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the role of 36 megadalton plasmid of salmonella enteritidis for the pathogenesis in mice.the pathogenesis associated with the 36 megadalton (md) plasmid of salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis) was assessed by using the plasmid-containing strain al1190, plasmid-cured strain al1192, and plasmid-reintroduced strain al1193. after oral inoculation of strain al1190 or al1192 to c57bl/6 mice, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleens, and livers were examined for the numbers of viable bacteria and for the histopathological changes. the numbers of bacteria ...19921420563
molecular typing of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar wien by rrna gene restriction patterns.analysis of digested dna from 40 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar wien isolates revealed five different rrna gene restriction patterns for hindiii (h1 to h5) and five for psti (p1 to p5). the isolates had been selected on the basis of the year of isolation, the geographic origin and the antibiotic resistance pattern and were distinguished as follows: a) 13 pre-epidemic isolates from different french towns in 1958-69 and from senegal in 1968; b) 7 epidemic isolates from algiers in 1969 ...19921488554
[increase in the incidence of the typhimurium serotype of salmonella enterica (i) versus the classic enteritidis serotype]. 19921489802
plasmid profile analysis, phage typing, and antibiotic sensitivity of salmonella dublin from clinical isolates in the united states.one hundred clinical isolates of salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar dublin (salmonella dublin) were examined for phage sensitivity, antibiotic resistance patterns, and plasmid content. computer analysis of the lysis patterns observed by using 27 typing phages divided the s. dublin isolates into 26 groups. one lytic pattern (designated pattern 16) contained 52% of the isolates examined whereas 16 isolates had unique patterns, and nine patterns had fewer than ten members. although ...19921514237
acid adaptation promotes survival of salmonella spp. in cheese.salmonella typhimurium was adapted to acid by exposure to hydrochloric acid at ph 5.8 for one to two doublings. acid-adapted cells had increased resistance to inactivation by organic acids commonly present in cheese, including lactic, propionic, and acetic acids. recovery of cells during the treatment with organic acids was increased 1,000-fold by inclusion of 0.1% sodium pyruvate in the recovery medium. acid-adapted s. typhimurium cells survived better than nonadapted cells during a milk fermen ...19921622286
epidemiological evaluation by rrna-dna hybridization of strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar abortusovis isolated in southern italy in the years 1981-1989.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar abortusovis is a major agent of abortion of the sheep and is firmly established, although at low prevalence, in sicily. this paper describes the application rdna gene restriction pattern fingerprinting to investigate relatedness among 7 serovar abortusovis strains isolated at the "istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale" of sicily and 29 isolates identified at the southern italy centre of enterobacteriaceae between 1981 and 1989. although abortusovis ser ...19911727022
characterization of strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar wien isolated in italy: an epidemiological evaluation.in the years 1987-1988, 110 strains of wien serovar were isolated from a gastroenteritis outbreak in a neonatal unit in palermo (sicily). these strains showed different drug resistance patterns and plasmid profiles. analysis of endonuclease restriction fragments of chromosomal dna by hybridization with e. coli rrna has demonstrated that a single bacterial clone or its derivatives were responsible for the outbreak. furthermore, the study of 139 strains, isolated since 1970 from different geograph ...19901982334
abortion and serological reaction of ewes after conjunctival instillation of salmonella enterica subsp enterica ser abortusovis.the aim of the experiment was to evaluate in pregnant ewes the clinical, bacteriological and serological effects of conjunctival instillation of s abortusovis. an individual dose of 1 x 10(10) viable s abortusovis were administered to 20 ewes 92 d after mating. among 18 pregnant ewes, 8 aborted 110 +/- 13 d after mating, 4 had stillborn lambs and 6 a clinically normal lambing (114 +/- 1.3 d). s abortusovis was isolated from placentas, swabs and foetuses of the 12 lambings. evolution of "h" agglu ...19912042907
rrna probing of chromosomal dna of epidemic and sporadic isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar kottbus from northern and southern italy.fifty-two strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar kottbus, identified at the centres of enterobacteriaceae of northern and southern italy, were investigated by molecular genetic methods. thirteen isolates were recovered during two food-poisoning outbreaks that occurred in may 1987 in lombardy. the rdna gene restriction patterns, obtained by probing endonuclease cleaved chromosomal dna with photobiotin labeled escherichia coli rrna, revealed some heterogeneity among strains isolate ...19902091942
experimental ovine salmonellosis (salmonella abortusovis): pathogenesis and vaccination.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. abortusovis, a sheep-adapted serotype, causes a contagious disease. abortion is the major symptom and the main source of contamination. research on this ovine disease may aid farmers, but may also contribute to comparative biological knowledge. innate resistance partly controlled by the ity locus, increased resistance to reinfection and humoral and t-cell-mediated immunity were observations gained with a murine model. in ewes, abortion regularly occurs fo ...19902101486
occurrence of h-antigen z66 of r phase in cultures of salmonella serovar typhi originated from indonesia.eighteen strains of salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar typhi (s. typhi) isolated from blood of patients in japan who had visited indonesia and returned before the onset of typhoid fever were found to possess the h-antigen z66 reported by guinée et al. (1981) but had the naturally occurring h-antigen d. they were not lysed by any of the phages of the vi phage typing system. after passage through semi-solid medium containing h-z66 antiserum, h-antigens of 11 of 18 cultures with h- ...19883181315
[the aerobic intestinal flora of the microchiropteran bat chaerephon pumila in madagascar].from stools of 88 malagasy insect eater bats chaerephon pumila, a large amount of bacterial strains were isolated. twenty different species were recognized, most of them belonged to enterobacteriaceae family. eight strains were identified as salmonella enterica subsp. enterica o48: -; 1.5, despite many atypical characters. strains of salmonella enteritidis, koserella trabulsii, kluyvera sp., odc negative serratia marcescens, atypical hafnia alvei... were also identified.19883240566
virulence-associated plasmids of salmonella serotype typhimurium in experimental murine infection.the growth pattern of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium (typhimurium) was studied in mice to examine the role of the 60-mdal virulence-associated plasmid in the pathogenesis of mouse typhoid. after repeated subcultures at 45 degrees c, isogenic variants harbouring the virulence-associated plasmid (strains c52, tm122 and tm332) or having lost this large plasmid (strains c53, tm123 and tm333) were obtained from three parental strains (strains c5, tm12 and tm33, respectively) ...19863324943
salt-induced filamentous growth of a salmonella strain isolated from blood.a strain of salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar paratyphi-a isolated from the blood of a febrile patient grew into filaments on a nutrient agar containing various salts, such as nacl, kcl, mgcl2, nh4cl, (nh4)2so4, or (nh4)2hpo4, at concentrations of 50 to 400 mm. the filamentous cells were nonseptate and multinucleate, and they had colony-forming ability. this mutant strain, however, did not show filamentous growth in liquid media which contained the same salts. on nutrient agar ...19863700602
[study of 2 food poisoning outbreaks in mora (toledo) with the same source of infection].the occurrence of an outbreak needs an immediate investigation, because on it depends the necessary measures to control the spread of the epidemic, and it is also the way of knowing the causal factor. we present the results of the investigation of two food poisoning outbreaks (outbreak a and outbreak b) occurred in mora (toledo). both outbreaks were reported at the same time, the source of infection was the same and the total number of exposed people was 620.19947618037
new extended-spectrum tem-type beta-lactamase from salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated in a nosocomial outbreak.a new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was detected in a lactose-positive salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain that caused a nosocomial outbreak involving eight patients in a pediatric cardiology unit. this strain showed high levels of resistance to ceftazidime and aztreonam and relatively low levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. resistance was associated with a conjugative plasmid of 59 kb, which encoded a new beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 5.9 that strongly hy ...19957726515
use of ribotyping, is200 typing and plasmid analysis for the identification of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium vaccine strain zoosaloral h and its differentiation from wild type strains of the same serovar.fifty salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (s. typhimurium) isolates obtained from one vaccinated and three non-vaccinated poultry flocks as well as the commercially available vaccine strain zoosaloral h and a s. typhimurium reference strain were characterized genotypically to differentiate between s. typhimurium live vaccine strain zoosaloral h and wild type strains of the same serovar. ribotyping revealed five different patterns one of which exclusively occurred in the vacci ...19947727890
nucleotide sequence of iaga and iagb genes involved in invasion of hela cells by salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. typhi. 19957754225
pulsed-field gel electrophoretic identification of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium live vaccine strain zoosaloral h.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (salm. typhimurium) live vaccine strain zoosaloral h was characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). each of the two suitable restriction enzymes, xbai and spei, produced a unique restriction fragment pattern for this live vaccine strain which was not shared by field isolates of the same serovar. the characteristic fragment pattern proved to be stable during a 22 month observation period and was also not altered after animal p ...19947765707
[tetracycline-resistant plasmid of salmonella enteritidis isolated in kumamoto city].we isolated salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar. enteritidis (s. enteritidis) from a mass of cases which broke out in september, 1991 in kumamoto city. the isolates were shown to hold plasmids on which a tetracycline (tc)-resistant gene was located. the plasmid, about 9 kb in size, was capable of expressing the gene in escherichia coli, unstable in s. enteritidis and escherichia coli. thus in order to investigate the creeping prevalence of the tc-resistant plasmid in kumamoto cit ...19947829903
epidemic dissemination of salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar bovismorbificans in southern italy in the years 1989-1991.epidemic strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar bovismorbificans isolated in southern italy during the years 1989-1991 were submitted to a molecular epidemiological study in comparison with isolates identified in the years 1980-1988 in the same geographic area. genomic dna fragments obtained by digestion with bgli or eco ri hybridized with escherichia coli rrna to produce three distinct, but highly related patterns. ribotype 1, which had never been identified before 1989, was fou ...19947957796
analysis of the antibiotic resistance detected in 2043 strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated in stool cultures of spanish patients with acute diarrhoea (1986-1991). 19938125841
identification of six open reading frames in the salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. typhi viab locus involved in vi antigen production. 19938248629
[bacterial ascites caused by salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype indiana]. 19938368710
molecular typing of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis isolates.a collection of 31 epidemiologically unrelated salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis) isolates obtained during a 12-year period was characterised by different molecular typing methods. plasmid profile analysis, the detection of plasmid-encoded virulence genes and ribotyping allowed little or no further differentiation amongst these isolates. two different hybridisation patterns were observed by is200-typing of the s. enteritidis isolates. however, pulsed-field g ...19968544212
phage types and ribotypes of salmonella enteritidis in southern italy.differently from other european countries, southern italy was affected by a considerable increase in human infections due to salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis) only after 1990. on the present investigation, two groups of s. enteritidis strains isolated during the low-incidence period 1980-1984 and the epidemic period 1990-1993, respectively, have been submitted to phage-typing and ribotyping in order to ascertain whether the epidemic increase was determined ...19968861878
molecular characterization of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis field isolates and differentiation from homologous live vaccine strains suisaloral and sc-54.four independent molecular methods were used to characterize the salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis live vaccine strains sc-54 and suisaloral and to differentiate them from s. choleraesuis field isolates. plasmid analysis revealed the presence of seven plasmid profiles. a virulence plasmid of 52-kbp was identified by hybridization with an spvb-spvc gene probe in each of the s. choleraesuis field isolates and in the suisaloral vaccine strain, but not in the sc-54 vaccine str ...19968880500
identification of bacterial cells by chromosomal painting.chromosomal painting is a technique for the microscopic localization of genetic material. it has been applied at the subcellular level to identify regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. here we describe the development of bacterial chromosomal painting (bcp), a related technology for the identification of bacterial cells. purified genomic dnas from six bacterial strains were labeled by nick translation with the fluorochrome fluor-x, cy3, or cy5. the average size of the labeled fragments was ca. 50 t ...19979055426
genomic relationships between selected phage types of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium defined by ribotyping, is200 typing and pfge.the genomic relationship between isolates representing 17 definitive phage types (dts) of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium (s. typhimurium) were analysed using three different typing methods: is200 typing using the restriction enzymes ecori and pvuii, ribotyping using smai and ecori, and pfge using xbai. these methods were used to study four dts in greater detail; in all 18 (dt 49), 10 (dt 110), five (dt 120) and seven (dt 135) isolates were studied. the combined data gen ...19979141710
antimicrobial resistance in salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals.we have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (s. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. the human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent to the state serum institute during august 1993 (228 isolates). the animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates) ...19979249206
national surveillance of poultry diseases in lebanon.from 1992 to mid-1996, a national survey of poultry diseases in lebanon was conducted. this surveillance included meat breeder, layer breeder, commercial layer and chicken broiler flocks. the history, signs, lesions and laboratory tests of poultry were used in the diagnosis of prevalent poultry diseases. culture techniques were used to screen for bacterial diseases; serological techniques and, to a lesser extent, culture techniques were used to diagnose viral diseases; and both serological and c ...19979567302
tetracycline resistance in salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin.the 47-kbp plasmid pgft1 from salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin mediated tetracycline resistance via a tet(a) gene located on an integrated copy of a tn1721-analogous transposon. the integration site of the transposon was located within the reading frame of a fip gene. plasmid pgft1 was shown to be conjugative and to be able to replicate and express tetracycline resistance in escherichia coli.19989593170
molecular typing of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar hadar: evaluation and application of different typing methods.a highly discriminatory molecular typing system for isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (s.) serovar hadar was developed based on the data obtained from 34 epidemiologically unrelated s. hadar isolates from germany and brazil. plasmid profile analysis and macrorestriction analysis with the enzymes xbai, spei and blni represented the most discriminative typing methods. in contrast, ribotyping as performed with a gene probe that recognized the entire rrn operon did not reveal any diffe ...19989631533
yersinia pseudotuberculosis and yersinia pestis show increased outer membrane permeability to hydrophobic agents which correlates with lipopolysaccharide acyl-chain fluidity.the hydrophobic probe n-phenyl-1-naphthylamine accumulated less in non-pathogenic yersinia spp. and non-pathogenic and pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica than in yersinia pseudotuberculosis or yersinia pestis. this was largely due to differences in the activity of efflux systems, but also to differences in outer membrane permeability because uptake of the probe in kcn/arsenate-poisoned cells was slower in the former group than in y. pseudotuberculosis and y. pestis. the probe accumulation rate w ...19989639922
inter- and intra-phage type differentiation of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis isolates using molecular typing methods.seventy-six salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis) isolates which represented 14 phage types and rdnc isolates were investigated by several independent molecular methods. eleven different plasmid profiles were detected. plasmid-encoded virulence genes of the spv gene cluster were shown by hybridization with a spvb/c gene probe to be located on plasmids of either 55 kbp or 95 kbp. ribotyping as performed with gene probes that recognized either the entire rrn oper ...19989809400
molecular characterization of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium dt009 isolates: differentiation of the live vaccine strain zoosaloral from field isolates.a total of 25 epidemiologically unrelated salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (s.) serovar typhimurium dt009 isolates from various human and animal sources, the original s. typhimurium dt009 zoosaloral live vaccine strain and two zoosaloral strains reisolated from vaccinated chickens were investigated by various molecular typing methods (i) to determine the most suitable method or combination of methods for the differentiation of dt009 field isolates and (ii) to investigate which molecular metho ...19989809427
phage types of australian isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar virchow.australian isolates (79) of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar virchow (salmonella virchow) were characterized by phage typing. thirteen phage types were identified, of which phage type (pt) 8, representing 54 of 79 isolates, was predominant, as it had been in england and wales up to 1994 when it was replaced by pt26. other phage types identified in australia were distinct from those observed in england and wales. this suggests that pt8 may be a global phage type, while others may be di ...19989812398
risk factors for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contamination in french broiler-chicken flocks at the end of the rearing period.broiler-chicken are often salmonella carriers. however, these bacteria are responsible for major food-borne human infection, in which poultry-meat products are frequently implicated. in order to prevent salmonella spread during the slaughtering process, control measures should be implemented at the farm level to reduce the prevalence before slaughtering. the objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for salmonella contamination in french commercial broiler flocks at the end of the ...199910327442
plasmid-encoded tetracycline resistance in salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars choleraesuis and typhimurium: identification of complete and truncated tn1721 elements.during routine screening of salmonella enterica subsp., s. enterica isolates of animal origin for plasmid-encoded tetracycline resistance, two tetracycline resistance plasmids, the 50 kbp plasmid pgft3 of salmonella choleraesuis and the 9.5 kbp plasmid pgft4 of salmonella typhimurium var. copenhagen dt002, were detected. the respective tetracycline resistance genes (tet) were identified by hybridization and pcr analysis to belong to hybridization class a. conjugation experiments identified plasm ...199910418136
antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.the antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. however, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. in the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against acinetobacter baumanii, aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, candida albicans, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia col, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica s ...199910438227
attachment of salmonella choleraesuis choleraesuis to beef muscle and adipose tissues.the attachment of salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis atcc 15790 to beef muscle and adipose tissues was investigated. s. choleraesuis was found to adhere in higher numbers to muscle than to fat. the charge and the hydrophobicity of the surface of s. choleraesuis were evaluated by measurement of electrophoretic mobility, the contact angle with water, adhesion to hexadecane, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the overall negative charge of s. choleraesuis was masked by the high el ...199710465034
emergence and spread of an atypical salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:- strain in spain. 199910488227
activation of the cryptic aac(6')-iy aminoglycoside resistance gene of salmonella by a chromosomal deletion generating a transcriptional fusion.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype enteritidis bm4361 and bm4362 were isolated from the same patient. bm4361 was susceptible to aminoglycosides, whereas bm4362 was resistant to tobramycin owing to synthesis of a 6'-n-acetyltransferase type i [aac(6')-i]. comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and southern hybridizations indicated that the chromosomal aac(6')-iy genes for the enzyme in both strains were identical and that bm4362 derived ...199910542165
fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism genotyping of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars and comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.we have performed the fluorescently labeled amplified-fragment length polymorphism (faflp) method on 97 strains of the food-borne pathogen salmonella enterica subsp. enterica comprising seven different serovars using the restriction enzymes ecori and msei. from the total faflp fingerprinted strains, 81 were compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) typing of the same strains. the faflp method showed a discriminatory power equal to that of pfge. we report a fast, robust, and high-reso ...200010747153
evaluation of is200-pcr and comparison with other molecular markers to trace salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium bovine isolates from farm to meat.a procedure that uses an original molecular marker (is200-pcr) and that is based on the amplification of dna with outward-facing primers complementary to each end of is200 has been evaluated with a collection of 85 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium isolates. these strains were isolated from a group of 10 cows at different stages: during transportation between the farm and the slaughterhouse, on the slaughter line, from the environment, and from the final product (ground be ...200010834977
a variation of the amplified-fragment length polymorphism (aflp) technique using three restriction endonucleases, and assessment of the enzyme combination bglii-mfei for aflp analysis of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates.we have performed amplified-fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprinting on a collection of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium strains with a restriction endonuclease combination (bglii and mfei) that has previously been used successfully for typing campylobacter jejuni isolates with high resolution. additionally, a variation of the aflp assay in which two rare cutting restriction enzymes (xbai and bsrgi) in combination with the frequent cutter (hinp1i) was examined. t ...200010913860
antimicrobial resistance of salmonella isolates from swine.we examined the antimicrobial resistance of 1,257 isolates of 30 serovars of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolated from swine. serovars typhimurium and typhimurium var. copenhagen were widespread and were frequently multidrug resistant, with distinct resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline and to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline, respectively.200011101609
mice lacking interleukin-2 (il-2)/il-15 receptor beta chain are susceptible to infection with avirulent salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis but mice lacking il-2 are resistant.interleukin-2 (il-2)/il-15 receptor beta (il-15r beta)(-/-) mice were susceptible to infection with avirulent salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis, whereas il-2(-/-) mice were resistant. a natural killer cell response was not evident for both types of deficient mice. a th1 response was detected in il-2(-/-) but not in il-2/il-15r beta(-/-) mice infected with salmonella, suggesting that il-2/il-15r beta signaling is important for the generation of protective th1 cells.200111160028
serology of typhoid fever in an area of endemicity and its relevance to diagnosis.currently, the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide (lps) (o) or flagellum (h) antigens of serotype typhi (the widal test). in this study, the serum antibody responses to the lps and flagellum antigens of serotype typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of vietnam in w ...200111230418
evaluation of the components of a commercial probiotic in gnotobiotic mice experimentally challenged with salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. typhimurium.vitacanis((r)), a probiotic preparation containing a lactobacillus acidophilus, an enterococcus faecium and a saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been developed for the prevention of intestinal disorders in dogs and cats. in the present study, these microorganisms were tested jointly or singly during experimental infection of gnotobiotic mice with salmonella typhimurium. four experimental groups consisting of animals given probiotics jointly or singly and a control group consisting of germfree mice we ...200111230939
typing of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar mbandaka isolates.recently, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar mbandaka (s. mbandaka) has gained some importance in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in poland. since biotyping, resistance typing, and plasmid profiling were insufficient for strain differentiation, genome macrorestriction by means of pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) was applied and proved to be the method of choice in s. mbandaka epidemiological studies. xbai and bcui macrorestriction produced 15 and 14 pulse-field profiles (pfp), r ...200111295334
monitoring of layer feed and eggs for salmonella in eastern japan between 1993 and 1998.in order to investigate contamination of chicken farms with salmonella, feed and eggs were sampled from 16 commercial layer farms in eastern japan between 1993 and 1998 and cultured for salmonellae. salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates belonging to 19 serovars were obtained from the feed. six of the 19 serotypes, including salmonella serovar enteritidis, were observed in isolates recovered from the eggs. salmonella serovar enteritidis strains obtained from a feed sample and egg contents ...200111348011
environmental survey of salmonella and comparison of genotypic character with human isolates in western japan.to estimate the prevalence and distribution of salmonellae, especially salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (s. enteritidis), in western japan, an investigation was conducted of the chicken industry and environmental sources between 1995 and 1998. salmonellae were isolated from 34 of 90 samples (37.8%) of raw chicken parts, 34 of 98 faecal samples (34.7%) at 35 broiler farms, 11 of 59 samples (18.6%) of liquid eggs, and from 71 of 272 samples (26.1%) of swab specimens from equ ...200111349965
dual emergence in food and humans of a novel multiresistant serotype of salmonella in senegal: salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype 35:c:1,2. 200111414247
application of nucleotide sequence of rna polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpob) to molecular differentiation of serovars of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica.to establish a molecular differentiation method for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, a hyper-variable region of rna polymerase beta-subunit (rpob) of s. enterica subsp. enterica (i), serotype typhimurium, and escherichia coli were investigated through comparison of nucleotide sequence of the region. the hyper-variable region was identified at 612-937 of the gene. after pcr amplification of the region in the 17 serotypes and two biotypes of serotype gallinarum of s. enterica subsp. enterica ( ...200111423203
antibiotic resistance in salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains isolated in poland from 1998 to 1999.a total of 326 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains representing 29 serotypes, isolated from human stool specimens during 1998-1999 in sanitary-epidemiological units in poland were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by a standard disk diffusion method. the antibiotics used were ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone, cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides and trimethoprim. in addition, 201 strains bel ...200111463524
atypical, fljb-negative salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain of serovar 4,5,12:i:- appears to be a monophasic variant of serovar typhimurium.an fljb-negative, multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- phage type dt u302 strain (resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamide, gentamicin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim) emerged and spread in spain in 1997. sequences specific for salmonella serovar typhimurium and phage type dt 104 and u302 were present in this atypical salmonella strain, suggesting that it is a monophasic salmonella serovar typhimurium variant.200111474028
fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of salmonella enteritidis: a method suitable for rapid outbreak recognition.to perform fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (faflp) analysis on phage type (pt) reference strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype enteritidis (s. enteritidis), and s. enteritidis pt 6 and 6a recent clinical isolates to determine its usefulness for primary characterization of clinical s. enteritidis isolates, and then to determine whether faflp is suitable for rapid characterization of strains in an outbreak situation.200111678930
prevalence of salmonella serovars in chickens in turkey.in this study, 151 (18.6%) of 814 ceca obtained during in-line processing of 28 broiler (hybro g, avian, arbor acres, and cobb breeds) and 5 layer (ross, tetra sl, isa brown, and brown nick breeds) flocks in turkey were found to be contaminated with four different salmonella serovars. only salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis (salmonella enteritidis) was recovered from layer birds, whereas salmonella enteritidis (81.5%). salmonella agona (7.6%), salmonella thompson (10.1%), an ...200111726169
[multidrug resistance to antibacterial drugs of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains isolated in poland in the 1998-1999 period].a total of 510 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains representing 56 serotypes, isolated from human stool specimens during 1998-2000 in sanitary-epidemiological units in poland were tested for their susceptibility by a standard disk diffusion method for: ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, furazolidone, cotrimoxazole, sulfonamides and trimethoprim. for 201 of the investigated strains, belonging to 5 most ...200111757401
[phage types, plasmid profiles and chromosomal restriction profiles of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. enteritidis (s. enteritidis) isolated in poland in 1999-2000].salmonella enteritidis strains are the most often isolated salmonella serovars in poland. in the present study, phage typing, plasmid profile analysis, and pfge have been applied to characterize 140 polish s. enteritidis isolates originated from human cases of salmonellosis and from other sources. the typing phages of ward and colleagues scheme were used to type a total of 140 s. enteritidis strains coming from poland. all 140 strains were typable and six different phage types were observed. a t ...200111757428
monitoring of chicken houses and an attached egg-processing facility in a laying farm for salmonella contamination between 1994 and 1998.two chicken houses and an attached egg-processing facility in a laying farm were sampled between 1994 and 1998 to investigate salmonella contamination. each of the houses was environmentally controlled and fitted with egg belts that transported eggs from the houses to the egg-processing facility. four hundred twenty-eight salmonella isolates were obtained from 904 environmental samples collected from the houses. two hundred fifty-two of the 428 (58.9%) isolates yielded five serotypes as follows: ...200111770616
fingerprinting of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis by ribotyping.objective: to carry out an epidemiologic evaluation of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis outbreaks in households and small communities by means of rrna gene restriction pattern analysis (ribotyping). methods: one hundred enteritidis isolates dating from 1989 to 1994 which could be allocated epidemiologically to different sources or to small community outbreaks were investigated with ribotyping, a fingerprinting method in which bacterial dna is hybridized with the biotin-lab ...199711864109
differences between national reference laboratories of the european community in their ability to serotype salmonella species.the capacity of national reference laboratories of the european union member states to correctly serotype salmonella strains was assessed in four collaborative studies on serotyping in the period 1995-1999. participants were asked to identify 20 strains in studies i, ii and iii and 16 strains in study iv, using the typing method routinely performed in their laboratory. in the first study, the strains to be identified belonged to salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, salamae or houtenae, while in ...200211957022
profile of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (subspecies i) serotype 4,5,12:i:- strains causing food-borne infections in new york city.strains of newly emerging salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (subspecies i) serotype 4,5,12:i:- causing food-borne infections, including a large food poisoning outbreak (n = 86) characterized by persistent diarrhea (14% bloody), abdominal pain, fever, and headache, were examined. the organisms were found in the stool samples from the patients. the biochemical profile of the organisms is consistent with that of s. enterica subsp. i serotypes, except for decreased dulcitol (13%) and increased ino ...200212037044
pathogenesis of infections with salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen in the turtle trachemys scripta scripta.the pathogenesis of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen infections in the aquatic turtle trachemys scripta scripta was studied. after oral infection with 5x10(5)cfu of serovar muenchen of 10-14-month-old turtles, kept at 26 degrees c, the intestine and especially the ileum, caecum and colon was colonized. invasion of the intestinal wall, causing histopathological lesions, and colonization of internal organs were not observed. serovar muenchen was only isolated from turtles for 8 ...200212069769
risk factors for clinical salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium infection on dutch dairy farms.risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case-control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. all 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed with a positive bacteriologic culture for serovar typhimurium in one or more samples. serovar typhimurium phage type 401 and 506 (definitive type 104, dt104) were the most frequently isolated phage t ...200212069778
salmonella serotypes isolated from nonhuman sources in são paulo, brazil, from 1996 through 2000.a total of 4,581 salmonella strains isolated from nonhuman sources, including foodstuffs associated with foodborne salmonella outbreaks, from january 1996 through december 2000 were serotyped at the enteropathogens laboratory, instituto adolfo lutz, são paulo, brazil. among the 123 different serotypes identified, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype enteritidis (salmonella enteritidis) was the most prevalent (32.7%), ranking first for almost every kind of source. the next most common ser ...200212092719
molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium isolates from swine.as part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (including serovar typhimurium var. copenhagen) isolates. we found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. the first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the amcmstsute phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (dt104) phage type (180 of 187 iso ...200212149335
subtyping of salmonella typhimurium by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparisons with phage types and resistance types.one-hundred and sixty-eight salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium isolates have been analysed by phage typing, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and for their antimicrobial susceptibility. those independent strains, isolated from food animal production including cattle, poultry and pig sectors have been collected by the french non human salmonella network, during the first semester in 1999. isolates encompassed 14 phage types. the majority of s. typhimurium isolates was foun ...200212171058
molecular characterization of multiresistant d-tartrate-positive salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi b isolates.since 1996, the national salmonella reference laboratory of germany has received an increasing number of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar paratyphi b isolates. nearly all of these belonged to the dextrorotatory tartrate-positive variant (s. enterica subsp. enterica serovar paratyphi b dt(+)), formerly called s. enterica subsp. enterica serovar java. a total of 55 selected contemporary and older s. enterica subsp. enterica serovar paratyphi b dt(+) isolates were analyzed by plasmid pro ...200212202551
technical improvement to prevent dna degradation of enteric pathogens in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.this study used a modified pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) method with hepes as a running buffer to prevent electrophoresis-related dna degradation of nine salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar ohio, seven salmonella serovar newport, and two enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (non-o157) strains. all strains yielded identifiable bands with this method in contrast to a commonly applied pfge method using tris buffer.200212202602
isolation of salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to leptospira interrogans in opossums (didelphis virginiana) from yucatán, méxico.the presence of salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the yucatán state, méxico. ninety-one opossums were captured during the period april 1996 and may 1998. from a total of 17 feces samples, four salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (sandiego, newport, anatum, and minnesota), and one salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar o44:z4,z23:- were isolated. some oposs ...200212219118
molecular follow-up of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar agona infection in cattle and humans.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar agona was not frequently encountered in finland until an increase in rates of isolation among animal and feed was seen in 1994. a small outbreak among cattle farms in the regions of oulu and vaasa in northwestern finland in 1994-1995 included eight farms. after the outbreak, an increase in the number of serovar agona infections in humans was seen in 1999: the number of annual microbiologically confirmed cases in humans increased from about 10 from 1990 ...200212354860
the effect of temperature on the growth and persistence of salmonella in fermented liquid pig feed.two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on the fate of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium dt104:30 in fermented liquid pig feed. these were (1) by co-inoculation of feed with s. typhimurium dt104:30 and pediococcus pentosaceus, as the fermenting organism, and (2) by fermenting feed for 48, 72 or 96 h prior to inoculation with s. typhimurium dt104:30. in co-inoculated feed incubated at 20 degrees c, s. typhimurium dt104:30 persisted for at least 72 ...200212382689
distribution and characterization of class 1 integrons in salmonella enterica serotype gallinarum biotype gallinarum.fowl typhoid caused by salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype gallinarum biotype gallinarum is the most important chicken disease in korea. due to appearance of new or multiple antibiotics resistances in the recently isolated strains, it was difficult to control the disease using antibiotics in our country. therefore, the prevalence and genetic contents of class 1 integrons in biotype gallinarum isolated between 1992 and 2001 were investigated by pcr and direct sequencing, respectively. ou ...200212383639
influence of enrofloxacin and chloramphenicol on the level of igy in serum and egg yolk after immunostimulation of hens with salmonella enteritidis antigens.in the chicken, maternal antibodies are transferred into the egg and subsequently transported into the developing embryo. igg (called igy) is the primary immunoglobulin isotype of the egg yolk. their level in serum depends on the correct function of immunological system in laying hens. many factors have a direct or indirect influence on antibody level in fowl. one of them is a commonly used antibiotic, but its influence on avian immune system is still unknown. the objective of the study was to d ...200212448078
resistance phenotypes and genotypes of multiresistant salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium var. copenhagen isolates from animal sources. 200312493808
effect of previous antimicrobial treatment on fecal shedding of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serogroup b in new york dairy herds with recent clinical salmonellosis.the association of herd- and sample-level factors with the isolation of salmonella group b from cattle fecal samples was analyzed. study farms were 65 dairy herds with a recent history of laboratory-confirmed clinical salmonella infections. herds were visited once per month for three months to collect data and samples for bacteriological culture. herd size varied widely from 34 to 3700 total cattle on the farm (median=370). salmonella serogroup b was isolated from 270 of 2726 samples tested. the ...200312507855
subtyping of salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis strains by manual and automated psti-sphi ribotyping.salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype enteritidis is not readily subtyped beyond the level of phage type (pt). a recently developed method for ribotyping of this organism, which uses a mixture of psti and sphi (ps) for restriction of dna (ps ribotyping), has proved useful for further subtyping of a number of pts of this organism, including pt 4. however, it has not been extensively tested with pt 8. in the present study the ps ribotyping method was used to investigate outbreaks of both s. ...200312517821
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of food animal isolates of salmonella with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin.reports of nontyphoidal salmonella enterica subsp. enterica showing reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (rsc) have increased rapidly during the past decade. infection in humans with salmonella possessing rsc may compromise the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin therapy. nineteen among 4,357 salmonella strains isolated from food animals in canada from 1998 to 1999 showed rsc; 17 were from turkeys and 2 from chickens. all were resistant to nalidixic acid and sulfisoxazole and possessed rsc at a level ...200212523636
antimicrobial resistance of salmonella serotypes isolated from slaughter-age pigs and environmental samples.the aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of salmonella strains isolated from slaughter-age pigs and environmental samples collected at modern swine raising facilities in brazil. seventeen isolates of six serotypes of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were isolated out of 1,026 collected samples: salmonella typhimurium (1), salmonella agona (5), salmonella sandiego (5), salmonella rissen (1), salmonella senftenberg (4), and salmonella javiana (1). resistance ...200212523640
[characterization of a new serotype of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica: serotype bata]. 200312586026
subtracted restriction fingerprinting--a tool for bacterial genome typing.reproducible, discriminative, high-throughput methods are required for the identification of bacterial strains and isolates in a clinical environment. a new molecular typing method for bacteria was developed and tested on salmonella and e. coli species. the technique is called subtracted restriction fingerprinting and is based on double restriction enzyme digestion of genomic dna followed by end labeling. the "detection" enzyme produces ttaa overhangs that are filled in with digoxigenated nucleo ...200312613253
interactions of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen with intestinal explants of the turtle trachemys scripta scripta.salmonella infections in reptiles, in contrast to those in birds and mammals, are limited to the intestinal tract. in this study, interactions of a strain of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar muenchen (seem) with intestinal explants of the turtle trachemys scripta scripta were examined by scanning electron microscopy (sem). adhesion and invasion in the chelonian intestinal explants at 30 degrees c and 37 degrees c were evaluated quantitatively. for purposes of comparison, the invasive ...200312634088
evaluation of the 1-2 test for detecting salmonella in swine feces.the 1-2 test is a rapid culture test for the detection of motile salmonella. the aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-2 test for its ability to detect salmonella in swine feces following preenrichment and selective enrichment. pooled pen fecal samples (n = 118) and pig rectal swabs (n = 51) were cultured for salmonella by the 1-2 test, which was compared with the standard isolation protocol currently used in our laboratory. in addition, pen fecal samples known to be free of salmonella were sp ...200312636313
the rise and fall of salmonella enteritidis in the uk.after rising in the early 1980s, the number of recorded human cases of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in the uk has fallen in the last 5 years, with a particular decline in cases of infection with serovar enteritidis. this decline has been concomitant with the introduction of vaccination of egg-laying hens against serovar enteritidis. it is likely that other factors such as improved biosecurity in egg-laying flocks, a build-up of immunity in other animals and the rise in the number of lives ...200312675943
several salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:- phage types isolated from swine samples originate from serotype typhimurium dt u302.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid profiling, and phage typing were used to characterize and determine possible genetic relationships between 48 salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of pig origin collected in catalonia, spain, from 1998 to 2000. the strains were grouped into 23 multidrug-resistant fljb-lacking s. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- isolates, 24 s. enterica serovar typhimurium isolates, and 1 s. enterica serovar 4,5,12:-:- isolate. after combining the xbai and blni macrore ...200312791855
typing of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars choleraesuis, typhimurium, dublin and laboratory strains of escherichia coli using subtracted restriction fingerprinting (srf).the aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new typing technique called subtracted restriction fingerprinting (srf) for bacterial strain and isolate discrimination. the technique was applied to isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (s.) serovars choleraesuis, typhimurium, dublin and to two laboratory strains of e. coli. srf is based on the selective removal of excess fragments from a restriction digest using magnetic particles. subsequently, the remaining subset of ...200312906386
an outbreak of multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, dt104l linked to dried anchovy in singapore.multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium dt104l was first reported in singapore from mid-july to mid-october 2000. salmonella strains isolated from clinical laboratories were submitted to a reference laboratory for serotyping, phage-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using xbai restriction endonuclease. an epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine the source of infection and mode of transmission using a structured questionnaire. ...200211895083
host adaptation of pigeon isolates of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium variant copenhagen phage type 99 is associated with enhanced macrophage cytotoxicity.phage type 99 of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium variant copenhagen strains isolated from pigeons were examined for the presence of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns obtained with xbai and blni from 38 pigeon strains were compared with those obtained from 89 porcine, poultry, and human strains of variant copenhagen. identical patterns with xbai and four closely related patterns with blni were obtained with the pigeon s ...200314500532
evaluation of three newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and two agglutination tests for detecting salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin infections in dairy cattle.in this study test characteristics of three newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin were evaluated and compared with two agglutination tests. the elisas involved were an indirect elisa with serovar dublin lipopolysaccharide (lps elisa), an indirect elisa with serovar dublin flagellar antigen (gp elisa), and a double-antibody sandwich blocking elisa that uses monoclonal antibodies against s. enterica subsp. enterica serova ...200011101571
multiple-drug resistance in d-tartrate-positive salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi b isolates from poultry is mediated by class 2 integrons inserted into the bacterial chromosome.the presence of integrons in 85 multiresistant german isolates of the predominating salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar paratyphi b dt(+) clone was investigated. all isolates possessed a chromosomally located tn7-like class 2 integron carrying the same dfra1-sat1-aada1 array of gene cassettes. only four isolates (4.7%) revealed an additional class 1 integron with two strains each containing the aada1 or dfra1-aada1 gene cassettes.200314576136
a regional outbreak of s. enteritidis phage type 5, traced back to the flocks of an egg producer, austria.in the spring and summer of 2002, the nationale referenzzentrale für salmonellen (national reference centre for salmonella - nrcs) in austria noticed a cluster of human salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. enteritidis phage type 5 (s. enteritidis pt5) infections in two neighbouring districts of austria. another small outbreak of s. enteritidis pt5 infections that occurred in the same region in 1999 had been traced back to the flocks of a local egg producer (approximately 6 000 hens). attenti ...200314605374
assessment of the presence of salmonella spp. in egyptian dairy products using various detection media.to make a preliminary assessment of the incidence of salmonella in egyptian dairy products, and to investigate the effectiveness of various protocols for the detection of the pathogen in these products.200314633112
difference and consensus of whole cell salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry spectra.application of maldi-tof ms for characterization of strains of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica.200414687211
use of antibiotic susceptibility patterns and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare historic and contemporary isolates of multi-drug-resistant salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar newport.recently, multi-drug-resistant (mdr) salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar newport reemerged as a public and animal health problem. the antibiotic resistance of 198 isolates and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (pfge) of 139 isolates were determined. serovar newport isolates collected between 1988 and 2001 were included in the study. one hundred seventy-eight isolates were collected from the san joaquin valley in california and came from dairy cattle clinical samples, huma ...200414711658
inhibition of foodborne bacteria by the lactoperoxidase system in a beef cube system.biopreservatives are being developed to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens and thus improve food safety. the lactoperoxidase system (lps) is a naturally occurring system that has potential for use as an antimicrobial agent in foods. growth of single strains of the pathogens staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium, yersinia enterocolitica, pseudomonas aeruginosa and beef microflora were assessed on lps ...200414967562
anti-salmonella activity of (2e)-alkenals.this study investigated the effect of a series of naturally occurring aliphatic (2e)-alkenals against salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis atcc 35640 and evaluated their antibacterial action.200415012807
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based subtyping of dna degradation-sensitive salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar livingstone and serovar cerro isolates obtained from a chicken layer farm.salmonella enterica serovar subsp. enterica livingstone and serovar cerro isolates from a commercial egg-producing farm, which had previously been untypeable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) because of dna degradation during the pfge process, successfully gave banding patterns using electrophoresis buffer supplemented with 50 microm thiourea. by pfge in the presence of thiourea, dna degradation-sensitive s. enterica serovar cerro isolates from the commercial egg-producing farm were fou ...200415019105
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