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taxonomic dissection of the genus micrococcus: kocuria gen. nov., nesterenkonia gen. nov., kytococcus gen. nov., dermacoccus gen. nov., and micrococcus cohn 1872 gen. emend.the results of a phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analysis of the genus micrococcus indicated that it is significantly heterogeneous. except for micrococcus lylae, no species groups phylogenetically with the type species of the genus, micrococcus luteus. the other members of the genus form three separate phylogenetic lines which on the basis of chemotaxonomic properties can be assigned to four genera. these genera are the genus kocuria gen. nov. for micrococcus roseus, micrococcus varians, and mi ...19957547287
phylogenetic diversity of the deinococci as determined by 16s ribosomal dna sequence comparison.16s ribosomal dna (rdna) sequences were determined for the five species of the genus deinococcus (deinococcus erythromyxa, deinococcus proteolyticus, deinococcus radiodurans, deinococcus radiophilus, and deinococcus radiopugnans) and the single species of the genus. deinobacter (deinobacter grandis). with the exception of deinococcus erythromyxa, the deinococci form a coherent phylogenetic cluster which is related to the thermus-meiothermus lineage. an analysis of the 16s rdna sequence of deinoc ...19979103641
kocuria palustris sp. nov. and kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (typha angustifolia).two gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the soroksár tributary of the danube river, hungary. sequence comparisons of the 16s rdna indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus kocuria, family micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. the phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms ta68t and taga27t was supported by dna- ...199910028258
a 23s rdna-targeted polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of staphylococcus aureus in meat starter cultures and dairy products.a polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of staphylococcus aureus was developed. the system consisted of the following components: (i) selective enrichment, (ii) dna isolation, (iii) amplification of dna with primers targeted against the 23s rrna gene, and (iv) evaluation of the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by southern hybridization and nested polymerase chain reaction. the method achieved a high degree of sensitivity and unambiguity as required for the detection of ...199910528718
size distribution of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in indoor air.the aim of this study was to determine the size distribution of bacteria and fungi occurring in the air of human dwellings. the concentration and size distribution of particulate aerosol, gram-positive mesophilic bacteria, gram-negative mesophilic bacteria and fungi were examined in 60 flats situated in the upper silesia conurbation, southern poland. the investigated flats comprised three quantitatively equal (20 flats each) groups: flats without additional emission sources of particulate aeroso ...199910607991
phylogenetic and physiological diversity of arthrobacter strains isolated from unconsolidated subsurface sediments.forty strains of gram-positive, aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria isolated from saturated subsurface lacustrine, paleosol and fluvial sediments at the us department of energy's hanford site in south central washington state were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of 16s rrna gene sequences and by determination of selected morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. phylogenetic analyses of 16s rdna sequences from subsurface isolates in the context of similar sequences from previously ...200010846209
[the use of batumin-containing disks for the rapid identification of staphylococci].the study of 467 microbial strains obtained from collections and from clinical sources revealed that microorganisms of the genus staphylococcus were highly sensitive to batumin, a new antibiotic obtained from bacteria of the genus pseudomonas. 378 strains of 15 staphylococcus species proved to be highly sensitive to the diagnostic preparation "diastaph", developed on the basis of batumin (antibiotic-impregnated discs); after 18-hour incubation the diameter of the growth inhibition zones on agar- ...199910852028
pelczaria aurantia atcc 49321t (=dsm 12801t) is a strain of kocuria rosea (flügge 1886) stackebrandt et al. 1995.phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses of pelczaria aurantia atcc 49321t (= dsm 12801t) indicate that this species is very closely related to kocuria rosea. the dna-dna reassociation value of 87.1% determined for the type strains of the two species supports this finding. the results of phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rdna of a subculture of the original strain of pelczaria aurantia, deposited at the national institutes of health, bethesda, md, usa, as 'neisseria aurantia', are identical to th ...200010939645
the status of the genus pelczaria (poston 1994) and the species pelczaria aurantia (poston 1994). request for an opinion.based upon the results of another publication [p. schumann et al. (2000). int j syst evol microbiol 50, 1421-1424) it is concluded that the culture pelczaria aurantia atcc 49321t (= dsm 12801t) currently being distributed does not conform to the description of the type strain of pelczaria aurantia (poston 1994) and the type species of the genus pelczaria (poston 1994). it is proposed that the judicial commission consider (1) that the organism currently deposited as atcc 49321t and dsm 12801t be ...200010939680
characterization of micrococcaceae isolated from salt used for spanish dry-cured ham.the microbial flora of salt used in the production of spanish dry-cured ham was studied. the results indicated that micrococcaceae constituted the predominant flora. identification of the 369 isolates belonging to the family micrococcaceae revealed that 60% belonged to genus staphylococcus, 25% to micrococcus, 6% to kocuria, 5.4% to dermacoccus and 0.5% to stomatococcus. the species most often isolated was staph. xylosus (28.9%), followed by m. lylae (21.4%), staph. equorum (18.55%) and d. nishi ...200011068912
potential use of presumptive enterococci and staphylococci as indicators of sanitary condition in plants making hard italian-type cheese.raw milk, pasteurized milk, unripened cheese (1 day old), and partially ripened cheese (3 months) from 42 milk lots at a plant making hard italian-type cheese were analyzed for presumptive enterococci using kanamycin esculin azide agar pour plates. fully ripened (> or =10 months) cheeses, derived from other milk lots, were also tested. numbers of presumptive staphylococci (baird-parker agar [b-p]) were determined in the partially and fully ripened cheeses. presumptive enterococci were ubiquitous ...200011131893
the application of a fermented food ingredient containing 'variacin', a novel antimicrobial produced by kocuria varians, to control the growth of bacillus cereus in chilled dairy products.the feasibility of applying variacin, a lantibiotic produced by kocuria varians in the form of a spray-dried fermented ingredient to control the growth of psychrotrophic bacillus cereus strains in chilled dairy foods, was evaluated.200111155129
identification by 16s-23s rdna intergenic region amplification, genotypic and phenotypic clustering of staphylococcus xylosus strains from dry sausages.to ascertain the identification and typing of the gram-positive, coagulase-negative cocci present in 'salsiccia sotto sugna', an italian artisanal sausage.200111298231
[unique properties of highly radioresistant bacteria].in connection with the chernobyl nuclear power plant (chnpp) accident and the negative ecological after-effects for biota in this zone the interest has arisen to radioresistant bacteria, as to the most dynamic model of the given ecosystem, and to mechanisms which provide resistance of bacteria to ionizing radiation. the analysis of published data has shown that the radioresistant bacteria are not interrelated taxonomically and phylogenetically. the extreme radioresistant bacteria are represented ...200011300085
catheter-related bacteremia due to kocuria kristinae in a patient with ovarian cancer.we report on the first case of a catheter-related recurrent bacteremia caused by kocuria kristinae, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family micrococcaceae, in a 51-year-old woman with ovarian cancer. this unusual pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases.200211773142
aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of the termite zootermopsis angusticollis.to demonstrate the occurrence of cellulolytic bacteria in the termite zootermopsis angusticollis.200211849325
[phylogenetic diversity of aerobic saprotrophic bacteria isolated from the daqing oil field].a diverse and active microbial community in the stratal waters of the daqing oil field (china), which is exploited with the use of water-flooding, was found to contain aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria (including hydrocarbon-oxidizing ones) and anaerobic fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. the aerobic bacteria were most abundant in the near-bottom zones of injection wells. twenty pure cultures of aerobic saprotrophic bacteria were isolated from the stratal waters. under ...200211910798
prevalent bacterial species and novel phylotypes in advanced noma lesions.the purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture-independent molecular methods. 16s ribosomal dna bacterial genes from dna isolated from advanced noma lesions of four nigerian children were pcr amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into escherichia coli. partial 16s rrna sequences of approximately 500 bases from 212 cloned inserts were used initially to determine species identity or close ...200212037085
bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in central and eastern european countries.studies of indoor bioaerosols conducted in central and eastern european countries, as a result of the scarcity of funding, mostly do not attain the level presented by similar studies in northern america and western europe. for socio-economic reasons, most of the intense studies on indoor bioaerosols in central and eastern european countries were carried out in industrial facilities and have contributed significantly to occupational health science. in contrast, until recently, insufficient of stu ...200212088392
[occurrence of bacteria in the mouth from genera of micrococcus, kocuria, nesterenkonia, kytococcus and dermacoccus].the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of different bacteria in the oral cavity. the bacteria were present in the oral cavities of 73 (48.7%) of 150 individuals. nesterenkonia halobia, the most frequently isolated species, was found in 20 (27%) individuals, micrococcus luteus in 16 (22%), kocuria kristinae in 12 (16%), kocuria varians in 10 (14%), dermacoccus sedentarius in 9 (12%), micrococcus lylae in 8 (11%), and kytococcus nishinomiyaensis in 3 (4%). mean counts of these microorga ...200212185681
gamma irradiation and cellular damage in kocuria rosea: investigation by one- and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.fourier transform infrared (ft-ir) spectroscopy was used to investigate the radiation-induced effects on kocuria rosea. bacterial suspensions at the stationary phase were exposed to increasing doses of gamma radiation. in the region 1350-840cm(-1), assigned to phosphodiester backbone, nucleic acids, and sugar rings, the radical damaging effects were dose-dependent, with the first threshold at 2.75kgy and the second at 13.75kgy inducing more striking spectral variations. postirradiation reincubat ...200212464274
ecology of mixed biofilms subjected daily to a chlorinated alkaline solution: spatial distribution of bacterial species suggests a protective effect of one species to another.three bacterial strains (kocuria sp. c714.1, brevibacterium linens b337.1 and staphylococcus sciuri ccl101) were grown together on stainless steel and were subjected daily to a commercial alkaline chlorine solution (22 mg l-1 of free chlorine, ph 11) over a period of 4 weeks. after the daily chemical shock, culture madia [1:20 dilution of tryptic soy broth (tsb-ye/20) or diluted whey] was deposited on the biofilms. the chemical shocks led first to a drop in the culturable population, followed by ...200312542714
kocuria polaris sp. nov., an orange-pigmented psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an antarctic cyanobacterial mat sample.strain cms 76ort, an orange-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from a cyanobacterial mat sample from a pond located in mcmurdo dry valley, antarctica. on the basis of chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain cms 76ort was identified as a member of the genus kocuria. it exhibited a 16s rdna similarity of 99.8% and dna-dna similarity of 71% with kocuria rosea (atcc 186t). phenotypic traits confirmed that strain cms 78ort and k. rosea were well differentiated. furthermore, strain cms 76ort ...200312656171
[production of oil-processing compounds by microorganisms from the daqing oil field, china].twenty pure cultures isolated from formation waters of the daqing oil field were studied with respect to their capacity to produce surface-active compounds in media with individual hydrocarbons, lower alcohols, and fatty acids. aerobic saprotrophic bacteria belonging to the genera bacillus, brevibacillus, rhodococcus, dietzia, kocuria, gordonia, cellulomonas, clavibacter, pseudomonas, and acinetobacter decreased the surface tension of cultivation media from 55-63 to 28-44 mn/m. strains of bacill ...200312751245
infection of a ventriculoatrial shunt with phenotypically variable staphylococcus epidermidis masquerading as polymicrobial bacteremia due to various coagulase-negative staphylococci and kocuria varians.the diagnosis of bloodstream infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci is frequently based on the isolation of the same organism from more than one blood culture. phenotypic variation is a common characteristic of pathogenic strains of staphylococcus epidermidis which may affect species identification by the microbiology laboratory. we describe a patient with a new onset of nephritis and gram-positive bacteremia. gram-positive cocci grew in multiple blood cultures and were identified by th ...200312791862
a survey of antibiotic resistance in micrococcaceae isolated from italian dry fermented sausages.the transfer of bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial agents or resistance genes from animals to humans via the food chain is increasingly a problem. therefore, it is important to determine the species and the numbers of bacteria involved in this phenomenon. for this purpose, 148 strains of microstaphylococci were isolated from three types of italian dry fermented sausages. eight of 148 strains belonged to the genera kocuria and micrococcus. the remaining 140 strains belonged to 11 differ ...200312800992
time series analysis of aerobic bacterial flora during miso fermentation.this article reports a microbiological study of aerobic mesophilic bacteria that are present during the fermentation process of miso.200312859661
reclassification of atcc 9341 from micrococcus luteus to kocuria rhizophila.strain atcc 9341, currently known as micrococcus luteus, has been designated as a quality-control strain in a number of applications. it is also cited as the standard culture in several official methods and manuals, as well as the code of federal regulations. over the years, it has become apparent that atcc 9341 does not resemble other m. luteus strains; however, its phenotypic characteristics alone were ambiguous. recently, a polyphasic study was performed in which molecular data were combined ...200312892116
[occurrence and number of bacteria from the micrococcus, kocuria, nesterenkonia, kytococcus and dermacoccus genera on skin and mucous membranes in humans].the aim of work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria from genera of micrococcus, kocuria, nesterenkonia, kytococcus and dermatococcus on human skin and mucous membranes in healthy population. among 150 investigated persons these bacteria were found in 122 (81.3%). the frequency of isolation was similar in both sex (82.4% in female and 79.7% in male). most often the strains were isolated from oral cavity (48.7%), and from skin of palm and forearm (40.7% and 37.3%). least freque ...200312908417
[susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria from genera micrococcus, kocuria, nesterenkonia, kytococcus and dermacoccus].two hundred and nineteen strains from genera micrococcus, kocuria, nesterenkonia, kytococcus and dermacoccus isolated from different sources, such as saliva, skin of palm and forearm and from vestibule of nose were tested. the susceptibility to doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, amikacyne, amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin and erythromycin were estimated. in general, bacteria from these genera are sensitive to most of select ...200312908418
combining denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16s rdna v3 region and 16s-23s rdna spacer region polymorphism analyses for the identification of staphylococci from italian fermented sausages.separation of amplified v3 region from 16s rdna by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) and 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region polymorphism (isr-pcr) analyses were tested as tool for differentiation of staphylococcal strains commonly isolated from fermented sausages. variable v3 regions of 25 staphylococcal reference strains and 96 wild strains of species belonging to the genera staphylococcus, micrococcus and kocuria were analyzed. pcr-dgge profiles obtained were species-specif ...200314529185
design and evaluation of specific pcr primers for rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus xylosus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages.rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus xylosus was achieved by species-specific pcr assays. two sets of primers, targeting on xylulokinase (xylb) and 60 kda heat-shock protein (hsp60) genes of s. xylosus, respectively, were designed. species-specificity of both sets of primers was evaluated by using 27 reference strains of the dsm collection, representing 23 different species of the staphylococcus genus and 3 species of the kocuria genus. moreover, 90 wild strains isolated from diff ...200314666989
contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. curing brine containing 15% (w/v) nacl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either lactobacillus sakei lad, l. sakei lad plus kocuria varians ft4 (formally micrococcus varians), l. sakei lad plus papain and gdl (glucono-delta-lactone) plus k. varians ft4, was injected to the muscle at a pumping rate 15% w/v. the effect of these treatments on the proteolysis in the ham system was compared to a cont ...200415135960
meat-model system development for proteolytic activity determination.many technological parameters that affect the nature and functional properties of proteins are involved in the preparation of meat products. the dry-curing process is quite complex because of the coexistence of enzymes from endogenous and bacterial origins. the protein breakdown that takes place during the ripening of dry fermented sausages leads to an increase in the concentration of peptides and free amino acids. the proteolytic events have been thoroughly investigated not only because of thei ...200415156060
validation of a microbiological method: the star protocol, a five-plate test, for the screening of antibiotic residues in milk.the results of an in-house laboratory validation of a microbiological method for the screening of antibiotic residues in milk are presented. the sensitivity of this five-plate test, called screening test for antibiotic residues (star), was established by the analysis of milk samples spiked with 66 antibiotics at eight different concentrations. ten different groups of antibiotics were studied: macrolides, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, tetracyclines, sulphonamides, linc ...200415204543
antimicrobial potential of immobilized lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis atcc 11454 against selected bacteria.immobilization of living cells of lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative or complementary method of immobilizing organic acids and bacteriocins and inhibit undesirable bacteria in foods. this study evaluated the inhibition potential of immobilized lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis atcc 11454 on selected bacteria by a modified method of the agar spot test. l. lactis was immobilized in calcium alginate (1 to 2%)-whey protein concentrate (0 and 1%) beads. the antimicrobial potential of immobil ...200415222547
kocuria marina sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from marine sediment.an actinobacterial strain was isolated from marine sediment taken from the troitsa bay of the gulf of peter the great, east siberian sea, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. the isolate, designated kmm 3905t, was gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid. the strain tolerated up to 15 % nacl in growth media, although its presence was not essential for growth. chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties of the strain were consistent with its classification in the genus kocuria. the st ...200415388718
development of a multiplex pcr for the identification of staphylococcus genus and four staphylococcal species isolated from food.to develop a multiplex pcr that allows the identification of bacteria belonging to the staphylococcus genus and in particular to the species staphylococcus xylosus, s. saprophyticus, s. epidermidis and s. aureus isolated from food manufacturing plants.200415479426
interactions in biofilms between listeria monocytogenes and resident microorganisms from food industry premises.twenty nine bacterial strains were grown as binary culture biofilms with listeria monocytogenes to assess their influence on the settlement of the latter on stainless steel coupons. most of the strains had been isolated from food processing plants after cleaning and disinfection and were tentatively identified by the apilab plus 3.3.3 database (biomerieux). sixteen of them decreased l. monocytogenes biofilm colony forming units (cfu) counts. three strains, bacillus sp. ccl 9 an unidentified gram ...200415541798
bacterial diversity in a nonsaline alkaline environment: heterotrophic aerobic populations.heterotrophic populations were isolated and characterized from an alkaline groundwater environment generated by active serpentinization, which results in a ca(oh)2-enriched, extremely diluted groundwater with ph 11.4. one hundred eighty-five strains were isolated in different media at different ph values during two sampling periods. to assess the degree of diversity present in the environment and to select representative strains for further characterization of the populations, we screened the is ...200415574939
rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus equorum by a species-specific pcr assay targeting the soda gene.rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus (s.) equorum was achieved by species-specific pcr assays. a set of primers targeting the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (soda) gene of s. equorum was designed. species-specificity of the primer set was evaluated by using a total of 112 strains (including 27 reference strains of the dsm collection), representing 26 different species of the genus staphylococcus, 3 species of the genus kocuria, and different strains of macrococcus caseol ...200415612627
catheter-related bacteremia due to kocuria rosea in a patient undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.micrococcus species may cause intracranial abscesses, meningitis, pneumonia, and septic arthritis in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent hosts. in addition, strains identified as micrococcus spp. have been reported recently in infections associated with indwelling intravenous lines, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids, ventricular shunts and prosthetic valves.200415615593
reclassification of strain ccm 132, previously classified as kocuria varians, as kocuria carniphila sp. nov.a gram-positive actinobacterium, previously classified as kocuria varians, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. the bacterium showed the peptidoglycan type lys-ala3 (variation a3alpha), mk-7(h2) was the major menaquinone and anteiso-c(15 : 0) and anteiso-c(17 : 0) were the major fatty acids. on the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of the actinobacterium, a novel species, kocuria carniphila sp. nov. (type strain, ccm 132t=dsm 16004t), is proposed.200515653866
erroneous reporting of coagulase-negative staphylococci as kocuria spp. by the vitek 2 system.misidentification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons) may delay appropriate treatment. we investigated 20 clinical isolates identified as kocuria spp. by the vitek 2 system. all were identified as cons by 16s rrna gene sequencing (18 staphylococcus epidermidis, 1 staphylococcus haemolyticus). four kocuria isolates were shown to be identical to cons from the same patient by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. isolates identified by vitek 2 as kocuria most likely represent misidentified cons, ...200515750130
comparison of various assays used for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in poultry meat.in this study, microbiological tests for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in meat and meat products were evaluated. the traditional fpt (four plate test, containing bacillus subtilis and kocuria rhizophila), bsda (bacillus stearothermophilus disc assay) and a newly developed microbiological test, premi test (containing bacillus stearothermophilus) were included in the study. the limit of detection (lod) of the premi test was compared with the lod of the traditional methods. the detection ...200516019829
a biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry feathers as a feed ingredient.a strain of kocuria rosea with keratinolytic capacity was cultured aerobically on submerged feathers to obtain a fermented feather meal (ffm). this ffm enriched with cells of k. rosea mainly contains crude protein (71%). the pepsin digestibility of the fermented product (88%) was similar to the value of the commercial feather meal and more than 70% greater that untreated feathers. the bacterial biomass improved the content of amino acids lysine (3.46%), histidine (0.94%) and methionine (0.69%). ...200516023573
kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis.kocuria, previously classified into the genus of micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. two species, k. rosea and k. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia.200516029488
identification and differentiation of staphylococcus carnosus and staphylococcus simulans by species-specific pcr assays of soda genes.the aim of this study was to design species-specific pcr assays for rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of staphylococcus (s.) carnosus and s. simulans strains. two different sets of primers, targeting the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (soda) gene of s. carnosus and s. simulans, respectively, were designed. species-specificity of both sets of primers was evaluated by using 93 strains, representing 26 different species of the genus staphylococcus, 3 species of the gen ...200516106559
molecular survey of aeroplane bacterial contamination.to examine bacterial contamination of passenger aircraft and to identify aeroplane environments posing the greatest potential health risk.200516108791
[gram-positive cocci as an opportunistic infection factor].the frequency of opportunistic infections increased in the last years. the opportunistic infections are serious and very difficult to diagnose complication at patients with lower immunity. the following factors are conducive to develop infections caused by opportunistic bacteria: invasive research methods, medical treatments and immunological defects. the publication presents pathogenicity of bacteria of following types: aerococcus, kocuria, kytococcus, lactococcus, leuconostoc, micrococcus, ped ...200516161935
vitek 2 automated identification system and kocuria kristinae. 200516272536
molecular, technological and safety characterization of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages.the population of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages was characterized at species and strain level by molecular techniques and some technological and hygienic aspects were also considered. staphylococcus xylosus was the predominant species (80.8%) followed by staphylococcus warneri (8.3%), staphylococcus epidermidis (5.8%) staphylococcus carnosus (4.6%), and kocuria varians (0.4%). proteolytic activity was observed in 23% of the isolates. the species with the ...200616297478
characterization of microbial contamination in united states air force aviation fuel tanks.bacteria and fungi, isolated from united states air force (usaf) aviation fuel samples, were identified by gas chromatograph fatty acid methyl ester (gc-fame) profiling and 16s or 18s rrna gene sequencing. thirty-six samples from 11 geographically separated usaf bases were collected. at each base, an above-ground storage tank, a refueling truck, and an aircraft wing tank were sampled at the lowest sample point, or sump, to investigate microbial diversity and dispersion within the fuel distributi ...200616328508
use of field-based stable isotope probing to identify adapted populations and track carbon flow through a phenol-degrading soil microbial community.the goal of this field study was to provide insight into three distinct populations of microorganisms involved in in situ metabolism of phenol. our approach measured 13co2 respired from [13c]phenol and stable isotope probing (sip) of soil dna at an agricultural field site. traditionally, sip-based investigations have been subject to the uncertainties posed by carbon cross-feeding. by altering our field-based, substrate-dosing methodologies, experiments were designed to look beyond primary degrad ...200516332760
diversity of actinomycetes isolated from challenger deep sediment (10,898 m) from the mariana trench.thirty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from sediment collected from the mariana trench (10,898 m) using marine agar and media selective for actinomycetes, notably raffinose-histidine agar. the isolates were assigned to the class actinobacteria using primers specific for members of this taxon. the phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera dermacoccus, kocuria, micromonospora, streptomyces, tsukamurella and williamsia. all of the isol ...200616538400
kocuria aegyptia sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a saline, alkaline desert soil in egypt.a coccoid, non-motile actinobacterium, designated strain yim 70003t, was isolated from a saline, alkaline, desert-soil sample from egypt. phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences revealed that the organism formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus kocuria and was most closely related to kocuria polaris dsm 14382t (98.6 % sequence similarity) and kocuria rosea dsm 20447t (98.2 %). chemotaxonomic data, including the lys-ala3 peptidoglycan type, the presence of phosphatidylglyc ...200616585685
construction and analysis of fractional multifactorial designs to study attachment strength and transfer of listeria monocytogenes from pure or mixed biofilms after contact with a solid model food.the aim of this study was to establish which of seven factors influence the adhesion strength and hence bacterial transfer between biofilms containing listeria monocytogenes (pure and two-species biofilms) and tryptone soya agar (tsa) as a solid organic surface. the two-species biofilms were made of l. monocytogenes and one of the following species of bacteria: the nonpathogenic organisms kocuria varians, pseudomonas fluorescens, and staphylococcus sciuri and ccl 63, an unidentified gram-negativ ...200616597925
screening for microbial markers in miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining.viable microorganisms were found in miocene lacustrine clays of the cypris formation excavated from 200-m below the surface as spoil during open-cast brown coal mining (sokolov brown coal basin, north-western bohemia, czech republic). both saprotrophic microfungi of the genera penicillium, verticillium, cladosporium and aspergillus as well as heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from an intact sediment cores. heterotrophic bacteria were classified by the mis sherlock system as representatives of ...200616622790
atp level variations in heterotrophic bacteria during attachment on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces.a survey of the extracellular atp levels of 86 heterotrophic bacteria showed that gram-negative bacteria of the genera sulfitobacter, staleya, and marinobacter secreted elevated amounts of extracellular atp, ranging from 6.0 to 9.8 pm atp/colony forming unit (cfu), and that gram-positive bacteria of the genera kocuria and planococcus secreted up to 4.1 pm atp/cfu. variations in the levels of extracellular and intracellular atp-dependent luminescence were monitored in living cells of sulfitobacte ...200616636988
response surface methodology for the optimization of keratinase production in culture medium containing feathers produced by kocuria rosea.a 43-fold increase in keratinase production by kocuria rosea was achieved in batch fermentation using response surface methodology. factorial designs were used to select the components of a culture medium that showed a significant effect on keratinase production. an orthogonal-central composite experimental design was performed, with only two (feathers and magnesium) from nine initial compounds being further analyzed by response surface methodology. an optimum keratinase production of 14 886.9 u ...200616699569
kocuria himachalensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the indian himalayas.a reddish orange bacterium, strain k07-05(t), was isolated from soil during a study of the bacterial diversity of a cold desert of the indian himalayas and was studied by using a polyphasic approach. the organism had morphological and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with its classification in the genus kocuria. phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence showed that strain k07-05(t) was closely related to kocuria rosea dsm 20447(t) and kocuria polaris mtcc 3702(t) (98.1 and 97.8 % s ...200616902039
inhibitory effect of oxalic acid on bacterial spoilage of raw chilled chicken.oxalic acid was evaluated as a treatment for reducing populations of naturally occurring microorganisms on raw chicken. raw chicken breasts were dipped in solutions of oxalic acid (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, wt/vol) for 10, 20, and 30 min, individually packed in oxygen-permeable polyethylene bags, and stored at 4 degrees c. total plate counts of aerobic bacteria and populations of pseudomonas spp. and enterobacteriaceae on breasts were determined before treatment and after storage for 1, 3, 7, ...200616924917
microbiological characteristics of "androlla", a spanish traditional pork sausage.counts of total aerobic mesophilic microflora, lactic acid bacteria, salt-tolerant microflora, enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, moulds and yeasts, and staphylococci, and some physico-chemical parameters (total solids, nacl and nitrate contents and ph and aw values) were determined in 20 units of "androlla", a traditional dry-fermented sausage made in the nw of spain. in general, high counts of all the investigated microbial groups were observed, with average values of 8.99 +/- 0.46 log cfu/g for ...200716943094
biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional egyptian domiati cheese.bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional egyptian soft domiati cheese was studied by pcr-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (ttge) and pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge). bands were identified using a reference species database (j.-c. ogier et al., appl. environ. microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by dna sequencing. results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in domia ...200717189434
water sensitivity, antimicrobial, and physicochemical analyses of edible films based on hpmc and/or chitosan.several properties of chitosan films associated or not with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose polymer (hpmc) and hpmc films incorporating or not nisin and/or milk fat were studied. nisin addition at a level of 250 microg ml-1 and likewise chitosan at 1% (w/v) concentration were efficient for total inhibiting aspergillus niger and kocuria rhizophila food deterioration microorganisms. hpmc and chitosan films were transparent, whereas nisin and/or fat incorporation induced a 2-fold lightness parameter i ...200717263462
metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton bacterial communities in a hungarian shallow soda lake.in the present study, the species composition and potential metabolic activities of bacterial communities of reed phragmites australis (cav.) (trin. ex steudel) periphyton from lake velencei were studied by cultivation-based and metabolic fingerprinting methods. serially diluted spring biofilm samples were used to test the community-level physiological profiling (clpp) using biolog microplates, and for plating onto different media. on the basis of their morphological, biochemical, and physiologi ...200717406774
stability of microbial communities in goat milk during a lactation year: molecular approaches.the microbial communities in milks from one herd were evaluated during 1-year of lactation, using molecular methods to evaluate their stability and the effect of breeding conditions on their composition. the diversity of microbial communities was measured using two approaches: molecular identification by 16s and 18s rdna sequencing of isolates from counting media (two milks), and direct identification using 16s rdna from clone libraries (six milks). the stability of these communities was evaluat ...200717604934
interactions between strains of staphylococcus xylosus and kocuria varians isolated from fermented meats.to evaluate the interactions of staphylococcus xylosus on kocuria varians strains isolated from fermented meat products. methods and results: interactions were assessed in vitro by agar spot test, agar well diffusion assay and spectrophotometric assay. the growth of k. varians (five strains) alone was compared with that in the presence of growing cells of s. xylosus (50 strains) or in the presence of heat-treated or untreated supernatants of s. xylosus. sixteen strains stimulated the growth of k ...200717714408
6-aminohexanoate oligomer hydrolases from the alkalophilic bacteria agromyces sp. strain ky5r and kocuria sp. strain ky2.alkalophilic, nylon oligomer-degrading strains, agromyces sp. and kocuria sp., were isolated from the wastewater of a nylon-6 factory and from activated sludge from a sewage disposal plant. the 6-aminohexanoate oligomer hydrolases (nylc) from the alkalophilic strains had 95.8 to 98.6% similarity to the enzyme in neutrophilic arthrobacter sp. but had superior thermostability, activity under alkaline conditions, and affinity for nylon-related substrates, which would be advantageous for biotechnolo ...200717827307
medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.this study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the biolog microplate panels and microlog database. we have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over india) ...200717913417
[phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria in the ancient salt deposits of the yipinglang salt mine, p. r. china].the microbial diversity of cultivable bacteria, isolated from the ancient salt deposits from the yipinglang salt mine (ypl) in the yunnan province, p. r. china,was investigated by using conventional culture-dependent method and phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna gene sequence comparisons. 38 bacteria strains were isolated from the brine, halite and saline soil samples on mba (marine broth agar 2216, difco) and isp 2 (international streotomyces project medium 2) media supplemented with 0.5-3 ...200717944352
[microbial diversity in scorpion intestine (buthus martensii karsch)].scorpion is an important officinal animal, and has a high nutritional value. in this study, the culture-independent and culture-dependent methods were used to investigate the microbial diversity in the scorpion's intestine. results based on culture-independent method showed the bacteria to be related to alpha, beta, gamma-proteobacteria. bacteria isolated by the culture-dependent method were high g + c, gram-positive bacteria. the genera enterobacter, serratia and ochrobactrum were detected by b ...200718062268
[bacteremia caused by kocuria kristinae in a patient with acute leukaemia]. 200818191518
staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov., a pyrrolidonyl arylamidase/ornithine decarboxylase-positive bacterium isolated from blood cultures.twelve coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates recovered from blood cultures with positive pyrrolidonyl arylamidase and ornithine decarboxylase reactions were identified as staphylococcus lugdunensis by the clinical microbiology laboratory. however, none of these 12 isolates were recognized by a s. lugdunensis translation elongation factor tu (tuf) gene-specific probe. under the api staph v4.0 identification system (biomérieux, durham, nc), 8 of these 12 isolates could not be identified with ...200818248933
cloth colorization caused by microbial biofilm.in this study, cloth disfeaturement was investigated biologically. to clarify whether or not microbes can cause cloth disfeaturement, and to identify the microbes causing the disfeaturement, worn cloth samples were incubated on sweat-ingredient agar medium. non-sterilized cloth samples became yellow-colored during incubation, and bacterial strains belonging to the genera bacillus, brevibacterium, kocuria, micrococcus and staphylococcus were isolated from the yellow-colored parts. two major isola ...200818359206
[bacteremia caused by kocuria kristinae in a patient with acute leukaemia]. 200818395377
complete genome sequence of the soil actinomycete kocuria rhizophila.the soil actinomycete kocuria rhizophila belongs to the suborder micrococcineae, a divergent bacterial group for which only a limited amount of genomic information is currently available. k. rhizophila is also important in industrial applications; e.g., it is commonly used as a standard quality control strain for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. sequencing and annotation of the genome of k. rhizophila dc2201 (nbrc 103217) revealed a single circular chromosome (2,697,540 bp; g+c content of 7 ...200818408034
kocuria flava sp. nov. and kocuria turfanensis sp. nov., airborne actinobacteria isolated from xinjiang, china.two coloured bacteria were isolated from the same plate for detecting cultivable bacteria from the air of xinjiang in china. phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna gene sequences revealed that the isolates were members of the genus kocuria, in which they represented two novel lineages. although the two strains presented high 16s rrna gene sequence similarity (above 97 %), their dna g+c contents were very different (6 mol%). the g+c contents of strains ho-9041(t) and ho-9042(t) are 71 and 65 mol ...200818523169
kocuria rhizophila adds to the emerging spectrum of micrococcal species involved in human infections.we describe the first case of a kocuria rhizophila infection in a boy with methylmalonic aciduria. a single clone was isolated from blood samples drawn through a port system and from peripheral veins during septic episodes within a 2-year period. k. rhizophila expands the emerging number of "micrococci" considered to be etiologically relevant.200818614658
polyphasic approach to bacterial dynamics during the ripening of spanish farmhouse cheese, using culture-dependent and -independent methods.we studied the dynamics of the microbial population during ripening of cueva de la magahá cheese using a combination of classical and molecular techniques. samples taken during ripening of this spanish goat's milk cheese in which lactococcus lactis and streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures were analyzed. all bacterial isolates were clustered by using randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing, species-specific pcr, and multiplex pcr. o ...200818658288
simultaneous species identification and detection of rifampicin resistance in staphylococci by sequencing of the rpob gene.in recent years, coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons) have been increasingly recognised as causative agents of various infections, especially in immunocompromised patients and related to implanted foreign body materials. in this study, rpob sequencing was used for simultaneous species identification and detection of rifampicin resistance in clinical staphylococci isolates. forty-nine (96%) out of 51 isolates, representing 17 different staphylococcus species according to the initial phenotypic ...200918716806
combined use of starter cultures and preservatives to control production of biogenic amines and improve sensorial profile in low-acid salami.the combined effect of starter culture, nitrites, and nitrates has been studied in low-acidity salamis, typical products of northern italy. nine batches have been prepared, combining three different inoculations of starter cultures (control, lactobacillus plantarum , and lactobacillus plantarum together with kocuria varians ) with three different preservatives (control, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite). all of the batches showed a good fermentation process with a proper ph decrease, which was ...200818986149
identification of lactic acid bacteria and gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from naturally fermented sausage (sucuk).the aim of the study was to identify lactic acid bacteria and gram-positive catalase-positive cocci isolated from turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) produced by 7 different manufacturers without using starter culture. a total of 129 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified phenotypically. lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species (45.7%) followed by l. curvatus (10.9%) and l. fermentum (9.3%). pediococcus isolates were identified as p. pentosaceus and p. acidilactici. all the i ...200819019118
molecular diversity analysis and bacterial population dynamics of an adapted seawater microbiota during the degradation of tunisian zarzatine oil.the indigenous microbiota of polluted coastal seawater in tunisia was enriched by increasing the concentration of zarzatine crude oil. the resulting adapted microbiota was incubated with zarzatine crude oil as the only carbon and energy source. crude oil biodegradation capacity and bacterial population dynamics of the microbiota were evaluated every week for 28 days (day 7, day 14, day 21, and day 28). results show that the percentage of petroleum degradation was 23.9, 32.1, 65.3, and 77.8%, res ...200919052881
evaluation of a microbiological multi-residue system on the detection of antibacterial substances in ewe milk.to protect both, public health and the dairy industry, from the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, control programmes have been established, which include the needed screening tests. this work focuses on the application of a microbiological multi-residue system in ewe milk, a method based on the use of six different plates, each seeded with one of the following bacteria: geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis (beta-lactams), bacillus subtilis at ph 8.0 (aminoglycosides), kocuria ...200919100896
in vitro evaluation of antibacterial, anticollagenase, and antioxidant activities of hop components (humulus lupulus) addressing acne vulgaris.seven naturally derived components from hop plant (humulus lupulus l.) extracts were tested for evaluation of biological activities affecting acne vulgaris. five strains, propionibacterium acnes, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus aureus, kocuria rhizophila and, staphylococcus pyogenes, were selected as the main acne-causing bacteria. hop extracts xanthohumol and the lupulones showed strong inhibitory activities against all of the strains. although hydrogenated derivatives did not show t ...200919201179
molecular characterization of early colonizer bacteria from wastes in a steel plant.forty-nine bacteria isolated from four newly-produced waste samples of a steel industry, which had a high content of cao, mgo, cr and p2o5, were characterized molecularly and phenotypically by susceptibility testing against heavy metals.200819241517
isolation of bacterial strains from bovine fecal microflora capable of degradation of ceftiofur.ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin used to treat bacterial infections in animals, is degraded in bovine feces but the specific bacteria involved are unknown. to find the bacteria involved in ceftiofur metabolism, the bovine fecal microflora was screened. twenty-one nonidentical strains of bovine fecal bacteria were isolated on media containing 1-32 microg ml(-1) of ceftiofur. the cultures were incubated with 5 microg ml(-1) ceftiofur for different times, then centrifuged and analyzed by ...200919428193
kocuria halotolerans sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a saline soil in china.a gram-positive actinobacterium, designated strain yim 90716(t), was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from ganjiahu suosuo forest national nature reserve in xinjiang province, north-west china. the new isolate contained lysine, glutamic acid and alanine with peptidoglycan type lys-ala(3) (variation a3alpha). the major phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. the predominant menaqinone was mk-7(h(2)). the major fatty acids were anteiso-c(15 : 0), iso-c(16 : ...200919502308
influence of probiotic feeding duration on disease resistance and immune parameters in rainbow trout.the effect of feeding the probiotic kocuria sm1 to rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) on disease resistance was evaluated. thus, rainbow trout were fed kocuria sm1 supplemented diets at concentrations of approximately 10(8) cells g(-1) feed for up to four weeks, and then challenged intraperitoneally with vibrio anguillarum at weekly intervals. a two-week feeding regime led to the maximum reduction in mortalities, i.e. 16%, compared to mortalities of 62, 30 and 22% for one, three and fo ...200919555765
[peritonitis due to kocuria rosea in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis case].micrococcus strains which are the normal flora members of skin, mucosa and oropharynx, may lead to infections associated with intravenous catheter, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, venticular shunt and prosthetic valve. in this paper, a case of peritonitis due to kocuria rosea of micrococcea family, in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd), was presented. fiftysix years old female patient was admitted to the hospital by complaints of abdominal pain, nausea ...200919621623
kocuria gwangalliensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from seawater.a novel aerobic, non-motile, gram-positive, pink-orange-pigmented, coccoid marine bacterium, designated strain sj2(t), was isolated from the gwangalli coast of korea. the taxonomic position of strain sj2(t) was determined based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, fatty acid patterns and physiological reaction profiles. the full-length 16s rrna gene sequence of strain sj2(t) showed highest similarity to those of the type strains of kocuria carniphila and kocuria marina. strain sj2(t) exhibited me ...200919625424
endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (musa sp.) cv. grand naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.a cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during may and november, respectively ( ...200919633807
kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood.a gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid actinobacterium, designated p31(t), was isolated from a traditional, fermented seafood. the strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. cells grew in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) nacl, and at ph 5-10 and 15-37 degrees c. major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-c(15 : 0), anteiso-c(17 : 0) and iso-c(16 : 0). strain p31(t) contained mk-7 as the predominant menaquinone. the dna g+c content of the genomic dna of strain p31(t) was 65.2 mol%. a ...201019648328
kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional korean fermented seafood.a novel actinobacterium, strain p30(t), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional korean fermented seafood. cells were aerobic, gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. optimal growth occurred at 30-37 degrees c, at ph 8-9 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) nacl. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, strain p30(t) was phylogenetically closely related to kocuria carniphila, kocuria gwangalliensis, kocuria rhizophila, kocuria marina, kocuria rosea and k. varians with levels of similarity of 98.6, ...201019661502
two cases of peritonitis caused by kocuria marina in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.kocuria spp. are members of the micrococcaceae family that are frequently found in the environment and on human skin. few human infections have been reported. we describe what appear to be the first two cases of kocuria marina peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.200919692561
antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and micrococcaceae/staphylococcaceae isolates from artisanal raw milk cheeses, and potential implications on cheese making.antibiotic susceptibility against 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated in isolates of the genera lactococcus (46 isolates), leuconostoc (22), lactobacillus (19), staphylococcus (8), enterococcus (7), and microccoccus/kocuria (5) obtained from the predominant microflora of nonrecent and recent types of artisanal raw cow's milk cheeses. beta-lactams showed broad activity against all genera, although leuconostocs and lactobacilli were highly resistant to oxacillin (80% to 95.5%). resistance to ami ...200919723213
metabolism of azo dyes by human skin microbiota.reduction of methyl red (mr) and orange ii (or ii) by 26 human skin bacterial species was monitored by a rapid spectrophotometric assay. the analysis indicated that skin bacteria, representing the genera staphylococcus, corynebacterium, micrococcus, dermacoccus and kocuria, were able to reduce mr by 74-100 % in 24 h, with only three species unable to reduce completely the dye in that time. among the species tested, only corynebacterium xerosis was unable to reduce or ii to any degree by 24 h, an ...201019729456
leaf-associated bacteria from transgenic white poplar producing resveratrol-like compounds: isolation, molecular characterization, and evaluation of oxidative stress tolerance.the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of the culturable bacteria inhabiting the leaves of transgenic white poplars (populus alba l. 'villafranca') engineered with the stsy gene for the production of resveratrol-like compounds. resveratrol glucosides are available in small amounts from natural sources or by expensive chemical synthesis procedures. an alternative approach for the large-scale production of these relevant pharmaceuticals is the use of transgenic plants as bior ...200919767855
novel alkali-stable, cellulase-free xylanase from deep-sea kocuria sp. mn22.a novel xylanase gene, kxyn, was cloned from kocuria sp. mn22, a bacteria isolated from the deep sea of the east pacific. kxyn consists of 1,170 bp and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids that shows the highest identity (63%) with a xylanase from thermobifida fusca yx. the mature protein with a molecular mass of approximately 40 kda was expressed in escherichia coli bl21 (de3). the recombinant kxyn displayed its maximum activity at 55 degrees and at ph 8.5. the km, vmax, and kcat values of kxyn ...200919809242
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