trichomonas gallinae: charaterization and regulatory properties of lactic dehydrogenase. 19767464
effect of virulent trichomonas gallinae on the band-tailed pigeon.nine trichomonas-free band-tailed pigeons (columba fasciata fasciata) trapped in colorado died from experimental infection with jones' barn trichomonas gallinae 7.1 days (av.) post-inoculation. three experimentally infected domestic pigeons (c. livia) used as controls died 5.7 days (av.) post-inoculation. three band-tailed pigeons from colorado naturally infected with avirulent t. gallinae. trichomonads obtained from a fatal case of trichomoniasis in a band-tailed pigeon from california killed a ...19751195487
in vitro nitroimidazole resistance of trichomonas gallinae and successful therapy with an increased dosage of ronidazole in racing pigeons (columba livia domestica).six out of eight different trichomonas gallinae strains isolated from racing pigeons proved to be resistant to the nitroimidazole drugs ronidazole, carnidazole and metronidazole. the minimal cytocidal concentration of ronidazole was determined in in vitro experiments. moreover, a therapeutic dose for ronidazole was determined for the control of trichomoniasis in pigeons from which the resistant t. gallinae strains were isolated. it was a 5-fold increase of the recommended ronidazole dosage which ...19921487839
pathologic changes in pigeons infected with a virulent trichomonas gallinae strain (eiberg).trichomonas gallinae, eiberg strain, is a virulent hepatotropic flagellate parasite of pigeons. the parasite initially infects the upper digestive tract, causing the formation of ulcers, which allow it to enter the circulatory system. the trichomonads later gain access to the liver, where they cause the formation of caseous lesions. vascular congestion and perivascular cuffing in the liver were seen as early as 4 days postinfection (pi). by day 7 pi, a marked reduction in abdominal fat and hepat ...19912029262
genetic differentiation and biochemical polymorphism among trichomonads.isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to study levels of genetic differentiation among strains and clones of trichomonas gallinae, trichomonas vaginalis, tritrichomonas foetus, tetratrichomonas gallinarum, and pentatrichomonas hominis. strain variation was found within t. gallinae, t. vaginalis, and t. foetus, however, levels of enzyme polymorphism were greater in t. gallinae than in t. vaginalis or t. foetus. isoenzyme genotypes were not a stable property of t. gallinae clones cultivated in vitro. ...19883418458
trichomonas gallinae in columbiform birds from the galapagos islands.domestic pigeons were introduced into the galapagos islands in 1972 or 1973. there is a high prevalence of trichomonas gallinae among them and some evidence of canker. trichomonas gallinae can be found also in endemic galapagos doves in the vicinity of puerto ayora on santa cruz island. doves examined on pigeon-free islands were not found infected.19873625913
electrophoretic analysis of soluble proteins and esterase, superoxide dismutase and acid phosphatase isoenzymes of members of the protozoan family trichomonadidae.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to compare the proteins and isoenzymes of esterase, superoxide dismutase, and acid phosphatase in soluble, whole-cell extracts of four strains of trichomonas vaginalis, two strains of trichomonas gallinae, and one strain each of tritrichomonas foetus, tritrichomonas augusta, tetratrichomonas gallinarum, and pentatrichomonas hominis. intraspecific, interspecific, and intergeneric differences were found in protein and isoenzyme profiles. at least four to ...19854017542
experimental transfer of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta, 1878) from white-winged doves to mourning doves.isolates of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta, 1878) from white-winged doves, zenaida asiatica (l.), were transferred experimentally to young mourning doves, zenaida macroura (l.). twenty-three of 25 mourning doves developed infections with isolates of t. gallinae from 25 white-winged doves. in addition, eight of eight rock doves (columba livia gmelin) were infected with duplicate isolates. all infected recipient birds harbored avirulent isolates except for one mourning dove which died from extensiv ...19854032621
trichomonas gallinae: use of solid medium to test survival under various environmental conditions. 19744416739
antigenic analysis of virulent and avirulent strains of trichomonas gallinae by gel diffusion methods. 19724624301
[virulence of trichomonas gallinae for mice and chick embryos]. 19734732795
types of growth of trichomonas gallinae in a maltose medium. 19744833862
the effect of different carbohydrates on the glycogen content and growth of trichomonas gallinae. 19744842060
immunologic analysis by quantitative fluorescent antibody methods of the effects of prolonged cultivation on trichomonas gallinae. 19684868433
immunologic analysis by gel diffusion technics of the effects of prolonged cultivation on trichomonas gallinae. 19684973784
effect of different immunization procedures on agglutination and precipitation reactions of trichomonas gallinae. 19714994930
effect of hygromycin-b on pigeons (columba livia) with and without trichomonas gallinae. 19725079869
pathogenicity transformation of trichomonas gallinae. i. effects of homogenates and of mixtures of dna and rna from a virulent strain on pathogenicity of an avirulent strain. 19715133899
the white-crowned pigeon. a fruit-eating pigeon as a host for trichomonas gallinae. 19715156490
different organ preferences by the same strain of trichomonas gallinae in different host species. 19695391306
the maltose metabolism of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta, 1878). ii. metabolic studies. 19715553454
various grains and liquid as potential vehicles of transmission for trichomonas gallinae. 19695817771
cytochemistry of chick liver cell cultures infected with trichomonas gallinae. 19655861364
specific and common antigens of trichomonas vaginalis detected by monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies to trichomonas vaginalis were prepared by immunizing mice with a cloned isolate of t. vaginalis. eight antibodies reacted with the same four isolates or strains but did not react with the other t. vaginalis strains or isolates tested. all eight antibodies reacted uniformly with both the body and flagella of t. vaginalis in the immunofluorescence assay but were unreactive by immunoblotting. the antigen(s) recognized by these antibodies was determined to be present on the sur ...19846360900
interrelationships of parasites of white-winged doves and mourning doves in florida.the parasites of indigenous populations of mourning doves (zenaida macroura) in north and south florida were compared with those of an introduced population of white-winged doves (z. asiatica) in south florida. thirty-two species of parasites including 5 protozoans, 7 nematodes, 2 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 7 acarines, 7 mallophagans, and 2 dipterans were found. of these, 16 common to both species of doves. mourning doves from north florida showed a more diverse parasite fauna than did the white-wi ...19817338976
trichomoniasis in great horned owls.three cases of trichomonas gallinae infection of deep tissues of the skull or of unusual tissues in great horned owls (bubo virginianus), refractory to recommended doses but responsive to higher doses of dimetridazole, are discussed. trichomonads were isolated from the lesions.19807432340
trichomoniasis as a factor in mourning dove population decline in fillmore, utah.we examined whether trichomoniasis had been a factor in a dramatic mourning dove (zenaida macroura) population decline in fillmore, utah (usa). we reasoned that if we could not find a high proportion of doves showing clinical signs of disease then the population was not being affected. prevalences of trichomonas gallinae in doves were 21% for 1992 and 14% for 1993. we also examined 230 birds and found only one with oral lesions. these prevalences were similar to those observed at the same study ...19957563432
immunohistochemical detection of tritrichomonas foetus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of bovine placenta and fetal immunohistochemical technique using a monoclonal antibody was evaluated as a diagnostic tool to specifically label tritrichomonas foetus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and fetal lung from bovine abortions. trichomonads were demonstrated in tissues from each of 12 abortions due to t. foetus and none of 15 abortions due to other or unidentified causes. moderate to marked background staining occurred only in severely autolyzed tissues from t. foetus-infected fetuses. t ...19957779973
a new method for the diagnosis of trichomonas gallinae infection by culture.diagnosis of trichomonas gallinae infection can reliably be made by the demonstration of organisms in material taken from a bird's mouth and crop. this can be examined directly or incubated in a growth medium until organisms are numerous enough to be easily found in aliquots examined with the microscope. we compared two methods of culture diagnosis of trichomonas gallinae infection in pigeons. a commercially available kit, in-pouch tf, proved as sensitive for this purpose as in vitro diamond's m ...19947933297
lysis of erythrocytes by trichomonas gallinae.the hemolytic activity of five live isolates of trichomonas gallinae was investigated. the isolates were subsequently tested against the erythrocytes of seven adult animal species. each of the five isolates tested lysed all human blood groups, as well as rabbit, rat, chicken, horse, bovine, and sheep erythrocytes. no hemolysin released by the parasite could be detected. our preliminary results suggest that the hemolytic activity is not due to the hemolysin release by t. gallinae or to a product ...19968713039
pharmacokinetics and anti-trichomonal efficacy of a dimetridazole tablet and water-soluble powder in homing pigeons (columba livia).the anti-trichomonal efficacy and pharmacokinetics of dimetridazole were investigated in the homing pigeon (columba livia). dimetridazole was formulated for drinking water medication and as a prolonged-release tablet. to suppress a trichomonas gallinae infection successfully, medicated drinking water containing dimetridazole (400 mg/l) had to be administered for at least 3 days. a two-day treatment with a dimetridazole tablet (20 mg/tablet) in fasted, as well as in fed, pigeons was shown to be i ...19968992028
fine structure and isozymic characterization of trichomonadid protozoa.tritrichomonas suis and t. foetus are characterized herein at the ultrastructural and biochemical levels. microcinematography and measurements, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemistry for carbohydrate detection (thiéry technique), and isozyme electrophoresis analysis were performed. in all, 11 different strains from 5 species of parasites were studied (t. foetus, t. suis, trichomonas gallinae, t. vaginalis, and monocercomonas sp.). a total of 11 enzymes were scored. fine-str ...19979089728
trichomonas gallinae in budgerigars and columbid birds in perth, western estimate the prevalence of infection with trichomonas gallinae and other parasites of the alimentary tract in psittacine and columbid birds in perth and to determine in vitro the effectiveness of drugs commonly recommended for treating trichomoniasis. design and procedures: samples of crop contents were collected from aviary flocks of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) and other psittacine and columbid birds in both private and commercial collections in perth. similar samples from wild sen ...19979325543
diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis infection by pcr using vaginal swab samples.trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (std) in the world. a pcr test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of t. vaginalis was developed to add t. vaginalis infection to the growing list of stds that can be detected by dna amplification techniques. a primer set, btub 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of t. vaginalis. all strains (15 of 15) of t. vaginalis tested were successfully detected by ...19989774566
survival of trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses.survival of trichomonas gallinae was examined in white-winged dove (zenaida asiatica) carcasses to assess whether birds that have been dead up to 8 hr can be sampled reliably for this protozoan. carcasses of 100 t. gallinae-positive white-winged doves were separated into four groups of 25 birds, representing 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr post mortem sampling intervals and placed into an environmental chamber maintained at 27 c and 75% relative humidity. live t. gallinae were isolated in 96, 100, 100, and 92 ...200010941743
multiple origins of hydrogenosomes: functional and phylogenetic evidence from the adp/atp carrier of the anaerobic chytrid neocallimastix sp.a mitochondrial-type adp/atp carrier (aac) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus neocallimastix sp. l2. biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this adp/atp carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. expression of the corresponding cdna in escherichia coli confers the ability on the bacterial host to incorporate adp at significantly higher rates than atp--similar to isolated mitochondria of yeast and animals. phyloge ...200212067335
parasites from farmed ostriches (struthio camelus) and rheas (rhea americana) in europe.during a 4-year-period, more than 500 ostriches and several rheas, all born in european countries and raised in spain and portugal, have been analyzed for the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites. a total of 29 parasite species have been found, most of them of the gastrointestinal tract. some of the helminth species found may represent spureous parasitosis, as only the eggs (of an ascarid and a trematode) were found in some samples. from the organisms identified, the ectoparasites (lice-s ...200212072221
trichomonas gallinae: a possible contact-dependent mechanism in the hemolytic activity.the in vitro hemolytic activity of trichomonas gallinae was investigated. the parasite was tested against human erythrocytes of groups a, b, ab, and o, and against erythrocytes of six adult animals of different species (rabbit, rat, chicken, horse, bovine, and sheep). results showed that t. gallinae lysed all human erythrocytes groups, as well as rabbit, rat, chicken, horse, bovine and sheep erythrocytes. no hemolysin released by the parasites could be identified. hemolysis did not occur with tr ...200212079733
effect of 2-amino-5-nitrothiazole (enheptin) and other drugs on trichomonas gallinae infection in the domestic pigeon. 195313118435
a comparative study of 28 culture media for trichomonas gallinae. 195413161967
[the conservation of trichomonas gallinae in the culture]. 195413197872
[in vitro sensitivity of trichomonas gallinae and trichomonas fetus to neomycine and viomycin]. 195513403315
the effect of furazolidone on pigeon trichomoniasis due to trichomonas gallinae. 195713439464
comparative pathogenicity of trichomonas vaginalis and trichomonas gallinae to mice. i. gross pathology, quantitative evaluation of virulence, and some factors affecting pathogenicity. 196113715666
induced resistance of mice to subcutaneous infection with trichomonas gallinae (rivolta, 1878). 196113783226
comparative pathogenicity of trichomonas vaginalis and trichomonas gallinae to mice. ii. histopathology of subcutaneous lesions. 196213945834
effect of certain laboratory procedures on virulence of the jones' barn strain of trichomonas gallinae for pigeons. 196414125165
structure of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta). 196414215477
the behavior and pathogenicity of two strains of trichomonas gallinae in cell cultures. 196414231167
[analysis of immunogenicity of protozoan cells. 13. pathogenicity of trichomonas gallinae in mice]. 196514342889
[analysis of immunogenicity in protozoan cells. 14. protectivity against trichomonas gallinae reinfection in mice]. 196514345695
studies on the metabolism of the protozoa. 6. the glycogens of the parasitic flagellates trichomonas foetus and trichomonas gallinae. 195514363102
virulence transformation of a trichomonad protozoan.treatment of an avirulent strain of trichomonas gallinae with a cellfree homogenate of a virulent strain resulted in enhanced virulence as evidenced by the size of lesions produced in mice. addition of deoxyribonuclease to the homogenate cell mixture blocked the transformation.196014402965
certain b complex vitamins as growth-promoting factors for trichomonas gallinae. 195914407723
detection of tritrichomonas foetus by polymerase chain reaction in cultured isolates, cervicovaginal mucus, and formalin-fixed tissues from infected heifers and fetuses.a rapid, reliable polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, originally developed for definitive laboratory identification of the bovine venereal pathogen tritrichomonas foetus from cultures of male reproductive tract fluids, was used for testing the following: 1) cultured, geographically disparate trichomonad isolates, 2) formalin-fixed tissues from infected heifers and naturally infected fetuses, and 3) cervicovaginal mucus (cvm) from experimentally infected females. in 12 of 12 western hemisphere ...200314667024
a survey of colorado band-tailed pigeons, mourning doves, and wild common pigeons for trichomonas gallinae. 195114889384
effect of trichomonas gallinae from diseased mourning doves on clean domestic pigeons. 195114889385
health status of free-living pigeons (columba livia domestica) in the city of the year 2000 an epidemiological research was undertaken on the health status of free-living pigeons in the city of ljubljana, slovenia. a total of 139 pigeons were captured and examined for the most common bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. serum samples, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs as well as samples of droppings and feathers were taken from the captured birds. antibodies to paramyxovirus type 1 were found in 84.2% of the sera examined, and 23.7% of birds were serologically posit ...200415168753
comparison of the inpouch tf culture system and wet-mount microscopy for diagnosis of trichomonas gallinae infections in the pink pigeon columba mayeri. 200515695731
prevalence of trichomonas gallinae in northern goshawks from the berlin area of northeastern recent years, the northern goshawk (accipiter gentilis) has colonized suburban and urban areas in berlin, germany, and elsewhere in europe. because of the high proportion of feral pigeons (columba livia f. domestica) in their diet, urban goshawks are suspected to have a high infection rate with trichomonas gallinae. therefore, from 1998 to 2001, we examined 269 nestlings from 90 nests for infection with t. gallinae by culture of swabs taken from the oropharynx and checked their oropharynx for ...200516107664
anti-trichomonal, biochemical and toxicological activities of methanolic extract and some carbazole alkaloids isolated from the leaves of murraya koenigii growing in nigeria.the methanolic extract of murraya koenigii leaf was screened for toxicological and biochemical effects on rats because of the folkloric uses as an anti-dysentery and anti-diabetes. the extract was moderately toxic (ld(50)=316.23 mg/kg body weight) to rats and had appreciable effect on the liver and kidney at higher doses leading to liver inflammation. it had little or no effect on haematology and relative organ weight of lungs, heart and spleen. acute doses (500 mg/kg) reduced significantly seru ...200616492527
pcr for the identification and differentiation of histomonas meleagridis, tetratrichomonas gallinarum and blastocystis the present investigation pcr assays were developed for the rapid detection and differentiation of two poultry flagellates: histomonas meleagridis and tetratrichomonas gallinarum as well as the protozoan microorganism: blastocystis spp. the nucleotide sequences of the small subunit ribosomal rnas were used for primer construction obtaining fragments which vary in size for each microorganism. the established pcrs were able to detect dna obtained from one microorganism of t. gallinarum and blas ...200616920265
characterization of an ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ec activity in intact trophozoites of trichomonas gallinae.this study describes the enzymatic properties of an ecto-5'-nucleotidase in trichomonas gallinae. the enzyme hydrolyzes nucleoside monophosphates at ph 7.2 and is activated by divalent cations, such as magnesium. ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity was insensitive to levamisole, tetramisole (alkaline phosphatase inhibitors), and ampcp (adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]diphosphate), an ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, whereas 0.1mm ammonium molybdate (considered a potent inhibitor of 5'-nucleotidase a ...200716962709
scanning electron microscopy study of trichomonas gallinae.a scanning electron microscopy (sem) study of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta, 1878), provided more information about the morphology of this flagellated protozoan. sem showed the morphological features of the trophozoites; the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the position and shape of the pelta, axostyle and posterior flagellum. of special interest were the pseudocyst forms.200314651873
molecular identity and heterogeneity of trichomonad parasites in a closed avian population.columbids (pigeons and doves) are the primary host of trichomonas gallinae, the flagellate protozoon which causes avian trichomoniasis, a widespread, often lethal disease. although predominantly apathogenic, the organism is paradigmatic for the study of strain-specific virulence, with some strains causing greater than 75% mortality and epizootic die-offs in wildlife populations. in recent years, research on this important emerging pathogen has been neglected and genetic variation within the para ...200717320488
trichomonas gallinae in mauritian columbids: implications for an endangered endemic.although well known as a widespread parasitic disease of columbids and birds of prey, there have been few studies of trichomonosis in populations of wild birds. in mauritius, trichomonosis has been highlighted as a major threat to an endangered endemic, the pink pigeon (neosoenas [columba] mayeri). in this study, we examined the role that populations of other columbids in mauritius might be playing as infectious reservoirs of the causal flagellate protozoan, trichomonas gallinae. we screened 296 ...200717699078
trichomonas gallinae:a review. 195413183096
analysis of microtubule cytoskeleton distribution using a fluorescent taxoid in two trichomonadid protozoa: trichomonas gallinae and tritrichomonas foetus.trichomonas gallinae and tritrichomonas foetus are flagellated parasitic protozoa of the upper digestive tract of birds and the urogenital tract of cattle, respectively. both of these species are important in the veterinary field, due to the fact that they cause significant economic losses. therefore, we investigated the morphology of these parasites by studying microtubule cytoskeleton organization. flutax-2, an active fluorescent derivative of taxol, was used in this study. this fluorescent ta ...200818255064
anti-protozoan activities of harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads and malaria.the ethanolic stem bark extract of harungana madagascariensis (hypericaceae), (choisy) poir were evaluated for their activities on trichomonas gallinae (rivolta) stabler isolated from the pigeon (columba livia). it was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on n67 plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro.200818372133
characterization of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in trichomonas gallinae and the influence of penicillin and streptomycin in extracellular nucleotide we described an nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ntpdase) activity in living trophozoites of trichomonas gallinae. the enzyme hydrolyzes a variety of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates in an optimum ph range of 6.0-8.0. this enzyme activity was activated by high concentrations of divalent cations, such as calcium and magnesium. contaminant activities were ruled out because the enzyme was not inhibited by classical inhibitors of atpases (ouabain, 5.0 mm sodium ...200818422631
oro-pharyngeal protozoa in captive bustards: clinical and pathological oro-pharyngeal protozoal survey was carried out in captive bustards in the united arab emirates. .endolimax spp., .entamoeba gallinarum, acanthamoeba spp., .naegleria spp. and .coccidia spp. were the protozoa isolated from the oro-pharynx of clinically normal birds. the protozoa species involved in oro-pharyngeal diseases were .trichomonas gallinae and .entamoeba anatis. most of the protozoa observed in clinical cases were associated with severe secondary bacterial infections possibly due to ...199818484038
trichomoniasis in cooper's hawks from arizona.members of the family columbidae are hosts for the sarcomastigophoran, trichomonas gallinae, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. birds of prey are susceptible to the disease when they ingest infected prey. doves are a major dietary component of urban nesting cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) in tucson, arizona (usa). during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996, we clinically evaluated 89 breeding age and 223 nestling cooper's hawks from urban and exurban (i.e., undeveloped natural area) ar ...19989706569
failure of nitro-imidazole drugs to control trichomoniasis in the racing pigeon (columba livia domestica).the nitro-imidazole drugs ronidazol. dimetridazol, metronidazol and carnidazol failed to control trichomonas gallinae in the racing pigeon, presumably due to acquired drug resistance.199018679923
variations in virulence of strains of trichomonas gallinae in pigeons. 194818856299
protection in pigeons against virulent trichomonas gallinae acquired by infection with milder strains. 194818856300
morphogenesis of the hydrogenosome: an ultrastructural study.the morphogenesis of hydrogenosomes in several trichomonad species (tritrichomonas foetus, trichomonas vaginalis, tritrichomonas suis, trichomonas gallinae, tritrichomonas augusta and monocercomonas sp) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections and freeze-fracture replicas of whole cells or the isolated organelle. close proximity, and even continuity, between endoplasmic reticulum and hydrogenosomes was observed. structures were seen connecting hydrogenosomes to each ...19969075329
trichomonas gallinae infections in the ringdove (streptopelia risoria).twenty trichomonas-free ringdoves (streptopelia risoria) were intubated with trichomonas gallinae derived from pigeons (columba livia). by 15 days post-intubation (dpi) five doves had t. gallinae-type lesions (cankers) in the pregastric portion of the digestive system, and six doves had t. gallinae present without lesions. sixteen trichomonas-free ring doves were infected using t. gallinae from axenic cultures. by 21 dpi four doves had t. gallinae lesions and died, and one dove had t. gallinae p ...19827097875
studies of trichomonad protozoa in free ranging songbirds: prevalence of trichomonas gallinae in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) and corvids and a novel trichomonad in mockingbirds (mimus polyglottos).this study refutes the accepted dogma that significant pathogenic effects of trichomonas gallinae are limited to columbiformes and raptors in free ranging bird populations in north america. trichomonads were associated with morbidity and mortality amongst free ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus), mockingbirds (mimus polyglottos) and corvids (scrub jay: aphelocoma californica; crow: corvus brachyrhynchos; raven: corvus corax) in northern california. prevalence of trichomonad infection wa ...200919278788
fine structure of the bird parasites trichomonas gallinae and tetratrichomonas gallinarum from cultures.the trophozoites of trichomonas gallinae and tetratrichomonas gallinarum were studied by means of light and electron microscopy after cloning and cultivating them axenically. t. gallinae trophozoites varied in shape reaching from ovoidal to pyriform and had a size of about 7-11 microm. they were provided with four free flagella and a fifth recurrent one, which did not become free at the posterior pole. the nucleus was ovoid, had a size of about 2.5-3 microm, and was situated closely below the ba ...200919421777
the sensitivity of trichomonas vaginalis and trichomonas gallinae to ultraviolet radiation. 19816973159
the mastigont system of trichomonas gallinae (rivolta) as revealed by electron microscopy. 19676038041
purification and properties of malic dehydrogenase from trichomonas gallinae. 19744154210
pathogenicity of tritrichomonas mobilensis: subcutaneous inoculation in mice.the standard "subcutaneous mouse assay" was used to investigate the inherent pathogenicity of tritrichomonas mobilensis, an intestinal parasite of squirrel monkeys. c57b1/6 mice given subcutaneous bilateral inocula of t. mobilensis died by day 4 postinoculation with lesions too small to be measured. control mice similarly inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of trichomonas vaginalis survived the challenge and produced lesions on day 6 with mean volumes in agreement with previous ...19883418457
haematological findings in budgerigars with megabacterium and trichomonas infections associated with 'going light'.eighteen budgerigars with clinical signs of 'going light' were euthanased and examined post mortem; ingluvitis caused by trichomonas gallinae infection was present in seven birds, proventriculitis associated with the presence of megabacteria in eight birds and in three birds both conditions were present. haematological examinations of blood taken from the living birds showed that those with t gallinae infection had normal white cell counts whereas those in which megabacteria were present had sig ...19883201696
cloning and characterization of a repetitive dna sequence specific for trichomonas vaginalis.a family of 650-bp-long repeats from the trichomonas vaginalis genome, designated the tv-e650 family, was cloned and sequenced. the nucleotide sequence is a+t-rich (73.3% a+t in the consensus sequence) and highly conserved among the 8 molecular clones analyzed. the differences among the clones are single-nucleotide and 2-nucleotide substitutions and insertions or deletions. the sequence uniformity of the clones as well as the presence of identical mutations in different clones suggest that effic ...19921435862
a fatal case of trichomonas gallinae infection in a nestling mourning dove. 194620244144
trichomonas gallinae, pathogenic trichomonad of birds. 194720245737
strains of trichomonas gallinae varying in virulence. 194720340855
design and validation of an oligonucleotide probe for the detection of protozoa from the order trichomonadida using chromogenic in situ hybridization.infections with protozoal parasites of the order trichomonadida are often observed in veterinary medicine. based on the trichomonad species involved these infections are either asymptomatic or can lead to sometimes serious disease. to further study protozoal agents of the order trichomonadida the establishment of a method to detect trichomonads directly in the tissue, allowing parasite-lesion correlation, is necessary. here we describe the design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide probe for ch ...201020395049
first report of epizootic trichomoniasis in wild finches (family fringillidae) in southern fennoscandia.forty-one outbreaks of mortality in wild finches were reported in southern norway, sweden, and finland in the second half of 2008 (n = 40) and in february 2009 (n = 1). greenfinches (carduelis chloris) and occasional chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) primarily were affected. forty-eight greenfinches, eight chaffinches, one hawfinch (coccothraustes coccothraustes), and one blue tit (parus caeruleus) from 22 incidents were examined postmortem. birds were in poor nutritional condition and had necroti ...201020408413
an analysis of oxidative metabolism in trichomonas gallinae. 19761269231
parasite infections in nestling red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus) in northeast hawks (buteo lineatus) are threatened in wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. we examined nestlings for the presence of trichomonas gallinae, protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in june 2006 and 2007. we did not detect t. gallinae in throat swabs taken f ...201020557199
trichomoniasis in finches from the canadian maritime provinces--an emerging disease.trichomoniasis was diagnosed in multiple incidents of mortality in wild purple finch (carpodacus purpureus) and american goldfinch (carduelis tristis) in the canadian maritimes. birds exhibited regurgitation, emaciation, and hyperplastic oropharyngitis, ingluvitis, and esophagitis. trichomonas gallinae was identified by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). trichomoniasis (trichomonosis) is an emerging disease in wild finches of eastern canada.201020592828
clinical signs and histopathologic findings associated with a newly recognized protozoal disease (trichomonas gallinae) in free-ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus).this paper describes the clinical signs and histopathologic findings associated with an emergent disease associated with trichomonas gallinae infections in free-ranging house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) in california. wet mounts were necessary to detect t. gallinae infections in house finches because classical clinical presentation, such as caseous stomatitis or ingluvitis, occurred in < 25% of cases. early detection was instrumental in preventing trichomonosis outbreaks in a high-density nur ...201020597216
emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common british birds.emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. they can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on british populations of greenfinch carduelis chloris and chaffinch fringilla coelebs, two of the m ...201020805869
studies on trichomonas gallinae infections in pigeon squabs. 194620990864
metabolic changes in trichomonas gallinae resulting from growth in various carbohydrates.the influence of the type of growth carbohydrate on the subsequent metabolic activity of trichomonas gallinae was investigated. washed suspensions of cells collected from cpl-glucose, cpl-maltose, cpl-galactose, and cpl-glucose-maltose media were examined in the warburg respirometer for their ability to utilize glucose, maltose, and galactose. comparisons of the metabolic parameters of substrate consumption, changes in glycogen content, and co2 and h2 production were made. the pattern of utiliza ...19751117433
monitoring presence and annual variation of trichomoniasis in mourning doves.information about the annual variation of trichomoniasis in mourning doves (zenaida macroura) may be important in understanding mechanisms affecting mourning dove populations. the objectives of this study were to monitor the presence and annual variation of trichomonas gallinae for 6 yr in a local mourning dove population using hunter-killed doves. during 1998-2003, 4052 hunter-killed doves were sampled for the presence of t. gallinae; 226 (5.6%) tested positive (4.4%-10.6% range). results of th ...200516252493
a clonal strain of trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. the parasite emerged as a novel infection of british passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (fringilla coelebs). we characterised the extent of t. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild british avifauna by analysin ...201121712099
identification of a putatively novel trichomonad species in the intestine of a common quail (coturnix coturnix).a common quail (coturnix coturnix) from a private keeping died unexpectedly and showed a moderate lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa associated with numerous protozoa-like objects at the pathological examination. these organisms were further identified using chromogenic in situ hybridization (ish) and gene sequencing. ish was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections and produced a positive signal using a probe specific for the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene of the order trichomo ...201121839582
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