some infectious and parasitic diseases in oklahoma raptors.blood films and sera samples from wild oklahoma raptors (strigiformes--36 birds, 3 species; falconiformes--50 birds, 7 species) were examined for hematozoa and tested for serologic antibody response to newcastle disease virus (ndv), encephalitis (eee and wee), ornithosis, and influenza. twenty-nine of 36 (80.5) strigiformes and 24 of 50 (48.0%) falconiformes showed the presence of one or more hematozoa. serologic testing revealed the serum of one adult male red-tailed hawk positive for antibody ...1977410956
normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.blood samples taken from five great horned owls (bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. the mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh ha ...1978739587
a comparative study of deep avian foveas.the foveas of nine avian species, initially selected for the presence of a deep fovea and representing a wide range of eye sizes and ecological habits, were studied with quantitative light microscope techniques. considerable variation was observed in the location and configuration of the avian foveas, although they appeared to be 'convexiclivate' in shape when compared with the fovea of the rhesus monkey. comparisons of foveal cell densities (receptor nuclei and ganglion cells) across species sh ...1975811324
the red-tailed hawk, buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of frenkelia microti (apicomplexa) in north america.oral inoculation of prairie voles, microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, buteo jamaicensis, in kansas, usa, resulted in formation of frenkelia microti (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other buteo spp. in kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. these results are the first to verify that r ...19921548806
the humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (bubo virginianus) and other raptors.a small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. the tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the hum ...19921585989
chlamydiosis in a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis).a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) with signs of respiratory distress and diarrhea was captured in the manchac wildlife management area, louisiana (usa) and died the following day. at necropsy, the carcass was emaciated and there were splenomegaly, and fibrinous pericarditis, airsacculitis, and perihepatitis. microscopically, there were fibrinous pericarditis and airsacculitis, myocardial necrosis, necrotizing hepatitis, splenic necrosis with reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia, interstitial ...19921602582
oxygen radical production by avian leukocytes.oxygen radical production by heterophils of red-tailed hawks and chickens, and by neutrophils of calves, was evaluated in a chemiluminescence microassay. leukocytes were isolated by centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes and then challenged with opsonized zymosan in the presence of luminol. avian heterophils produced significantly fewer oxygen radicals than did bovine neutrophils.19911884301
toxoplasma gondii infections in red-tailed hawks inoculated orally with tissue cysts.the response to inoculation of toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was examined in 3 red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis). one hawk (hawk 1) was inoculated orally with 3.000 tissue cysts of the gt-1 isolate of t. gondii and 2 hawks (hawks 2 and 3) each were inoculated orally with 12,000 tissue cysts of a mixture of 8 isolates of t. gondii. none of the hawks developed clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. serum antibodies were measured with the modified direct agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyz ...19912010868
chlamydiosis in captive raptors.chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in california in 1983. one hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. c. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), ...19902241695
vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in canadian wildlife.twenty-six meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (v-rg) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. each of ten coyotes (canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. several voles and mo ...19902249183
sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.during october and november 1986, sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington (usa). sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). in an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four ...19892509738
isolation of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) with a concurrent pox virus infection.erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skin of a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) which had a concurrent avian pox virus infection. the hawk had been housed on a farm with domestic turkeys, providing a possible source of the e. rhusiopathiae.19872824865
avian pox in a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis). 19852993682
a survey of free-living falconiform birds for salmonella.of 105 migrating falconiform birds of 7 species examined for salmonella shedding in new jersey, 2 (1.9%) were positive for salmonella spp. both positive birds were immature red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis). salmonella enteritidis and s newport were the serotypes isolated. neither serotype expressed multiple resistance when tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobial drugs.19863506002
case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock.since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the patuxent wildlife research center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (op) insecticides. brain cholinesterase (che) activity was first determined, then if che was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-che compounds. this repo ...19873586207
comparative pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs in domestic turkeys, red-tailed hawks, broad-winged hawks, and great-horned owls.the present research was to test in vitro activity of thiabendazole, 5-fluorocytosine, and amphotericin b against 11 isolates of aspergillus fumigatus from avian species. additionally, the plasma concentrations of these drugs were determined in four avian species given a range of dosages by oral, intravenous, and intratracheal routes. thiabendazole inhibited most isolates in vitro at concentrations between 25 and 50 micrograms/ml; however, there were no detectable inhibitory concentrations in th ...19853907612
hematozoa of raptors from southern new jersey and adjacent areas.blood smears from 259 birds of 12 species, representing four families of raptors, from new jersey, pennsylvania, delaware, and virginia were examined for blood parasites. infected birds constituted 59.1% of the total. birds were infected with one or more of the following genera of protozoa: leucocytozoon (43.2%); haemoproteus (21.6%); plasmodium (1.2%); and trypanosoma (1.2%). blood culture of 142 raptors of 11 species for trypanosoma revealed a prevalence of 41.5%. plasmodium circumflexum is re ...19853981737
paradoxical sleep in two species of avian predator (falconiformes).periods of disconjugate. and conjugate eye movements occur during the sleep cycle in buteo jamaicensis arborealis and herpetotheres cachinnans chapmanni. electromyograms are essentially isoelectric throughout sleep. slow waves appear only in short bursts of low amplitude in contrast to the long trains of high-amplitude waves reported for chickens and pigeons.19704313581
infectious diseases in wild animals in utah. vi. experimental infection of birds with rickettsia rickettsii.lundgren, d. l. (university of utah, salt lake city), b. d. thorpe, and c. d. haskell. infectious diseases in wild animals in utah. vi. experimental infection of birds with rickettsia rickettsii. j. bacteriol. 91:963-966. 1966.-chickens, pigeons, pheasants, sparrow hawks, red-tailed hawks, ravens, magpies, and a marsh hawk were inoculated with rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of rocky mountain spotted fever. the development and persistence of complement-fixing (cf) antibodies and ric ...19664956338
the antibody responses to sheep red blood cells of the red-tailed hawk and great-horned owl. 19846500143
experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum.experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (tyto alba), and 3 american crows (corvus brachyrhynchus). the rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of n. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. fecal samples were coll ...19957472875
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
winter poisoning of coyotes and raptors with furadan-laced carcass baits.three bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), and two coyotes (canis latrans) found in a field in north-central kansas (usa) in december 1992 were poisoned by flowable carbofuran (furadan 4f) placed on sheep (ovis aries) carcasses to kill coyotes. the carbofuran was placed on the carcasses in october 1992, but the coyotes and raptors apparently were killed in late december. thus, flowable furadan can cause direct and secondary deaths of wildlife under some ...19968722286
poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the fraser delta of british columbia, canada.during the winter of 1990 in the fraser delta of british columbia, canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. a bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another r ...19968827674
age differences in the response of california ground squirrels (spermophilus beecheyi) to avian and mammalian predators.the antipredator behavior of juvenile and adult california ground squirrels (spermophilus beecheyi) was videotaped in experiment 1 to measure the effects of age on assessment of a briefly presented live dog and a model red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) in simulated flight. adult squirrels treated the hawk as more dangerous than the dog, whereas juvenile squirrels showed less differentiation of the predator types. juvenile squirrels also perceived the dog as a more immediate danger than adult s ...19979170282
the pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular dose of amikacin in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis).the pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were determined in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) following the i.m. administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose. after a rapid absorption phase, mean amikacin serum concentrations peaked at 65 +/- 12 micrograms/ml 30-45 min following injection. the serum amikacin concentrations decreased to 2.3 +/- 2 micrograms/ml at 12 hr postinjection. amikacin was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life o ...19979226617
a myelographic technique for avian species.a post-mortem myelogram was used to diagnose a vertabral fracture in a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis). this diagnosis led the authors to believe that myelography would be useful in live birds. in a pilot study using live adult female chickens (gallus domesticus), mammalian myelographic techniques were modified for avian anatomic differences. a thoracolumbar puncture site was used rather than the lumbar or cisternal site which is commonly used in mammals. the volume of contrast medium needed ...19979238789
plasmodium forresteri n. sp., from raptors in florida and southern georgia: its distinction from plasmodium elongatum morphologically within and among host species and by vector susceptibility.plasmodium forresteri n. sp. naturally infects eastern screech-owls (otus asio), great horned owls (bubo virginianus), barred owls (strix varia), bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), broad-winged hawks (buteo platypterus), and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) in florida and southern georgia. schizonts occur in mature or nearly mature erythrocytes, produce 2-6 merozoites arranged most commonly in fan or cruciform configuration, with mean dimensions am ...19979379302
vector ability of mosquitoes for isolates of plasmodium elongatum from raptors in florida.three isolates of plasmodium elongatum were obtained from 3 species of raptors (red-tailed hawk [buteo jamaicensis], bald eagle [haliaeetus leucocephalus], and eastern screech owl [otus asio]) from florida using isodiagnostic techniques in pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos). six to 10 species of mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to these 3 isolates. complete development of the sporogonic cycle of the 3 isolates of p. elongatum occurred in 3 species of mosquitoes, culex nigripalpus, culex r ...19989645854
a retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of raptors in florida: 1988-1994.a retrospective study was conducted on 390 raptors admitted to the university of florida veterinary medical teaching hospital (vmth) during 1988-1994. representatives of 20 species were admitted; the five most common species were the barred owl (strix varia, 72), eastern sreech owl (otus asio, 63), red-shouldered hawk (buteo lineatus, 49), bald eagle (haleaeetus leucocephalus, 43), and red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis, 38). a primary clinical diagnosis was determined in 340 (87%) of the 390 ra ...19989732030
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
virulence of raptor-origin pasteurella multocida in domestic chickens.pasteurella multocida belonging to somatic serotype 1 and capsular type a has been known to cause avian cholera in domestic poultry. pasteurella multocida serotype 1 has also been isolated from raptorial birds. however, the capsular type for these raptorial isolates remains unknown. moreover, the virulence of these raptorial isolates for domestic poultry has not been determined. the objectives of this study were to determine the capsular type of raptorial p. multocida serotype 1 isolates and to ...199910396641
recovery and identification of west nile virus from a hawk in winter.west nile virus was recovered from the brain of a red-tailed hawk that died in westchester county, n.y., in february 2000. multiple foci of glial cells, lymphocytes, and a few pyknotic nuclei were observed in the brain. three to 4 days after inoculation of vero cells with brain homogenates, cytopathic changes were detected. the presence of west nile virus antigen in fixed cells or cell lysates was revealed by fluorescent antibody testing or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. furthe ...200010921991
gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient.raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. this paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of th ...200011076737
protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. species studied included bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (tyto alba), great horned owl (bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (cathartes aur ...200011428396
investigations into the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in a granivorous (columba livia domestica) and in a carnivorous (buteo jamaicensis) avian study the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in granivorous and carnivorous birds, experiments were conducted in pigeons (columba livia domestica) and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis). plasma concentrations of allantoin and uric acid were determined at various times in experimental groups before and after receiving 100, 200, and 600 u/kg urate oxidase once daily and were compared with controls. all regimens caused a significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentrations within 2 days ...200212593740
lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in canada.we examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across canada. the most prevalent species available for examination were red-tailed hawks, great horned owls, and golden eagles (n = 131). the majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. in addition, 1 of 9 bald eagles found dead far from aquatic env ...200312739854
absence of humoral response in flamingos and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed west nile virus vaccine.sixteen chilean flamingos, phoenicopterus chiles, and 10 red-tailed hawks, buteo jamacensis, were vaccinated in the pectoral muscle with 0.2 ml of a commercially produced killed west nile virus vaccine intended for use in horses. half the birds of each species received a booster vaccination 3 weeks after the first injection. three weeks after the booster vaccination, none of 13 birds surveyed had detectable antibody to west nile virus.200314562907
attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.avian vacuolar myelinopathy (avm) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in arkansas (usa) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous american coot (fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. the cause of avm remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. naturally occurring avm has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawk ...200415465715
pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and cooper's hawks (accipiter cooper) naturally infected with west nile virus.carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (rthas) and 11 cooper's hawks (cohas) were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using wnv-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) on fresh brain tissue and wnv-specific immunohistochemistry (ihc) on various organs. ten cohas (91%) and 11 rthas (85%) were positive for wnv rna by rt-pcr. all 11 cohas (100%) and 10 rthas (77%) were positive for wnv antigen by ihc. a triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocy ...200415529979
serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.we assayed for west nile virus (wnv) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of wnv infection in three raptor populations in southeast wisconsin during 2003-04. this study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before wnv was introduced to the study area. for 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great hor ...200516252490
phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of virginia.polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the avian poxvirus core 4b gene of infected free-ranging birds that presented at the wildlife center of virginia during the 2003 and early 2004 years. the species of bird infected were a great blue heron (ardea herodias), two american crows (corvus brachyrhyncos), two american robins (turdus migratorius), two mourning doves (zenaida macroura), a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), a blue-gray gnatcatcher (polioptila caerulea), a norther ...200516405007
comparison of wing morphology in three birds of prey: correlations with differences in flight behavior.flight is the overriding characteristic of birds that has influenced most of their morphological, physiological, and behavioral features. flight adaptations are essential for survival in the wide variety of environments that birds occupy. therefore, locomotor structure, including skeletal and muscular characteristics, is adapted to reflect the flight style necessitated by different ecological niches. red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) soar to locate their prey, cooper's hawks (accipiter cooper ...200616477604
perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of gunnison's prairie dogs.gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. we show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. we also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. the escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, ...200616529880
natural and experimental west nile virus infection in five raptor species.we studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of west nile virus (wnv) in five raptor species from july 2002 to march 2004, including american kestrels (falco sparverius), golden eagles (aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (tyto alba), and great horned owls (bubo virginianus). birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) wnv ...200616699143
acoustic structures in the alarm calls of gunnison's prairie dogs.acoustic structures of sound in gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-canis familaris; and coyote-canis latrans). by dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. alt ...200616708970
west nile virus in raptors from virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.sixty-one birds of prey admitted to the wildlife center of virginia (wcv; waynesboro, virginia, usa) from june to november 2003 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) infection. choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to virginia's division of consolidated laboratory services (richmond, virginia, usa) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). forty birds of prey were positive for wnv by rt-pcr. five avian families and nine species of ra ...200616870856
decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of virginia: 1993-2002.a retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the wildlife center of virginia from 1993 to 2002. of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. the majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (cathartes ...200517312769
raptor mortality due to west nile virus in the united states, 2002.west nile virus (wnv) has affected many thousands of birds since it was first detected in north america in 1999, but the overall impact on wild bird populations is unknown. in mid-august 2002, wildlife rehabilitators and local wildlife officials from multiple states began reporting increasing numbers of sick and dying raptors, mostly red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus). commonly reported clinical signs were nonspecific and included emaciation, lethargy, ...200717495304
pathology and epidemiology of natural west nile viral infection of raptors in georgia.carcasses from 346 raptors found between august 2001 and december 2004 were tested for west nile virus (wnv) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for wnv by one or both methods. of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with wnv infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to wnv, and four had no histologic evidence of wnv. the most common histologic lesions associated with wnv infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal ...200717495305
ophthalmologic and oculopathologic findings in red-tailed hawks and cooper's hawks with naturally acquired west nile virus assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and cooper's hawks naturally infected with west nile virus (wnv).200717937556
lead in the tissues of terrestrial raptors in southern ontario, canada, 1995-2001.terrestrial raptors which feed on upland hunted game species may increase their risk to lead exposure and lead poisoning by ingesting lead shot found in the tissues of prey. lead exposure in 225 individuals of nineteen species of terrestrial raptors, collected as carcasses in southern ontario from 1995-2001, was examined through the analysis of bone, liver and kidney tissues. in this study, one red-tailed hawk contained liver lead concentrations and exhibited signs consistent with lead poisoning ...200818063010
what is your diagnosis? blood smear from an injured red-tailed injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the veterinary medical teaching hospital at the university of california, davis. the hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. cbc results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. the blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from ...200919228359
feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography in birds without cardiac establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (tee) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained.201020187818
serological and parasitological prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from colorado.ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of t. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of t. gondii -infected birds. in the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from colorado were tested for t. gondii infection. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 38 b ...201020950101
effect of west nile virus dna-plasmid vaccination on response to live virus challenge in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis).objective-to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an experimental adjuvanted dna-plasmid vaccine against west nile virus (wnv) in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis). animals-19 permanently disabled but otherwise healthy red-tailed hawks of mixed ages and both sexes without detectable serum antibodies against wnv. procedures-hawks were injected im with an experimental wnv dna-plasmid vaccine in an aluminum-phosphate adjuvant (n = 14) or with the adjuvant only (control group; 5). all birds receiv ...201121801064
External parasites of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes): identification in an ex situ population from Mexico.Raptorial birds harbor a variety of ectoparasites and the mayority of them are host specific. The aim of this study was to identify the ectoparasites of captive birds of prey from Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health of infested birds. Raptorial birds were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. Seventy-four birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eigth Strigiformes) of 15 species w ...201122017130
health of an ex situ population of raptors (falconiformes and strigiformes) in mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites.successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. the purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the centro de investigación y conservación de vida silvestre (civs) in los reyes la paz, mexico state. for this, fecal and blood samples ...201122017131
clinical utility of a complete diagnostic protocol for the ocular evaluation of free-living raptors.objective:  to describe a protocol for the examination of free-living raptors and report the ophthalmic examination findings of seven raptor species native to central illinois, namely the barred owl, cooper's hawk, eastern screech owl, great horned owl, american kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and turkey vulture and to determine if the findings relative to visual prognosis affected eligibility for future release. animals studied:  seventy-nine free-living raptors. procedures:  under manual restraint, ...201122050975
fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk.natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (buteo lagopus) in northeastern north dakota. gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation rsulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.2003167207
chlamydiaceae genomics reveals interspecies admixture and the recent evolution of chlamydia abortus infecting lower mammalian species and humans.chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across chlamydiaceae. here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. based on core gene phy ...201526507799
rhabdochlamydia spp. in an oregon raptor.pcr-based approach was used to examine the rate of chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in oregon. three of 82 birds were identified as positive for chlamydia with this pcr. sequence analysis of 16s ribosomal dna from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of dna from phylum chlamydiae. one bird was positive for chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. the second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "candid ...201627154318
geography and timing of cases of eastern equine encephalitis in new york state from 1992 to new york state (nys), eastern equine encephalitis (eee) was first reported in a human in 1971, in horses in 1970, and in pheasants in 1952.201626901637
multifocal respiratory and vertebral mycobacteriosis in a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis).an adult, female, free-ranging red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) was presented to a rehabilitation facility for an inability to stand. on examination, it displayed bilateral exaggeration of the pelvic limb reflexes with extensor muscle rigidity, intact superficial pain response, and positive withdrawal reflexes. a complete blood count identified moderate leukocytosis characterized by moderate heterophilia. no abnormalities were appreciable on radiographic evaluation. after initial improvement, ...201525831590
antibody prevalence and isolation of viable toxoplasma gondii from raptors in the southeastern usa.raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. these prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. we assessed t. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. antibodies to t. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of ...201627243150
ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis) with naturally acquired west nile disease.ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with west nile (wn) disease. these lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired wn disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without wn disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for west nile virus (wnv) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspa ...201727694424
hematologic parameters in raptor species in a rehabilitation setting before be considered for release, raptors undergoing rehabilitation must have recovered from their initial injury in addition to being clinically healthy. for that purpose, a good understanding of reference hematologic values is important in determining release criteria for raptors in a rehabilitation setting. in this study, retrospective data were tabulated from clinically normal birds within 10 days of release from a rehabilitation facility. hematologic values were compiled from 71 red-tailed hawk ...201122216719
apparent fatal snakebite in three hawks.based on histories and gross and histologic findings, snakebite was diagnosed in three dead raptors submitted for post-mortem examination from northern florida and southern georgia (usa). two immature red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) were found next to dead and partially eaten venomous snakes. an adult cooper's hawk (accipiter cooperii) was found adjacent to a den containing a cotton-mouth (agkistrodon piscivorus) and an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (crotalus adamanteus). gross findings i ...19947760504
comparison of metabolic substrates in alligators and several birds of prey.on average, avian blood glucose concentrations are 1.5-2 times those of mammals of similar mass and high concentrations of insulin are required to lower blood glucose. whereas considerable data exist for granivorous species, few data are available for plasma metabolic substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations for carnivorous birds and alligators. birds and mammals with carnivorous diets have higher metabolic rates than animals consuming diets with less protein whereas alligators have ...201425043840
ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers.recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western united states and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. belding's ground squirrels (spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in california, nevada, and oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. ground squirrels shot with lead (pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing pb fragments. to assess the ...201627942006
tonometry of normal eyes in applanation tonometer was used to estimate intraocular pressure in normal eyes of several species of raptors. no bird had active injury or illness, though some were nonreleasable to the wild because of previous injury. mean (+/- sd) intraocular pressure was 20.6 (+/- 3.4) mm of hg in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis, n = 10), 20.8 (+/- 2.3) mm of hg in swainson's hawks (buteo swainsoni, n = 6), 21.5 (+/- 3.0) mm of hg in golden eagles (aquila chrysaetos, n = 7), 20.6 (+/- 2.0) mm of hg in ...19948017692
new records and new species of mites of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae) infesting birds in manitoba, canada.five new species and one new genus of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae) are described from birds in canada: harpyrhynchoides heatherae sp. nov. from junco hyemalis (passeriformes: emberizidae), h. botaurus sp. nov. from botaurus lentiginosus (pelecaniformes: ardeidae), h. phalaropus sp. nov. from phalaropus lobatus (charadriiformes: scolopacidae), neharpyrhynchus loxia sp. nov. from loxia curvirostra (passeriformes: fringillidae), and fainharpirhynchus contopus gen. no ...201324338301
successful management of simple fractures of the femoral neck with femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in two free-living avian species.a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) and a canada goose (branta canadensis) were evaluated for unilateral pelvic limb lameness. physical examination findings and results of diagnostic imaging revealed femoral neck fractures in both birds. both birds were treated with a femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty. the affected legs were not immobilized, and the birds were encouraged to use the legs immediately after surgery to encourage formation of a pseudoarthrosis. within 2 weeks, both birds ...201122216722
microstructure and cross-sectional shape of limb bones in great horned owls and red-tailed hawks: how do these features relate to differences in flight and hunting behavior?the red-tailed hawk and great horned owl are two species of raptor that are similar in body size, diet, and habitat. both species use their hindlimbs during hunting, but differ in foot morphology, how they approach and immobilize prey, and the average size of prey captured. they also differ in primary flight style: the red-tailed hawk uses static soaring and the great horned owl uses flap-gliding. the objectives of this study were to characterize the microstructure and cross-sectional shape of l ...201425162595
pharmacokinetics of a single dose of intravenous and oral meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus).pharmacokinetic data were determined after a single dose of meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (rth; buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (gho; bubo virginianus). in a nonrandomized crossover design, individual birds of each species received 1 dose of intravenous meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg i.v.; n = 7 for each species) followed by a 2-week washout period, and then each received 1 dose of oral meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg po; n = 5 for each species). blood samples were collected intermittently after administrat ...201324344511
anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, bubo virginianus, from new jersey, usa, 2008-2010.liver samples from red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus) were analyzed for anticoagulant rodenticides. residues of one or more second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (sgars) were detected in 81 % of red-tailed hawks and 82 % of great horned owls. the most frequently detected sgar was brodifacoum, which was detected in 76 % of red-tailed hawks and 73 % of great horned owls. bromadiolone was detected in 20 % of red-tailed hawks and 27 % of great horned ...201424158357
a technique for evisceration as an alternative to enucleation in birds of prey: 19 cases.ocular trauma is common in birds of prey presented to wildlife clinics and rehabilitation centers. enucleation is the procedure most commonly described for treatment of end-stage ocular disease or chronically painful eyes in birds; however, there are several disadvantages and risks to this procedure. while evisceration has been suggested as an alternative, it has not been described for multiple cases or with long-term follow-up data in birds of prey. this report details an evisceration technique ...201323971220
second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in canada.second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (sgars) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of sgars is problematic. we analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxico ...201121481471
anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and toxicosis in four species of birds of prey presented to a wildlife clinic in massachusetts, 2006-2010.mortalities among birds of prey from anticoagulant rodenticide (ar) toxicosis have been documented in several countries. reports on extent of exposure within regions of the united states are limited. this study investigated ar exposure and toxicosis in four species of birds of prey (red-tailed hawks [buteo jamaicensis], barred owls [strix varia], eastern screech owls [megascops asio] and great horned owls [bubo virginianus]) presented to a wildlife clinic in massachusetts. the aims of this study ...201122946375
pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus).to determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after iv and im single-dose administration in red-tailed hawks (rths) and great horned owls (ghos).200818447789
a new oligacanthorhynchid acanthocephalan described from the great horned owl, bubo virginianus (strigidae), and red-tailed hawk, buteo jamaicensis (accipitridae), from central arizona, u.s.a.oligacanthorhynchus nickoli n. sp. (acanthocephala: oligacanthorhynchidae) is described from the great-horned owl, bubo virginianus (gmelin, 1788) (type host), and red-tailed hawk, buteojamaicensis (gmelin, 1788), collected in central arizona. the new species is most similar to oligacanthorhynchus iheringi and oligacanthorhynchus minor, but it differs from all congeners primarily by trunk length, proboscis size and armature, egg size, geographical range, and host species. it is distinguished fro ...200717436950
pharmacokinetics and anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus).to determine induction doses, anesthetic constant rate infusions (cri), and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks and great horned owls and propofol pharmacokinetics in the owls during cri.200312828251
pharmacokinetics of piperacillan after intramuscular injection in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (bubo virginianus).this study characterized and compared the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin after single 100 mg/kg i.m. injections in nine red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and five great horned owls (bubo virginianus) over 48 hr by a modified agar well diffusion microbial inhibition assay. the mean maximum plasma piperacillin concentrations were 204 microg/ml and 221 microg/ml for the hawks and owls, respectively, and times of maximum concentrations were 15 min and 30 min, respectively. the calculated mean t ...200010884123
poisoning of wildlife with anticoagulant rodenticides in new york.from 1971 through 1997, we documented 51 cases (55 individual animals) of poisoning of non-target wildlife in new york (plus two cases in adjoining states) (usa) with anticoagulant rodenticides--all but two of these cases occurred in the last 8 yrs. brodifacoum was implicated in 80% of the incidents. diphacinone was identified in four cases, bromadiolone in three cases (once in combination with brodifacoum), and chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl were detected once each in the company of brodifac ...199910231745
synovial chondromatosis in raptors.fourteen raptors, consisting of 13 great horned owls (bubo virginianus) and one red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), from central and north central minnesota, western wisconsin, and eastern south dakota (usa) were admitted to a raptor rehabilitation center between june 1992 and june 1995, with perisynovial and synovial chondromatosis affecting multiple joints. birds were severely debilitated primarily due to loss of shoulder motion. the etiology of these lesions in raptors is unknown.199910073365
lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the coeur d'alene river, idaho.mining and smelting at kellogg-smelterville, idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in coeur d'alene (cda) river sediments and the floodplain downstream, where american kestrels (falco sparverius), northern harriers (circus cyaneus), red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), great horned owls (bubo virginianus), and western screech-owls (otus kennicotti) nested. nestling american kestrels contained significantly higher (p=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the cda river (0.24 µg/g, wet ...199424221348
use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls.mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (bubo virginianus) were developed. combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3h]thymidine and [125i]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-p, and concanavalin a were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (si). an antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphote ...19846524727
a cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis).strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. in raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. this is appa ...19761019075
residue of organochlorine compounds and mercury in birds' eggs from the niagara peninsula, ontario.eggs (307) were collected in 1971 from twenty species of birds with a variety of feeding habits from the niagara peninsula. this area of ontario is intensively developed for agriculture and heavy industry and has a large urban population. representative species were obtained from both the terrestrial and aquatic food chains. eggs were analyzed for organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and total mercury. eggs from carnivorous species at the top of the aquatic food chain had the ...19751155964
the effect of manual restraint on physiological parameters in barred owls ( strix varia ).manual restraint is commonly necessary when working with avian species in medical, laboratory, and field settings. despite their prevalence, little is known about the stress response in raptorial bird species. to further understand the effect of restraint on the stress response in birds of prey, 12 barred owls ( strix varia ) were manually restrained for 15 minutes. physiological parameters (cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate) were followed over time and recorded at defined points ...201728358611
contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid adult buteo was found dead as a road-kill south of sacramento, california, and was thought to represent the first state record of the eastern red-shouldered hawk (b. lineatus lineatus;). it is now a specimen in the museum of wildlife and fisheries biology (wfb 4816) at the university of california, davis. we examined this specimen and found that many of its plumage characters differed from all other adult red-shouldered hawks examined, including nominate adults. plumage markings and measureme ...201728097061
cloacal prolapse in raptors: review of 16 cases.sixteen cases of cloacal prolapse in raptors were reviewed in this study. colonic prolapse was the most common presentation (56% of cases). red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis ) were overrepresented, comprising 66% of colonic prolapse cases. in cases of colonic prolapse, postsurgical stricture formation was a commonly identified complication after resection and anastomosis of the colon. a novel technique was used in 2 cases of colonic prolapse, in which sterile, semirigid rubber tubing was plac ...201627315380
changes in physiologic parameters and effects of hooding in red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis ) during manual restraint.manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. to investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. respiratory rate (rr), heart rate (hr), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. the effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete ...201627315379
new host records for parasitic mites of the family syringophilidae from accipitriform birds (aves: accipitriformes).four accipitriform bird species of the family accipitridae are reported as new hosts for quill mites (acari: cheyletoidea: syringophilidae): megasyringophilus aquilus skoracki, lontkowski and stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from hieraaetus pennatus gmelin, 1788 in france and spain, and buteo jamaicensis gmelin, 1788 in canada; peristerophila accipitridicus skoracki, lontkowski and stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from circaetus gallicus gmelin, 1788 in france, and buteo lagopus pontoppidan, 1763 in ...201526878628
pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis).to determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (ccfa) following im administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis).201526618733
visions: red-tailed hawk. 201526301763
inflammatory markers associated with trauma and infection in red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) in the usa.changes in inflammatory marker concentrations or activity can be used to monitor health and disease condition of domestic animals but have not been applied with the same frequency to wildlife. we measured concentrations or activity of six inflammatory markers (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin-dependent complement [mbl/complement], unsaturated iron-binding capacity (uibc) and total iron-binding capacity (tibc), and plasma iron) in apparently healthy and sick or injured red-tailed ...201526280876
voriconazole disposition after single and multiple, oral doses in healthy, adult red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis ).voriconazole is effective for treatment of aspergillosis, a common disease in captive red-tailed hawks ( buteo jamaicensis ). to determine the disposition and safety of voriconazole after single and multiple, oral doses, 12 adult red-tailed hawks were studied in 2 phases. in phase 1, each bird received a single dose of voriconazole solution (10 mg/kg) by gavage. blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 24, and 36 hours after treatment. in phase 2, each of 8 birds received vori ...201425843319
an immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.the cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. three islet types were identified: type a mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (a)-secreting cells, type b mixed islets with predominantly insulin (b)-secreting cell component and type m mixed islets (type m) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (d)-secretin ...201425468799
growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis).growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipme ...201425314838
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