouse and treated le ...201525821135
timing effects of heat-stress on plant ecophysiological characteristics and growth.heat-waves with higher intensity and frequency and longer durations are expected in the future due to global warming, which could have dramatic impacts in agriculture, economy and ecology. this field study examined how plant responded to heat-stress (hs) treatment at different timing in naturally occurring vegetation. hs treatment (5 days at 40.5°c) were applied to 12 1 m(2) plots in restored prairie vegetation dominated by a warm-season c4 grass, andropogon gerardii, and a warm-season c3 forb, ...201627853463
photosynthetic symmetry of sun and shade leaves of different orientations.the photosynthetic responses to light of leaves irradiated on the adaxial or abaxial surfaces, were measured for plants with contrasting leaf orientations. for vertical-leaf species of open habitats (eryngium yuccifolium and silphium terebinthinaceum), photosynthetic rates were identical when irradiated on either surface. however, for horizontal-leaf species of open habitats (ambrosia trifida and solidago canadensis), light-saturated rates of photosynthesis for adaxial irradiation were 19 to 37% ...199128313351
host suitability of 32 common weeds to meloidogyne hapla in organic soils of southwestern quebec.thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (pf/pi = final number of m. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of m. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (pf/pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. tomato cv. ...199619277189
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. root essential oil.the essential oil from the roots of solidago canadensis linn. (fam. asteraceae) was analyzed by gc, gc/ms and nmr spectroscopy. thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). the antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against s. feacalis and e. coli whereas ...201024825986
equilibrium and kinetic studies of copper biosorption by dead ceriporia lacerata biomass isolated from the litter of an invasive plant in china.ceriporia lacerata, a strain of white-rot fungus isolated from the litter of an invasive plant (solidago canadensis) in china, was little known about its properties and utilization. in this work, the copper(ii) biosorption characteristics of formaldehyde inactivated c. lacerata biomass were examined as a function of initial ph, initial copper(ii) concentration and contact time, and the adsorptive equilibrium and kinetics were simulated, too.201525954509
solidago canadensis l. essential oil vapor effectively inhibits botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system.this study investigated the anti-fungal properties of solidago canadensis l. essential oil (scleo) against botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. scleo exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against b. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. scleo vapor ...201627531994
survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. a surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). in the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survi ...201223266071
evaluation of a new battery of toxicity tests for boreal forest soils: assessment of the impact of hydrocarbons and salts.the ability to assess the toxic potential of soil contamination within boreal regions is currently limited to test species representative of arable lands. this study evaluated the use of six boreal plant (pinus banksiana, picea glauca, picea mariana, populus tremuloides, calamagrostis canadensis, and solidago canadensis) and four invertebrate (dendrodrilus rubidus, folsomia nivalis, proisotoma minuta, and oppia nitens) species, and compared their performance to a suite of standard agronomic soil ...201222228553
New labdane diterpenes from Solidago canadensis.The ethanol extract of roots of Solidago canadensis yielded eight labdane-type diterpenes. Five of those were new natural compounds (9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3a), 13-epi-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6,15-dione (3b), 15,16-epoxy-labdane-7,13-diene-6,16-dione (5), 15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6a) and 13-epi-15-ethoxy-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-labdane-7-ene-6-one (6b). The known labdane diterpenes deoxysolidagenone (1), solidagenone (2) and 15,16-epoxy-labd ...201122007910
effects of metal lead on growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive plant species (solidago canadensis l.).it is less known whether and how soil metal lead (pb) impacts the invasion of exotic plants. a greenhouse experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of lead on the growth and mycorrhizae of an invasive species (solidago canadensis l.) in a microcosm system. each microcosm unit was separated into host and test compartments by a replaceable mesh screen that allowed arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungal hyphae rather than plant roots to grow into the test compartments. three pb levels (control, ...200818763570
a new labdane diterpene from the flowers of solidago canadensis.a new labdane diterpene, 9alpha,16xi-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7,13-labdadien-15,16-olide (solicanolide, 1) and six known compounds identified as quercetin (2), 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (3, neochlorogenic acid), 5-o-caffeoylquinic acid (4, chlorogenic acid), 4,5-di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,5-di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (6) and 3,4-di-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7) were isolated from the flowers of solidago canadensis. to our knowledge, compound 7 was isolated for the first time in s. canadensis. this work desc ...200818175981
enantiospecific (+)- and (-)-germacrene d synthases, cloned from goldenrod, reveal a functionally active variant of the universal isoprenoid-biosynthesis aspartate-rich motif.the naturally occurring, volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene d has strong effects on insect behaviour and genes encoding enzymes that produce this compound are of interest in the study of plant-insect interactions and in a number of biotechnological approaches to pest control. goldenrod, solidago canadensis, is unusual in that it produces both enantiomers of germacrene d. two new sesquiterpene synthase cdnas, designated sc11 and sc19, have been isolated from goldenrod and functional ex ...200415542052
antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the north american boreal forest.thirty-five plant species were selected from the published literature as traditionally used by the indigenous peoples of the boreal forest in canada for three or more symptoms of diabetes or its complications. antioxidant activities in methanolic extracts support the contribution of these traditional medicines in a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes. in a dpph assay of free radical scavenging activity 89% of the methanol extracts had activity significantly greater than commo ...200212241996
host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (lepidoptera: gelechiidae).careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the solidago canadensis complex: s. altissima and s. gigantea (asteraceae). we tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in g. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six si ...200212206247
selecting and evaluating native plants for region-specific phytotoxicity this study, we evaluated methodology to determine risks to terrestrial native plant species from potential herbecide drift, focusing on 1) selection of native species for testing, 2) growth of these species, and 3) variability in herbicide response among native species and compared with crop plants. native plant species were selected for initial testing on the basis of spatial analysis, which indicated that species from illinois, usa, were at potential risk for off-target effects of herbicide ...200817973566
does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine vincetoxicum rossicum (apocynaceae)?determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern united states and southeastern canada. more than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. for evaluating the potential consequences ...201021622385
factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction.many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. the best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. the use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. however, a major componen ...201424708722
positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. here we tested how alterations in amf community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. we first examined the effects of the invasive forb so ...201020808770
microfungi on compositae in the ruhr basin.forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the compositae occurring in several locations in the ruhr basin in north rhine-westphalia. many fungi belong to the ascomycetes (erysiphales, diaporthales, dothideales, leotiales and pleosporales) and to the deuteromycetes (melanconiales, moniliales and sphaeropsidales). other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the basidiomycetes (uredinales) and to the oomycetes (peronosporales). some recorded microfungi have been ...200212701426
[allelopathic effects of invasive weed solidago canadensis on native plants].with growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed solidago canadensis on native plant species. different concentration s. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were trifolium repens, trifolium pretense, medicago lupulina, lolium perenne, suaeda glauca, plantago virginica, kummerowia stipulacea, festuca arundinacea, ageratum conyzoides, portulaca oleracea, and amaranthus spinosus. the results showed that the allelopathic i ...200516515192
rising atmospheric co2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for north american present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, ca however, whether ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. flowering late in the season, goldenrod (solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. bombus spp.) and ...201627075256
initial response by a native beetle, chrysochus auratus (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), to a novel introduced host-plant, vincetoxicum rossicum (gentianales: apocynaceae).native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. the recent introduction into eastern north america of a nonnative european vine, vincetoxicum rossicum (kleopow) barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, chrysochus auratus f., that feeds on native plants in the same family as v. rossicum (apocynaceae). we tested c. auratus on v. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (apocynum sp ...201728398528
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