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[chlorophyll synthesis in cotyledons after gamma ray irradiation of black pine seeds].the radiosensitivity of the greening system of pinus nigra arn. cotyledons has been studied in this paper. an exponential relation exists between the effect and dose for chlorophyll synthesis in the dark. chlorophyll synthesis in the light roughly parallels that of chlorophyll synthesis in the dark. the restoration of chlorophyll was observed both in the light and in the dark. a stimulative effect of low doses of gamma radiation on chlorophyll synthesis was noticed. the radiosensitivity of chlor ...19921340484
chloroplast dna of black pine retains a residual inverted repeat lacking rrna genes: nucleotide sequences of trnq, trnk, psba, trni and trnh and the absence of rps16.a physical map of black pine (pinus thunbergii) chloroplast dna (120 kb) was constructed and two separate portions of its nucleotide sequence were determined. one portion contains trnq-uug, orf510, orf83, trnk-uuu (orf515 in the trnk intron), orf22, psba, trni-cau (on the opposing strand) and trnh-gug, in that order. sequence analysis of another portion revealed the presence of a 495 bp inverted repeat containing trni-cau and the 3' end of psba but lacking rrna genes. the position of trni-cau is ...19921557027
vitamin d and its metabolites in the pollen of pine. part 5: steroid hormones in the pollen of pine species.unconjugated vitamin d and its metabolites were investigated in the pollen of pinus nigra ar. and pinus sylvestris l. by tlc, hplc and competitive radiochemical determination of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-ohd3). it was found that vitamin d (d2, d3) was present in the pollen in amounts about 2 micrograms/10 g and 25-ohd3, 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25-(oh)2d3] and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(oh)2d3] between 0.1 and 3 micrograms/10 g of pollen, dependent on pollen species and m ...19873671475
the biosynthesis of (+)- -pinene in pinus species.1. the degradation of (+)-alpha-pinene biosynthesized from 3rs-[2-(14)c]mevalonate by pinus radiata or pinus nigra revealed an asymmetrical labelling pattern whereby the moiety derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate contained at least 90% of the incorporated tracer. this pattern differed both in asymmetry and position of labelling from previous results obtained with p. nigra, but is consistent with the generally accepted hypothetical mechanism for the biosynthesis of the pinane skeleton. 2. (+)- ...19724656792
[free amino acid content of viscum album l. berries parasitizing the pinus silvestris l. and pinus nigra arnold var. austriaca]. 19675613334
studies on the descendancy of four populations of koekelaere pines: pinus nigra arnold, subsp. laricio (poiret) maire, cv. koekelaere. ii. heritability as a function of parental age.the variations of heritability as a function of parental age are studied in koekelaere pines [pinus nigra arnold, laricio (poiret) maire, cv. koekelaere]. the age of the parental trees varies between 26 and 101 years. 16 different traits are analysed. it is shown that heritability does not vary as a function of parental age. these results are discussed in relation with the problems of ageing in trees and of the theories of ageing.19817215816
loss of all ndh genes as determined by sequencing the entire chloroplast genome of the black pine pinus thunbergii.the complete nucleotide sequence (119,707 bp) of the black pine (pinus thunbergii) chloroplast genome has been determined. it contains 4 rrna genes and 32 trna genes. to our knowledge, the trnapro (ggg) gene has not been found in any other chloroplast genome analyzed. sixty-one genes encoding proteins and 11 conserved open reading frames are also found. extensive rearrangements are apparent in the chloroplast genome relative to those of other land plants. the most striking feature is the loss of ...19947937893
creation of a novel protein-coding region at the rna level in black pine chloroplasts: the pattern of rna editing in the gymnosperm chloroplast is different from that in angiosperms.the phenomenon of rna editing has been found to occur in chloroplasts of several angiosperm plants. comparative analysis of the entire nucleotide sequence of a gymnosperm [pinus thunbergii (black pine)] chloroplast genome allowed us to predict several potential editing sites in its transcripts. forty-nine such sites from 14 genes/orfs were analyzed by sequencing both cdnas from the transcripts and the corresponding chloroplast dna regions, and 26 rna editing sites were identified in the transcri ...19968710946
assessment of the anti-hiv activity of a pine cone isolate.characterization of an alkali-soluble isolate from pinus nigra arnold (pinaceae) seed cones by thioacidolysis revealed a significant phenylpropanoid (i.c. lignin) component which may provide the observed anti-hiv-1 activity for this substance.19968720390
antimicrobial activities of several parts of pinus brutia, juniperus oxycedrus, abies cilicia, cedrus libani and pinus nigra.in this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the kahramanmaraş region of turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of pinus brutia ten., juniperus oxycedrus l., abies cilicia ant. & kotschy carr., cedrus libani a. rich. and pinus nigra arn. were prepared and tested against bacillus megaterium dsm 32, bacillus subtilis img 22, bacillus cereus fmc 19, escheric ...199910548751
gabaculine does not inhibit cytokinin-stimulated biosynthesis of chlorophyll in pinus nigra seedlings in the dark.chlorophyll (chl) accumulation was monitored during black pine (pinus nigra l.) seed germination for 14 days in the light and in the dark in the presence of gabaculine (gab) and cytokinin in order to elucidate the regulation of gymnosperm seedling greening in the dark, primarily at the level of aminolevulinic acid formation. in the light, gab inhibited chlorophyll accumulation in a manner dependent on concentration and developmental stage, and in the dark it showed no effect. cytokinin, 10(-5) m ...200010725555
a study of metal distribution from lignite fuels using trees as biological monitors.concentrations of five metals (cd, cu, mn, fe, zn) were determined in tree leaves collected from an area with large coal-fired plants in ptolemais, macedonia, greece. the analyses were carried out with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. mean heavy metal content in the tree leaves is, in descending order, fe>mn>zn>cu>cd. in populus nigra and salix babylonica the dense piled leaves and the widespread root system are the reasons for high heavy metal uptake. conifer trees pinus nigra and juniperu ...200111161674
a single alteration 20 nt 5' to an editing target inhibits chloroplast rna editing in vivo.transcripts of typical dicot plant plastid genes undergo c-->u rna editing at approximately 30 locations, but there is no consensus sequence surrounding the c targets of editing. the cis-acting elements required for editing of the c located at tobacco rpob editing site ii were investigated by introducing translatable chimeric minigenes containing sequence -20 to +6 surrounding the c target of editing. when the -20 to +6 sequence specified by the homologous region present in the black pine chloro ...200111266552
development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus.water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. this water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year- ...200111374165
inhibition of the light-independent synthesis of chlorophyll in pine cotyledons at low temperature.cotyledons of japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii) were yellow when they developed in darkness at 8 degrees c since the light-independent synthesis of chlorophyll was almost completely inhibited in these cotyledons. the level of chlorophyll in dark-grown cotyledons was less than one-twentieth of that in light-grown cotyledons at the same temperature. in the yellow cotyledons, levels of transcripts of cab, rbcs, rbcl and psba genes were quite high. the large and small subunits of ribulose-1,5-b ...200111522914
effects of rooting and tree growth of selected woodland species on cap integrity in a mineral capped landfill site.the above and below ground growth of three tree species (alnus glutinosa, pinus nigra var. maritima and acer pseudoplatanus) was studied on a containment landfill site at waterford, hertfordshire, uk. tree root architecture was studied using soil inspection pits excavated next to 12 trees of each species and mapped in detail. tree height was related to soil thickness over the compacted mineral cap. no roots entered the cap where soil thickness was 1.3 m, but a few roots, especially of alder, wer ...200111699854
identification and characterization of rapd markers inferring genetic relationships among pine species.total genomic dnas were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. genetic relationships among eight pine species (pinus sylvestris, pinus strobus, pinus rigida, pinus resinosa, pinus nigra, pinus contorta, pinus monticola, and pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. the degree of band s ...200211908668
chitinase production in pine callus (pinus sylvestris l.): a defense reaction against endophytes?in shoot tip-derived tissue cultures of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.), browning and subsequent degeneration of the culture is accompanied by lipid peroxidation and lignification of cells, which are characteristic features of a plant defense reaction. since chitinases are enzymes acting primarily in plant defense, their expression was studied in pine callus in order to elucidate the defense reaction. chitinases were present diversely in tissue cultures originating from shoot tips and embryos o ...200211941460
antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of pinus nigra arn. subsp. pallsiana (lamb.) holmboe.the aim of this study is to examine possible antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine exudes from pinus nigra arn. subsp. pallsiana (lamb.) holmboe (tpn). total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were studied. the total antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of extracts (100, 300, and 500 microg) added to linoleic acid emulsion. all of the dos ...200312686441
organization of the endoplasmic reticulum in dividing cells of the gymnosperms pinus brutia and pinus nigra, and of the pterophyte asplenium nidus.endoplasmic reticulum (er) organization in the dividing cells of the pterophyte asplenium nidus and of the gymnosperms pinus brutia and pinus nigra has been studied by immunolocalization techniques using the monoclonal antibody 2e7, which recognizes luminar er resident proteins containing c-terminal hdel sequences. in the pterophyte, the er reorganization during cell cycle is similar to that in angiosperms. among others, prominent er gatherings were found at the mitotic spindle poles and in the ...200312713797
conifer needles as passive biomonitors of the spatial and temporal distribution of ddt from a point source.needles of two conifer species, picea abies and pinus nigra, were used as passive samplers for monitoring air contamination by sampling at increasing distances from a suspected point source of ddt. needle concentrations declined with increasing distance downwind of the point source allowing to identify spatial and temporal trends of accumulation. this suggested that conifer needles are effective biomonitors of contamination levels in areas characterized by the presence of semi-volatile substance ...200312757779
diffusion barriers of tripartite sporopollenin microcapsules prepared from pine pollen.tripartite sporopollenin microcapsules prepared from pine pollen (pinus sylvestris l. and pinus nigra arnold) were analysed with respect to the permeability of the different strata of the exine which surround the gametophyte and form the sacci. the sexine at the surface of the sacci is highly permeable for polymer molecules and latex particles with a diameter of up to 200 nm, whereas the nexine covering the gametophyte is impermeable for dextran molecules, with a stokes' radius > or =4 nm (dextr ...200312876191
[preliminary research on a dessication of the plant of pinus nigra arn. var. austriaca hoess]. 195212977999
planting stress, water status and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in corsican pine seedlings.two-year-old corsican pine (pinus nigra ssp. laricio var. corsicana) seedlings were either well watered or subjected to a moderate drought for one month before being lifted from the nursery bed on october 9 and transplanted. well-watered, non-transplanted seedlings served as controls. needle predawn water potential (psi(wp)), non-structural carbohydrate concentrations and plant development (survival, bud break, shoot elongation) were assessed before and during the first growing season after tran ...199314969927
seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of pinus nigra and pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) and austrian pine (pinus nigra arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. during most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. the electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. to obtain a relia ...199214969949
identification of aflp markers linked to a resistance gene against pine needle gall midge in japanese black pine.bulked segregant and aflp analyses of two mapping populations (r17 x s6 and r17 x s1) were used to identify markers linked to rpgm, the only known gene responsible for resistance to pine needle gall midge in pinus thunbergii parl. rpgm was found to be bracketed by accc/ccttt(190) on one side at a distance of 6.6 cm and acgt/cccgc(250) at 15.3 cm on the other side. the segregation of these markers was analyzed in two other families in order to determine their phase and transferability. one of the ...200415067405
the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and soil chemistry on the nutritional status of pseudotsuga menziesii, pinus nigra and pinus sylvestris.the ammonium content and the base cation content, expressed relative to ammonium, are enhanced in the soil of dutch forests, due to the extremely high deposition of ammonium to the forest floor. a nation-wide investigation was carried out to establish whether and how these changed nitrogen fluxes in deposition and soil affect the nutritional status of coniferous trees. the chemical composition of needles of douglas fir, scots pine and corsican pine showed a regional trend similar to that of depo ...199315091876
effects of ammonium and aluminium on the development and nutrition of pinus nigra in hydroculture.application of ammonium and aluminium to young pinus nigra var. maritima (ait.) melville trees resulted in a variety of negative effects. excess ammonium led to an increase in shoot/root ratio. the biomass of the fine roots declined, resulting in an increase of the coarse/fine root ratio. the degree of mycorrhizal infection of the roots decreased. the nitrogen content of the trees increased considerably, whereas particularly the levels of calcium magnesium, manganese and zinc decreased sharply. ...199115092085
growth reduction of the japanese black pine corresponding to an air pollution episode.changes of tree-ring widths of japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii parl.) trees growing in air-polluted and unpolluted areas were analyzed. in the stand close to an industrial complex, a large reduction in the series of tree-ring index (tri), which were computed by removing endogenous effects from the measured series, appeared from the 1960s to 1970s. this reduction in radial tree growth was not explained by the climatic response model calibrated for a pre-pollution period. tri changes corresp ...199915093053
comparison of throughfall and soil solution chemistry between a high-density corsican pine stand and a naturally regenerated silver birch stand.in flanders, critical loads for acidification and eutrophication are exceeded in the majority of the forest stands, and many previously nitrogen limited forest ecosystems have become nitrogen saturated. the present study investigates whether a naturally regenerated stand of silver birch (betula pendula roth) contributes less to the acidification and eutrophication of the forest soil than a high-density plantation of corsican pine (pinus nigra ssp. laricio maire). throughfall deposition of inorga ...200415210279
deposition velocities to sorbus aria, acer campestre, populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'beaupré', pinus nigra and x cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment.trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. as a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. this study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two ...200515327866
pinus nigra and pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, pinus nigra and pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of genoa (italy). in all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile pahs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile pahs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (ben ...200515519460
new and remarkable microfungi in north rhine westphalia, germany.during our investigation on microfungi in north rhine westphalia in the years 2002 and 2003 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of microfungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. some of these like erysiphe elevata (burill.) u. braun & s. takamatsu comb. nov. [=microsphaera elevata burill.] on catalpa bignonioides walt., erysiphe syringae-japonicae (u. braun) u. braun & s. takamatsu [= microsphaera syringae-japonicae u. braun, m. aceris bunkina. ...200415756829
diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi naturally established on containerised pinus seedlings in nursery conditions.the study examined the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi, naturally established on roots of containerised pinus seedlings in a nursery, using pcr-rflp and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. seventy-two samples, including ectomycorrhizae and fruit bodies, were examined. molecular typing assigned the fungal symbionts to four ectomycorrhizal boletales: rhizopogon rubescens, suillus bovinus, s. variegatus, and r. luteolus. r. rubescens was abundant (37.5%), while suill ...200515782937
systemic induction of traumatic resin ducts and resin flow in austrian pine by wounding and inoculation with sphaeropsis sapinea and diplodia scrobiculata.the potential role of the resin system in the response of austrian pine (pinus nigra arn.) seedlings to mechanical injury and fungal infection was studied in greenhouse experiments. anatomical observations were performed on 2-year-old plants wounded at collar level and inoculated with sphaeropsis sapinea (fr.: fr.) dyko & sutton in sutton or diplodia scrobiculata (j. de wet, b. slippers & m. j. wingfield, sp. nov.; sensu de wet et al. 2003), two fungal pathogens that cause shoot blight and canke ...200415843966
retention of tannic acid and condensed tannin by fe-oxide-coated quartz sand.this paper intends to shed light on the interactions between tannin and mineral soil particles. for that purpose, aqueous solution of condensed tannin (ct) (derived from black pine (pinus nigra var. maritima)) and commercially available tannic acid (ta) were added to purified quartz (qtz) sand and quartz sand coated with either goethite (gt) or ferrihydrite (fh). after solvent removal by evaporation the samples were extracted by water. the extracts were analysed for organic carbon, total phenoli ...200515914150
construction of a pseudomonas sp. derivative carrying the cry9aa gene from bacillus thuringiensis and a proposal for new standard criteria to assess entomocidal properties of bacteria.an isolate of pseudomonas sp. (16s rdna sequence 98% homologous to p. graminis and p. lutea) was isolated from the phyllosphere of black pine in northern italy and used as a host for the gene encoding the cry9aa entomocidal toxin from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae. an expression system featuring a synthetic highest-consensus promoter specifically tailored for the regulated induction of cloned genes over a broad range of gram-negative bacteria was used to drive the production of the int ...200515950125
nickel adsorption on the modified pine tree materials.removal of nickel ions from aqueous solutions containing 1-100 mg l(-1), using pine tree (pinus nigra) materials modified with hcl, was investigated on a laboratory scale. for this purpose, two natural adsorbents such as the modified pine bark (mpb) and the modified pine cone (mpc) materials with hcl solution were studied. at first, the required concentration level of the hcl solution for the modification was observed, and then this was followed by the determinations of optimum levels of adsorbe ...200515974266
isopimaric acid from pinus nigra shows activity against multidrug-resistant and emrsa strains of staphylococcus aureus.the diterpene isopimaric acid was extracted from the immature cones of pinus nigra (arnold) using bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude hexane extract. isopimaric acid was assayed against multidrug-resistant (mdr) and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) were 32-64 microg/ml and compared with a commercially obtained resin acid, abietic acid, with mics of 64 microg/ml. resin acids are known to have antibacterial activity and are valued ...200516114093
comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.essential oils extracted from different plants (anthemis nobilis l., artemisia dracunculus l., cannabis sativa l., cupressus sempervirens l., cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf., curcuma longa l., foeniculum vulgare l., hypericum perforatum l., hyssopus officinalis l., mentha spicata l., monarda didyma l., ocimum basilicum l., ocotea quixos kosterm., origanum vulgare l., pinus nigra j.f. arnold, pinus silvestris l., piper crassinervium kunth., rosmarinus officinalis l., salvia officinalis l., salvi ...200616274702
a diameter increment model for crimean pine (pinus nigra arnold) and calabrian pine (pinus brutia ten.) stands in isparta region, turkey.the purpose of this research was to test the precision of a diameter increment model for the estimation of future periodic diameter increment. individual trees of crimean pine (pinus nigra arnold) and calabrian pine (pinus brutia ten.) located in both natural and plantation stands were selected. for that reason, normal closed canopy, pure, even-aged and undisturbed stands were examined. in 2002, plots were sampled in three natural and three plantation stands in isparta region of turkey. the numb ...200516334284
polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a pcb-contaminated site.the abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial pcb degradation potential in soil. culturable pcb degraders were associated with every plant species examined in both the rhizosphere and root zone, which was defined as the bulk soil in which the plant was rooted. significantly high ...200616597927
biochemical characteristics of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of dark-grown pine cotyledons.japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii) cotyledons were found to synthesize chlorophylls in complete darkness during germination, although the synthesis was not as great as that in the light. the compositions of thylakoid components in plastids of cotyledons grown in the dark and light were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of polypeptides and spectroscopic determination of membrane redox components. all thylakoid membrane proteins found in preparat ...199216668641
quantifying carbon budgets of conifer mediterranean forest ecosystems, turkey.aboveground biomass, aboveground litterfall, and leaf litter decomposition of five indigenous tree stands (pure stands of pinus brutia, pinus nigra, cedrus libani, juniperus excelsa, and a mixed stand of abies cilicica, p. nigra, and c. libani) were measured in an eastern mediterranean evergreen needleleaf forest of turkey. measurements were converted to regional scale estimates of carbon (c) stocks and fluxes of forest ecosystems, based on general non-site-specific allometric relationships. mea ...200616741812
tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.we studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (abies alba, acer platanoides, acer pseudoplatanus, betula pendula, carpinus betulus, fagus sylvatica, larix decidua, picea abies, pinus nigra, pinus sylvestris, pseudotsuga menziesii, quercus robur, quercus rubra, and tilia cordata) in southwestern poland. we used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition v ...200616995629
does ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure vary along a japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii) to black locust (robinia pseudoacacia) gradient?in this study we examined the role of the nitrogen-fixing tree, robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), in ectomycorrhizal (ecm) formation and ecm community of pinus thunbergii (japanese black pine) seedlings. two 200 m(2) experimental plots were established at the border between a japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated area in a coastal forest. the ecm fungal community of pine seedlings was examined by pcr-rflp and sequence analysis. we analyzed the relationship between ecm formation, e ...200717204079
the use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition.tree cores (pinus nigra ssp. laricio) and leaves (castanea sativa) from the flanks of mount etna, sicily were analysed by icp-ms to investigate whether volcanogenic cations within plant material provide an archive of a volcano's temporal and spatial depositional influence. there is significant compositional variability both within and between trees, but no systematic dendrochemical correlation with periods of effusive, explosive or increased degassing activity. dendrochemistry does not provide a ...200717239510
organ-dependent induction of systemic resistance and systemic susceptibility in pinus nigra inoculated with sphaeropsis sapinea and diplodia scrobiculata.systemic induced resistance (sir) is a well-known host defense mechanism against pathogen attack in herbaceous plants, but sir has only recently been documented in conifers. we tested if inoculation of austrian pine (pinus nigra arnold) with sphaeropsis sapinea (fr.:fr.) dyko and sutton or diplodia scrobiculata de wet, slippers and wingfield results in sir or systemic induced susceptibility (sis) to subsequent colonization by s. sapinea. induction at the stem base resulted in significant (p < 0. ...200717241993
chloroplast dna supports a hypothesis of glacial refugia over postglacial recolonization in disjunct populations of black pine (pinus nigra) in western europe.european black pine (pinus nigra arn.) is a widely distributed mediterranean conifer. to test the hypothesis that fragmented populations in western europe survived in situ during the last glacial rather than having been re-colonized in the postglacial period, genetic variation was assessed using a suite of 10 chloroplast dna microsatellites. among 311 individuals analysed, 235 haplotypes were detected revealing high levels of chloroplast haplotype diversity in most populations. bayesian analysis ...200717284207
ips pini (curculionidae: scolytinae) is a vector of the fungal pathogen, sphaeropsis sapinea (coelomycetes), to austrian pines, pinus nigra (pinaceae).sphaeropsis sapinea (fr.:fr.) dyko and sutton, is among the most common and widely distributed pathogens of conifers worldwide. s. sapinea is disseminated over short distances by rain splash and moist wind, but significant knowledge gaps regarding long-range dispersal remain. our objective was to determine whether or not the pine engraver beetle, ips pini say, is a vector of the pathogen onto austrian pines (pinus nigra arnold). in 2004 and 2005, individuals of i. pini were collected with pherom ...200717349124
chloroplast genome (cpdna) of cycas taitungensis and 56 cp protein-coding genes of gnetum parvifolium: insights into cpdna evolution and phylogeny of extant seed plants.phylogenetic relationships among the 5 groups of extant seed plants are presently unsettled. to reexamine this long-standing debate, we determine the complete chloroplast genome (cpdna) of cycas taitungensis and 56 protein-coding genes encoded in the cpdna of gnetum parvifolium. the cpdna of cycas is a circular molecule of 163,403 bp with 2 typical large inverted repeats (irs) of 25,074 bp each. we inferred phylogenetic relationships among major seed plant lineages using concatenated 56 protein- ...200717383970
correlation between acoustic emission, water status and xylem embolism in pine wilt disease.the occurrence of cavitation events and embolism during the latent, early stage and the late developmental stages of pine wilt disease was monitored nondestructively by acoustic emission (ae) and high-resolution magnetic resonance microscopy, respectively, and the results were compared with changes in leaf water potential and stem thickness. in the latent stage of the disease, when no embolisms were observed, cavitation events were detected by ae during the daytime in water-stressed japanese bla ...200717403649
cross-induction of systemic induced resistance between an insect and a fungal pathogen in austrian pine over a fertility gradient.evidence for cross-induction of systemic resistance or susceptibility in plant-fungus-herbivore interactions is mostly derived from herbaceous model systems and not perennial woody plants. furthermore, the effects of environmental variables such as soil fertility on these tripartite interactions are generally unknown. this study examined cross-induction of systemic resistance in pinus nigra (austrian pine) to infection by sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungal pathogen), or feeding by neodiprion sertifer ...200717453247
cryopreservation of embryogenic tissues of pinus nigra arn. by a slow freezing method.six different embryogenic cell lines of pinus nigra arn. have been cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using cryoprotection with sucrose (18%) and dmso (7.5%). post-thaw growth and tissue proliferation have been observed in five cell lines. the survival levels after storage in liquid nitrogen reached values between 62.5 and 100%. growth of recovered embryogenic cells as well as somatic embryos is similar to the non-frozen tissues maintained in long-term culture. somatic embryo maturation and plantl ...200717522725
supercritical co2 extract from needles of pinus nigra ssp. laricio: combined analysis by gc, gc-ms and 13c nmr.the chemical composition of the volatile concentrate prepared by supercritical co(2) extraction of the needles of pinus nigra arnold ssp. laricio poiret from corsica was investigated using gc (ri), gc-ms and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the major component was by far manoyl oxide (63%), a compound of potential interest for the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. consequently, the supercritical fluid extract of p. nigra ssp. laricio (yield 1.60%) could be considered as a source of this diterpene.200717654290
removal of cr(vi) from aqueous solutions using modified red pine sawdust.the adsorption of cr(vi) from aqueous solutions on sawdust (sd), base extracted sawdust (besd) and tartaric acid modified sawdust (tasd) of turkish red pine tree (pinus nigra), a timber industry waste, was studied at varying cr(vi) concentrations, adsorbent dose, modifier concentration and ph. batch adsorption studies have been carried out. sawdust was collected from waste timber industry and modified with various amount of tartaric acid (ta) (0.1-1.5m). the batch sorption kinetics has been test ...200817826899
effect of vegetation type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux.this paper compares different vegetation types (coniferous and deciduous forest, grassed and pure heathland) in terms of input (throughfall deposition) and output (seepage flux) in a region with intermediate nitrogen load (+/-20kg nha(-1)y(-1) via bulk precipitation) in comparable conditions in north belgium. coniferous forest (two plots pinus sylvestris and two plots pinus nigra) received significantly higher nitrogen and sulphur throughfall deposition than deciduous forest and heathland. grass ...200817942204
characterization of phenolic compounds in pinus laricio needles and their responses to prescribed burnings.fire is a dominant ecological factor in mediterranean-type ecosystems. management strategies include prescribed (controlled) burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as pinus nigra ssp laricio var. corsicana, a pine endemic to corsica of great ecological and economic importance. the effects of prescribed burning on pinus laricio have been little studied. the first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in pinus laricio. the second ...200717960077
systemic induction of phloem secondary metabolism and its relationship to resistance to a canker pathogen in austrian pine.the mechanisms and conditions affecting expression of systemic induced resistance (sir) in pine are not clearly understood. two hypotheses were tested here: that sir against a pathogen induced by either a pathogen or an insect involves coordinated shifts in phloem secondary metabolism; and that fertility affects the production of these compounds. to test these hypotheses, a tripartite system was used comprising austrian pine (pinus nigra) grown under three different fertility regimes, the fungal ...200818069955
ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (no2) may reduce pollen viability in austrian pine (pinus nigra arnold) trees--correlative evidence from a field study.a fully randomized sampling design was adopted to test whether pollen viability of austrian pine (pinus nigra arnold) was impacted by no(2) pollution. spatial strata (500500 m each) with high (41.9-44.6 microg m(-3)) and low (15.4-21.0 microg m(-3)) no(2) were selected from a defined population in a small area (236.5 km(2), <200 m range in elevation) in northern italy. pollen viability was measured by means of the tetrazolium (ttc) test. analysis of variance by means of a generalised linear mode ...200818539310
biphenyl-utilizing bacteria and their functional genes in a pine root zone contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs).bacteria and functional genes associated with biphenyl (bp) degradation in the root zone of an austrian pine (pinus nigra l.) growing naturally in polychlorinated-bp (pcb)-contaminated soil were identified using stable isotope probing (sip) integrated with comprehensive functional gene analyses. sip revealed 75 different genera that derived carbon from 13c-bp, with pseudonocardia, kribella, nocardiodes and sphingomonas predominating carbon acquisition. rhodococcus spp. were not detected with sip ...200718043623
epipactis helleborine shows strong mycorrhizal preference towards ectomycorrhizal fungi with contrasting geographic distributions in japan.epipactis helleborine (l.) crantz, one of the most widespread orchid species, occurs in a broad range of habitats. this orchid is fully myco-heterotrophic in the germination stage and partially myco-heterotrophic in the adult stage, suggesting that a mycorrhizal partner is one of the key factors that determines whether e. helleborine successfully colonizes a specific environment. we focused on the coastal habitat of japanese e. helleborine and surveyed the mycorrhizal fungi from geographically d ...200818661158
a dendroecological study on pinus nigra arn. at different altitudes of northern slopes of kazdaglari, turkey.this study was carried out to investigate the relationship between tree ring widths of pinus nigra in kazdaglari having humid and very humid climatic conditions. sixty two trees were cut from 24 sampled points from different altitudes in kazdaglari to measure treering widths. to determine the responses to the climate, correlation coefficients between treering widths and climatic data were calculated during biological years from october of the previous year to september of the current year in low ...200717717989
the manufacture of particleboards using mixture of peanut hull (arachis hypoqaea l.) and european black pine (pinus nigra arnold) wood chips.this research was conducted to investigate the suitability of peanut hull to produce general purpose particleboards. a series of panels were produced using peanut hull and mixture of peanut hull and european black pine wood chips. particleboards were manufactured using various hull ratios in the mixture (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). urea formaldehyde adhesive was utilized in board production and boards were produced to target panel's density of 0.7 g/cm3. panels were tested for some physical (wa ...200817689074
distribution of ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi in soil along a vegetational change from japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii) to black locust (robinia pseudoacacia).the nitrogen-fixing tree black locust (robinia pseudoacacia l.) seems to affect ectomycorrhizal (ecm) colonization and disease severity of japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii parl.) seedlings. we examined the effect of black locust on the distribution of ecm and pathogenic fungi in soil. dna was extracted from soil at depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm, collected from the border between a japanese black pine- and a black locust-dominated forest, and the distribution of these fungi was investigated by d ...200919015894
network formation by rhizomorphs of armillaria lutea in natural soil: their description and ecological significance.armillaria lutea rhizomorphs in soil were mapped over areas of 25 m2 at a pinus nigra (site i) and a picea abies (site ii) plantation. rhizomorph density was 4.3 and 6.1 m m(-2) soil surface with 84% and 48% of the total rhizomorph length in the mapped area interconnected in a network at site i and site ii, respectively. at site i there were only two network attachments to pinus stumps, but at site ii many more to picea roots and stumps. anastomoses of rhizomorphs resulted in cyclic paths, parts ...200717645531
the effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of camiyani black pine (pinus nigra arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. in this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of camiyani black pine (pinus nigra arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. samples obtained from yenice-zonguldak forest enterprises, turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. the physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry de ...200817604619
two cyclic dipeptides from pseudomonas fluorescens gcm5-1a carried by the pine wood nematode and their toxicities to japanese black pine suspension cells and seedlings in vitro.pseudomonas fluorescens gcm5-1a, isolated from the pine wood nematode (pwn), bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was cultured in luria broth medium (lb). the clarified culture was extracted with ethyl acetate, and two dipeptides were purified from the extract. the chemical structures of 1 and 2 were identified as cyclo(-pro-val-)and cyclo(-pro-tyr-), respectively, by ms, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr,(1)h-(1)h cosy, 1h -(13)c cosy spectra. bioassay results showed that the two compounds were toxic to both suspensi ...200719259494
morphometric and electrophoretic analysis of 13 populations of anatolian black pine in turkey.the genetic variation in populations of anatolian black pine (pinus nigra arn. subsp. pallasiana (l.) holmboe.), one of the species covering large areas in turkey, was investigated. open pollinated seeds were collected from 13 populations in a natural distribution range. six characters of seeds (length, width, ratio of length to width, weight/1000 seeds) and seedling characters (cotyledon number and hypocotyls height) and two enzyme systems viz. leucine aminopeptidase (lap) and glutamate oxaloac ...200617402239
carbohydrate concentration in pine as affected by inoculation with bursaphelenchus xylophilus.pines responded to inoculation with bursaphelenchus xylophilus by changes in reducing and nonreducing carbohydrate concentrations dependent on the pine species and the pathotype of b. xylophilus with which the trees were inoculated. carbohydrate concentrations, in compatible pine-nematode pathotype combinations, decreased initially after inoculation and then increased slightly before decreasing to approximately 10% of the control levels as the seedlings wilted. in compatible nematode pathotype-p ...198719290106
diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifh) from ectomycorrhizas of corsican pine (pinus nigra).the diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifh) and their mrna transcription in ectomycorrhizas of corsican pine (pinus nigra) were examined. dna and rna were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi, suillus variegatus and tomentellopsis submollis. dna-derived nifh polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription pcrs for nifh mrna were successful, sugges ...200617107563
genomic differences among pathotypes of bursaphelenchus xylophilus.total genomic dna from bursaphelenchus xylophilus pathotypes mpsy-1 and vpst-1 and from b. mucronatus was digested with restriction endonucleases. dna fragments were electrophoretically separated, southern blotted to nitrocellulose, and hybridized to genomic dna from one of the isolates. the resulting hybridization patterns indicate genomic differences in repetitive dna sequences among these populations. greatest differences were seen between b. xylophilus and b. mucronatus, but genomic differen ...198819290214
toxic metals in the austrian pine (pinus nigra) bark in the thrace region, turkey.austrian pine (pinus nigra) bark was collected in thirty-seven localities in the thrace region, turkey, for the determination of airborne toxic metal distribution. five toxic metals, as, cd, cu, pb, and zn, were monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. distribution maps of toxic elements in the region were plotted according to geographic information system technology. in general, the concentrations of all investigated elements were not high in the region apart from the vicinity of big cit ...200616906352
pathotypes of the pinewood nematode bursaphelenchus xylophilus.an isolate of bursaphelenchus xylophilus from pinus sylvestris in missouri infected and reproduced in 2-3-year-old seedlings of p. sylvestris and to some extent in seedlings of p. nigra. wilting, however, occurred only in p. sylvestris. b. xylophilus isolated from p. strobus in vermont infected and reproduced only in p. strobus seedlings. p. taeda seedlings were resistant to both of these isolates. phytotoxin production was seen only in susceptible seedling species-nematode combinations. signifi ...198619294172
decline and death of pinus spp. in delaware caused by bursaphelenchus xylophilus.etiological studies to determine the cause of decline and death of pinus spp. in delaware were initiated in 1980. the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was found to be the major canse of mortality in japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii). when inoculated into healthy 5-yr-old japanese black pines, b. xylophilus produced typical decline symptoms observed in the field. the xylophilous fungi most often associated with declining trees, rhizosphaera pini, fusarium spp., and pestalotia f ...198219295726
determination of screw and nail withdrawal resistance of some important wood species.in this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (abies nordmanniana), oak (quercus robur l.) black pine (pinus nigra arnold) and stone pine (pinus pinea l.) wood were determined and compared. the data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. the specimens were prepared according to ts 6094 standards. the dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. moreover, the specimens w ...200819325775
phenolic compounds of pinus laricio needles: a bioindicator of the effects of prescribed burning in function of season.fire is a dominant ecological factor in mediterranean-type ecosystems. forest management includes many preventive tools, in particular for fire prevention, such as mechanical treatments and prescribed burning. prescribed burning is a commonly used method for treating fuel loads, but fuel reduction targets for reducing wildfire hazards must be balanced against fuel retention targets in order to maintain habitat and other forest functions. this approach was used on pinus nigra ssp laricio var. cor ...200919446863
allergenicity and cross-reactivity of pine pollen.pine pollen has long been considered a non-allergenic pollen. the large size of the grain and its low levels of proteins are the main reasons invoked to explain this low allergenicity. the aim of this study was to describe the main allergenic bands of pinus radiata (pr) and its cross-reactivity with other pine species, other conifers and grass pollen.200919573163
evaluation of some plants used in turkish folk medicine against parasitic infections for their in vivo anthelmintic activity.ethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from nine plant species from seven families selected depending on their use in turkish folk medicine, including citrillus lanatus (thunb.) matsum. (seed), jasminum fruticans l. (branches), juniperus drupacea labill. (fruits), juniperus nana l. (fruit and leaves), juniperus oxcycedrus l (fruit and leaves), mentha longifolia l. (herba), pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (lamb.) richt. (fruits), plantago lanceolata l. (leaves), and zea mays l. (seed) were evaluated ...200616790330
differential light responses of mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species.the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying plant-plant interactions and forest regeneration processes in mediterranean ecosystems are poorly understood, and the experimental evidence for the role of light availability in these processes is particularly scant. we analyzed the effects of high and low irradiances on 31 ecological, morphological and physiological variables in saplings of four late-successional mediterranean trees, two deciduous (acer opalus subsp. granatense (boiss.) font quer & rot ...200616585040
effect of thinning on density of pinus nigra tree using x-ray computed tomography.this study was carried out to determine the effect of thinning on density, extractives and lignin content of pinus nigra amold tree. wood density was measured with computed tomography and 540+/-20 kg m(-3) were determined on control samples. density of samples from thinning applied plot was 520+/-20 kg m(-3). the results showed that thinning slightly changes the density of wood and this change is caused by springwood content. in contrast, extractives and lignin content were not changed with thin ...200920120459
atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in thrace studied by analysis of austrian pine (pinus nigra) needles. 200616468013
plant ribonucleases and nucleases as antiproliferative agens targeting human tumors growing in mice.the antiproliferative and antitumor effect of leaf ribonuclease was tested in vitro on the human ml-2 tumor cell line and in vivo on athymic nude mice bearing human melanoma tumors. the antiproliferative activity of this plant ribonuclease in vitro studies was negligible. in the experiments in vivo a significant decrease of the tumor size, however was observed. from nucleases the mung bean nuclease (pha) was studied first from nucleases. the antitumor effect of this enzyme on ml2 human tumor cel ...201020218957
stable transformation of embryogenic tissues of pinus nigra arn. using a biolistic method.the stable transformation of embryogenic tissues of pinus nigra arn., cell line e104, has been achieved using a biolistic approach. the introduced dna consisted of the uida reporter gene under the control of the double camv 35s promoter and the nptii selection gene controlled by the single camv 35s promoter. three days after bombardment, putative transformed tissues were selected for continued proliferation on a medium containing 20 mg geneticin l(-1). resistant embryogenic tissue recovery requi ...200516091883
analysis of volatiles from black pine (pinus nigra): significance of wounding and egg deposition by a herbivorous sawfly.the composition of headspace volatiles of black pine (pinus nigra) was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). it has been shown in a previous study that egg deposition of the sawfly diprion pini on p. sylvestris induces a quantitative change of the pine volatile blend . chrysonotomyia ruforum, an egg parasitoid of d. pini, is known to be attracted by volatiles from egg-carrying p. sylvestris, but not by odour from egg-laden p. nigra. therefore, the present study focuse ...200415561187
accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of tuncbilek thermal power plant.in this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the tuncbilek thermal power plant (tpp) in turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. leaves of salix alba l., populus tremula l., robinia pseudoacacia l., quercus infectoria l., pinus nigra arn. ssp. pallasiana (lamb) holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the tpp are carried, and for assessment of environmenta ...200415488593
effects of dessication on post-planting stress in bare-root corsican pine seedlings.we examined the post-planting consequences of pre-planting exposure stress on two-year-old, bare-root corsican pine (pinus nigra arnold. ssp. laricio var. corsicana) seedlings. seedlings were lifted from a nursery and exposed to ambient conditions for periods of up to 192 h before being planted in minirhizotrons. exposure decreased seedling water potential, co(2) assimilation rate, leaf conductance and new root elongation, and increased mortality after planting. during exposure, needle total non ...199714759834
climate change impacts and vulnerability of the southern populations of pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii.the understanding of regional vulnerability to climate change in mediterranean mountain forests is not well developed. climate change impacts on tree growth should be strongly related to the steep environmental gradients of mountainous areas, where a temperature-induced upward shift of the lower elevation limit is expected, particularly amongst drought-sensitive species. trees will adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased extreme events such as prolonged drought. ...201020522420
evaluation of soil properties and flora under afforestation and natural forest in semi-arid climate of central anatolia.arid and semi-add climates and antropojen effects have caused rapid deterioration of the natural resources in the watershed. the main objectives of the study were to determine the correlation between soil properties and flora and to examine some soil properties and floristic composition under natural forest and afforestration. the topographical, geological and stand viewing maps of the watershed belong to 1955 and 2006 years were eximaned in the study. according to this study the 14.5% rate of b ...201020648811
hexazinone and simazine dissipation in forestry field nurseries.hexazinone and simazine field dissipation was studied in two different soils from spain (toledo and burgos), devoted to forest nurseries for pinus nigra. laboratory experiments (adsorption-desorption isotherms, leaching experiment and degradation study) were carried out to determine possible mechanisms of dissipation. higher adsorption was observed for hexazinone in toledo (kft = 0.69) compare to in burgos soil (kfb = 0.20) probably due to the higher organic matter (om) content of toledo soil. n ...200414559252
variation in cone and seed characteristics in a clonal seed orchard of anatolian black pine [pinus nigra arnold subsp. pallasiana (lamb.) holmboe].cone and seed characteristics of anatolian black pine were investigated in a clonal seed orchard for two years, 2002 and 2006. the orchard, originated from kastamonu-karadere seed stand was established in 1993 by using 1 year-old grafts in an area of 13 ha, at hanönü-günlüburun, northern turkey and includes 30 clones. the results showed that, significant variation exists among clones for 14 of cone and seed traits for 2006. the clones had cone wet weight in range of 16.92 to 38.51 g, whereas thi ...201020648822
a fungal pathogen in time and space: the population dynamics of beauveria bassiana in a conifer forest.the fungal entomopathogen beauveria bassiana is ubiquitous in below-ground systems; however, there is a dearth of information on the above-ground diversity, temporal and spatial distribution of this fungus. therefore, we assessed its occurrence in a conifer forest (pseudotsuga monziesii and pinus nigra var. maritima) using selective media to isolate b. bassiana from soil, branch and bark samples collected in october 2005, march and june 2006. fungal density was the highest at all locations in oc ...201020662927
the usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition.in view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. the present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of (137)cs, (40)k, (232)th and (238)u in the barks of pine (pinus nigra) and oak (quercus petraea) trees collected from the thrace region in turkey. by considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among liche ...201020678943
damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in noshahr and kelardasht.to study the damping-off of conifer seedlings, we have collected samples from the roots of conifer seedlings (pinus nigra, picea excelsa, abieces spp, cupressus arizonica, cupressus sempervirens) from nurseries in the south of iran (noshahr and kelardasht). after disinfecting the samples, we have used standard media like pda, ma and cla. the following fungi were identified: fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium sambucinum, clamydosporium, rhizoctonia solani, cylindrocarpon spp., alternar ...200112425024
[dispersal of pollen and the variation in number of patients prescribed medicine for allergies in otaru].the number of patients prescribed medicine for allergies increased in may and september. therefore, we suspected that the cause for the increase was pollen. many kinds of pollen occur in otaru, such as alder in april, japanese black pine, white birch, acacia, larch in may, oak in june, and mugwort in september. the total number of pollen count of white birch was about 9 times that of mugwort, but the total number of patients prescribed celestamine in the season of white birch pollen was about 0. ...199910198596
different karyotype patterns among allopatric pinus nigra (pinaceae) populations revealed by molecular cytogenetics.to examine variation and taxonomic recognition of pinus nigra (european black pine) at the intraspecific level, chromosomal distribution of 5s and 18s-5.8s-26s rdna loci revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (fish) and fluorochrome banding with chromomycin a(3) and dapi were analysed among allopatric populations belonging to different subspecies. despite prevalent opinion on predominantly conserved and homogenous conifer karyotypes, several patterns were observed. surprisingly, interstit ...201121143741
effect of defoliation by the pine processionary moth (ppm) on radial, height and volume growth of crimean pine (pinus nigra) trees in turkey.in this study, we assessed the effects of chronic defoliation on radial, height and volume growth of crimean pine (pinus nigra arnold) trees of the pine processionary moth [thaumetopoea wilkinsoni tams (lepidoptera:thaumetopoeidae)] in western turkey crimean pine tree ring chronologies were analyzed for evidence of the pine processionary moth (ppm). tree ring widths from non-defoliated crimean pine sample trees, which were not defoliated by ppm from 1998 to 2004, were used to estimate potential ...201021186719
differential response of two pinus spp. to avian nitrogen input as revealed by nitrogen isotope analysis for tree rings.temporal variations in n concentration and d(15)n value of annual tree rings (1 year of time resolution) of two japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii) and three japanese red pine (pinus densiflora) trees under current breeding activity of the great cormorant (pharacrocorax carbo) and the black-tailed gull (larus crassirostris), respectively, in central and northeastern japan were studied. both species from control sites where no avian input occurs show negative values (d(15)n = around -4 ‰ to -2 ...201121271423
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic dalmatian black pine (pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic dalmatian black pine (pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from croatia were investigated. the chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gc and gc/ms analyses, and the main compounds identified were a-pinene, ß-pinene, germacrene d, and ß-caryophyllene. disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. the dalmatian black pine ...201121404437
back from a predicted climatic extinction of an island endemic: a future for the corsican nuthatch.the corsican nuthatch (sitta whiteheadi) is red-listed as vulnerable to extinction by the iucn because of its endemism, reduced population size, and recent decline. a further cause is the fragmentation and loss of its spatially-restricted favourite habitat, the corsican pine (pinus nigra laricio) forest. in this study, we aimed at estimating the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of the corsican nuthatch using species distribution models. because this species has a strong tro ...201121464916
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