[pharmacological study on citrus fruits. ii. anti-allergic effect of fruit of citrus unshiu markovich (2). on flavonoid components].a study was carried out to clarify the active component of green fruit of citrus unshiu makovich on the type i allergic reaction. the flavonoid component, isolated from its methanolic extract, hesperidin, was found to inhibit histamine release from peritoneal mast cells of rats induced by compound 48/80. forty eight-hour homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (pca) in intact rats was significantly inhibited by the oral administration of hesperidin. however, the anti-allergic action on pca was ...19911712388
inhibitory effect of citrus nobiletin on phorbol ester-induced skin inflammation, oxidative stress, and tumor promotion in mice.the intake of citrus fruits has been suggested as a way to prevent the development of some types of human cancer. nitric oxide (no) is closely associated with the processes of epithelial carcinogenesis. we attempted a search for no generation inhibitors in citrus unshiu. the active constituent was traced by an activity-guiding separation. no and superoxide (o2-) generation was induced by a combination of lipopolysaccharide and ifn-gamma in mouse macrophage raw 264.7 cells, and by 12-o-tetradecan ...200011016629
uruguayan essential oil. 12. composition of nova and satsuma mandarin oils.the composition of the laboratory-prepared essential oils from uruguayan nova and satsuma mandarins has been studied. the volatile fraction was analyzed by hrgc and hrgc/ms (quadrupole); 79 and 73 components were identified in nova and satsuma mandarin oils, respectively. the linear retention indices were calculated for almost all identified components on two different stationary phases. the enantiomeric distribution of beta-pinene, sabinene, limonene, linalool, and alpha-terpineol was studied b ...200010898643
hormonal regulation of fruitlet abscission induced by carbohydrate shortage in citrus.the hormonal signals controlling fruitlet abscission induced by sugar shortage in citrus were identified in satsuma mandarin, citrus unshiu (mak.) marc, cv. clausellina and cv. okitsu. sugar supply, hormonal responses and fruitlet abscission were manipulated through full, partial or selective leaf removals at anthesis and thereafter. in developing fruitlets, defoliations reduced soluble sugars (up to 98%), but did not induce nitrogen and water deficiencies. defoliation-induced abscission was pre ...200010787058
molecular cloning of a homologue of dad-1 gene in citrus: distinctive expression during fruit development.a cdna homologue to the human defender against apoptotic death gene (dad-1), which is involved in programmed cell death, was isolated from satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) fruit. it (citdad-1-1) was 345 bp long, with a deduced protein sequence of 115 amino acids. southern hybridization suggests that dad-1-related sequences are present as a small gene family in the citrus genome. expression of citdad-1-1 was progressively down-regulated in leaves as they matured, but not in juice sac/segmen ...200010786637
molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase in citrus.we isolated a cdna clone encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase (limonoid gtase) from the albedo of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and investigated the contribution to limonoid glucoside accumulation in fruit. the isolated cdna clone (citlgt) was 1732 bp in length encoding 511 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.5 kda. the products of in vitro translation from an expression vector had the limonoid gtase activity. southern blot analysis of genomic dna indicated th ...200010713266
anti-allergic components from the peels of citrus a bioassay-guided search for anti-allergic compounds from higher plants of korea, polymethoxyflavones, 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-3',4',6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (ii) and 3',4',5,7,8,-pentamethoxyflavone (iii) have been isolated from the immature peels of citrus unshiu. structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. compounds i and ii inhibited dose-dependently histamine release from the rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compo ...199910615874
isolation and characterization of new limonoid glycosides from citrus unshiu peels.three limonoid glycosides were isolated from citrus unshiu peels, and their structures were determined based on ms and nmr spectroscopic data as nomilinic acid 17-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), methyl nomilinate 17-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), and obacunone 17-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3). in particular, the location of the sugar moiety was clearly determined by the b/e constant linked scan fabms method. no limonoid glycosides obtained here were found to have antitumor activity in nci-h292 and e ...199910385977
cloning and expression analysis of vacuolar h+-atpase 69-kda catalytic subunit cdna in citrus (citrus unshiu marc.) investigate the mechanism of sugar accumulation in fruit vacuoles, a full length cdna (citvatp-a) encoding the vacuolar h+-atpase 69-kda catalytic subunit was isolated from a cdna library constructed from citrus fruit (citrus unshiu marc.). a 2304-bp insert of citvatp-a was coded for a 623 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 68.68 kda. the deduced amino acid sequence for citvatp-a showed a 96.5% homology with the carrot homologue. genomic southern blot analysis suggested ...19989804972
characterization of gene repertoires at mature stage of citrus fruits through random sequencing and analysis of redundant metallothionein-like genes expressed during fruit development.we carried out a random sequencing of cdna library derived from mature citrus fruit (citrus unshiu marc.) for identifying the gene repertoires expressed at the mature stage. among 297 clones analyzed, 195 cdna clones (65.7%) were putatively identified to previously characterized genes with optimized (opt) scores of >/=200 through a homology search to dna database, whereas 102 clones (34.3%) resulted in low opt scores (<200) and did not show any significant sequence identity with previously publi ...19989602134
inhibitory effect of mandarin juice rich in beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced pulmonary tumorigenesis in mice.previously we reported that a commercial satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) juice (mj), mj2 and mj5, especially mj5, effectively suppressed chemically-induced rat colon carcinogenesis (int. j. cancer 88 (2000) 146). mj2 and mj5 prepared from mj have higher amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin than mj, suggesting that principle chemopreventive factors in mjs may be beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. present study was conducted to test whether these mjs could modify carcinogenesis in o ...200111689289
cloning and molecular analysis of cdnas encoding three sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms from a citrus fruit (citrus unshiu marc.).three partial cdna clones (psps1, psps2 and psps3) encoding sucrose phosphate synthases (sps) were isolated by reverse transcription (rt)-pcr using first-strand cdna prepared from the leaf or fruit of citrus (citrus unshiu marc.). the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the three clones showed significant similarities to sps previously isolated in other plants. a full-length, cdna clone, citsps1, was isolated from a fruit (juice sacs and pulp segment) cdna library using one (psps1) of ...19968842155
determination of synephrine enantiomers in food and conjugated synephrine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.determination of synephrine enantiomers was made with hplc with electrochemical detection using a chiral ligand-exchange column (sumichiral oa-6000). the calibration curve for each enantiomer showed good linearity (r = 0.999) at 1.0-500 pmol injected with a detection limit of 1.0 pmol (signal-to-noise ratio (s/n) = 3). relative standard deviation (rsd) was 1.8% at 50 pmol d-synephrine and 1.6% at 50 pmol l-synephrine. the contents of synephrine enantiomer in food such as citrus unshiu fruit, ora ...19968833327
inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of tin in canned food.various canned foods were digested sequentially with hno3 and hcl, diluted to 100 ml, and filtered, and then tin was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (icp/aes). samples of canned satsuma mandarin, peach, apricot, pineapple, apple juice, mushroom, asparagus, evaporated milk, short-necked clam, spinach, whole tomato, meat, and salmon were evaluated. sample preparations did not require time-consuming dilutions, because icp/aes has wide dynamic range. the standar ...19938286977
[carboxypeptidases from the exocarp of mandarin orange (citrus unshiu marc.). i. purification and properties of two carboxypeptidases (author's transl)]. 19751240909
multielement distribution in biological material. ii. interaction between soil and citrus unshiu marcov. 1978752142
multielement distribution in biological material. i. citrus unshiu marcov subjects and analytical methods. 1978752139
cloning and heterologous expression of a rape cdna encoding udp-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase.a cdna encoding a udp-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase (sgt) that catalyzes the formation of 1-o-sinapoylglucose, was isolated from cdna libraries constructed from immature seeds and young seedlings of rape (brassica napus l.). the open reading frame encoded a protein of 497 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55,970 da and an isoelectric point of 6.36. the enzyme, functionally expressed in escherichia coli, exhibited broad substrate specificity, glucosylating sinapate, cinnamate ...200011144274
suppression of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male f344 rats by mandarin juices rich in beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin.we have reported protective effects of dietary administration of a powder "chrp" containing high amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin prepared from a satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) juice on azoxymethane (aom)-induced rat aberrant crypt foci through suppression of crypt cell proliferation and/or induction of detoxifying enzymes. in the present study, we investigated the modifying effects of a commercial satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) juice (mj) and those of mj2 and mj5, wh ...200010962453
clinical and pharmacological studies on liver diseases treated with kampo herbal medicine.hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection frequently causes chronic hepatitis, which is linked to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. most physicians who practice kampo medicine in japan have observed that kampo medicine can be as effective as interferon therapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis c. in the present study, to evaluate the effect of kampo medicine on chronic hepatitis c, clinical treatment was assessed in short-term and long-term study, and it was shown that ...200011154048
molecular characterization of cdna clones for adp-glucose pyrophosphorylase from citrus.two cdna clones encoding adp-glucose pyrophosphorylases have been isolated from fruit and leaf cdna libraries of citrus (citrus unshiu mac. cv. miyagawa) in which one was designated as agps for the small subunit and the other as agpl for the large subunit. both cdnas have uninterrupted open reading frames deriving 57-58 kda polypeptides. the deduced amino acid sequence of agps has a unique feature. that is, it lacks a cysteine residue (cys-12) which is usually conserved in all other dicot enzyme ...200111311948
in vivo sucrose stimulation of colour change in citrus fruit epicarps: interactions between nutritional and hormonal signals.during ripening, citrus fruit-peel undergoes 'colour break', a process characterized by the conversion of chloroplast to chromoplast. the process involves the progressive loss of chlorophylls and the gain of carotenoids, changing peel colour from green to orange. in the present work, the in vivo and in vitro effects of supplemented nutrients (sucrose and nitrogen) and phytohormones (gibberellins [ga] and ethylene) on colour change in fruit epicarp of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu (mak.) marc., ...200111454230
cloning and expression of citpds1, a gene encoding phytoene desaturase in citrus.a cdna clone encoding phytoene desaturase (pds) was isolated from citrus (citrus unshiu marc.). the transcript of the isolated pds (citpds1) was not detected by conventional rna gel-blot analysis; instead, it was detected by a sensitive reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). the citpds1 transcript in the juice sacs/segment epidermis (edible part) was at a low level in the young fruit, and it increased toward maturation like citrus phytoene synthase (citpsy1). in the peel, in contrast to citpsy1, th ...200111471748
dietary administration of citrus nobiletin inhibits azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats.the modifying effects of dietary feeding of a polymethoxyflavonoid nobiletin isolated from citrus unshiu on the development of azoxymethane (aom)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (acf) were investigated in male f344 rats. we also assessed the effects of nobiletin on cell proliferation activity of acf using a monoclonal antibody mib-5. rats were given subcutaneous injections of aom (15 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 3 weeks to induce acf. they also received the experimental diet containing ...200111488403
cdna sequence and expression of a cold-responsive gene in citrus unshiu.a cdna clone encoding a protein (cucor19), the sequence of which is similar to poncirus cor19, of the dehydrin family was isolated from the epicarp of citrus unshiu. the molecular mass of the predicted protein was 18,980 daltons. cucor19 was highly hydrophilic and contained three repeating elements including lys-rich motifs. the gene expression in leaves increased by cold stress.199910192924
characterization of a cdna homologous to carotenoid-associated protein in citrus fruits.a cdna (citpap) homologous to a gene encoding for cucumis sativus carotenoid-associated protein (chrc) has been isolated from satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.). unlike chrc whose expression was limited only in mature fruits (containing chromoplasts), citpap transcripts were detected in all the tissues examined including fruits, flowers and leaves. in this respect, citpap was rather close to a gene encoding for pepper plastid-lipid-associated protein (pap), which exhibits ubiquitous expressi ...19989804984
purification and antigenicity of flavone synthase i from irradiated parsley cells.flavone synthase i, a soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase catalyzing the oxidation of flavanones to flavones in several apiaceae species, was induced in parsley cell cultures by continuous irradiation with ultraviolet/blue light for 20 h. the enzyme was extracted from these cells and purified by a revised purification protocol including the fractionation on hydroxyapatite, fractogel emd deae, and mono q anion exchangers, which resulted in an apparently homogeneous flavone synthase at ap ...200111516175
the diversification of citrus clementina hort. ex tan., a vegetatively propagated crop species.clementines, due to their high quality, are one of the most important cultivated citrus mandarins. as in the case of sweet orange and satsuma mandarins, genetic variability within this species is minimal when analyzed by molecular markers, because the existing varieties have not been obtained through hybridization, but through the selection of spontaneous mutations affecting traits of agronomic interest. this would explain, at least in part, the greater diversity for agronomic traits when compar ...200111697922
cloning of a tobacco apoplasmic invertase inhibitor. proof of function of the recombinant protein and expression analysis during plant development.higher plants express several isoforms of vacuolar and cell wall invertases (cwi), some of which are inactivated by inhibitory proteins at certain stages of plant development. we have purified an apoplasmic inhibitor (inh) of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) cwi to homogeneity. based on sequences from tryptic fragments, we have isolated a full-length inh-encoding cdna clone (nt-inh1) via a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. southern-blot analysis revealed that inh is encoded by a single ...19989489020
determination of p-hydroxymandelic acid enantiomers in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with electrochemical detection using a chiral ligand-exchange column was developed for the enantioselective determination of p-hydroxymandelic acid (hma), a metabolite of synephrine, with high sensitivity. a good linear relationship between current ratio and amount was noted for 0.5-500 pmol hma, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 for each hma enantiomer. the relative standard deviation (r.s.d.) was 1.6% at 100 pmol d-hma and 2.2% at 100 pmol l- ...19979226583
analysis of sucrose synthase genes in citrus suggests different roles and phylogenetic relationships.the purpose of this work was 2-fold; first, a molecular/evolutionary characterization of three sucrose synthase genes from citrus, and second, an analysis of their differential expression related to potential physiological function. three non-allelic genes (citsus1, citsusa and citsus2) encoding sucrose synthase were isolated from citrus fruit (citrus unshiu marc.). phylogenetic analysis from the deduced amino acid sequences showed that citsus1 and citsus2 could be classified into a dicot group. ...200211741042
flavonol synthase gene expression during citrus fruit development.we isolated a cdna clone (citfls) encoding flavonol synthase (fls) from the satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) fruit and investigated the steady state of citfls rna expression during the fruit development. the citfls was 1274 bp long, encoded 335 amino acid residues, and belonged to a family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. the level of citfls transcript was higher in the young leaves than in the old leaves, and it was high at the early developmental stage and low at the mature stag ...200211903972
identification of a grapefruit cdna belonging to a unique class of citrus dehydrins and characterization of its expression patterns under temperature stress conditions.citrus fruits are sensitive to low temperatures and this often results in the development of chilling injuries during postharvest storage. in order to gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of fruit chilling tolerance, we initiated a grapefruit (citrus paradisi, cv. marsh seedless) flavedo cdna sequencing project and used it to identify a cdna similar to other poncirus trifoliata and citrus unshiu dehydrin genes reported to be responsive to low temperatures. ...200212121466
potent suppressive activity of fresh and dried peels from satsuma mandarin citrus unshiu (marcorv.) on hydroperoxide generation from oxidized linoleic acid.the effects of various extracts prepared from fresh and dried peels of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marcov.) on hydroperoxide generation from oxidized linoleic acid were compared under different extraction conditions. the cold-and hot-water extracts of fresh peels showed significant suppressive activity against hydroperoxide generation in a dose-dependent manner. however, the methanol or acetone extract of fresh peels did not exhibit significant suppressive effects. the commercially available ...200212458489
a set of primers for analyzing chloroplast dna diversity in citrus and related genera.chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpssr) markers in citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of citrus and closely related genera. fourteen cpssr primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l.) and arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the citrus chloroplast genome (cpdna) and recoded with the prefix spcc (ssr primers for citrus chloroplast). eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of citrus, ...200515805086
anti-hepatitis c virus effect of citrus unshiu peel and its active ingredient nobiletin.we investigated the effects of water and ethyl acetate extracts of citrus unshiu peel (aurantii nobilis pericarpium) on hepatitis c virus (hcv) absorption in molt-4 cells (a human lymphoblastoid leukemia cell line). by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), we showed that both the ethyl acetate layer of citrus unshiu peel extract and fraction 7 decreased hcv absorption in molt-4 cells. furthermore, we demonstrated that 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) is the active ...200515844836
[pharmacological study on citrus fruits. i. anti-allergic effect of fruit of citrus unshiu markovich (1)].a study was carried out to examine the effect of 50% ethanolic extract from green fruit of citrus unshiu markovich on type i, ii and iv allergic reactions. forty eight-hour homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (pca) in rats as a typical model of the type i reaction was significantly inhibited by the oral administration of the extract. complement-dependent cytolysis of sheep red blood cell as a typical model of the type ii reaction was significantly inhibited by incubation with it. contact de ...19892614666
[studies on the preparation and evaluation of kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. iii. relation between diameter of kijitsu and synephrine content].for the purpose of evaluating kijitsu, the content of synephrine in dried unripe citrus fruits was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography after cleaning up the meoh extract with an ion exchange cellulose column. among them, citrus unshiu had the highest amount of synephrine. no difference was found between c. hassaku and c. aurantium. the synephrine content decreased corresponding with an increase in diameter of kijitsu.19902355312
structures of new cyclic peptides in young unshiu (citrus unshiu marcov.), orange (citrus sinensis osbeck.) and amanatsu (citrus natsudaidai) peelings.four cyclic peptides were isolated from young unshiu (unripe fruit), orange and amanatsu peelings, and their structures were established on the basis of fab-ms (cid method) and 2d-nmr spectroscopic data, and by chemical evidence. they were each found to consist of seven or eight amino acids.19911368762
[protective mechanism in photoinhibition of photosynthesis in citrus unshiu leaves].by using a portable pam-2000 fluorometer and a spectrophotometer (722 model), the diurnal variation in main chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as initial fluorescence (f0), maximal fluorescence (fm), ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (fv/fm), non-photochemical quenching (qn), fast-phase (qnf) and slow-phase (qns) of non-photochemical quenching, electron transport rate (etr), and relative content of xeaxanthin in citrus unshiu leaves were observed on fine days. the resu ...200312722437
enhancement of cold tolerance and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by citrus dehydrin in transgenic tobacco.citrus ( citrus unshiu marcov.) dehydrin in response to chilling stress was overexpressed in tobacco ( nicotiana tabacum l.), and the cold stress tolerance of transgenics at low temperature was analyzed. the freezing at -4 degrees c for 3 h of 24 independent lines indicated that a phenotype expressing citrus dehydrin showed less electrolyte leakage than the control. dehydrin protein content was correlated with freezing tolerance in transgenics. dehydrin-expressing tobacco exhibited earlier germi ...200312783337
[effects of high temperature stress on net photosynthetic rate and photosystem ii activity in citrus].table adc-225-mk3 co2 gas analyzer and pam-2000 portable fluorescence measurement system were used to measure the net photosynthetic rate (pn), initial fluorescence (fo), maximal photochemical efficiency of ps ii (fv/fm) and electron transport rate (etr) of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and navel orange (c. sinensis osbeck) leaves. the results showed that exposure of citrus plants to high temperature (38-40 degrees c) led to a lowering of pn, fv/fm, and etr, whereas fo increased. after ...200312973985
targeted cybridization in citrus: transfer of satsuma cytoplasm to seedy cultivars for potential seedlessness.cms (cytoplasmic male sterility) can be controlled by the mitochondrion genome in higher plants, including satsuma mandarin. somatic fusion experiments in citrus combining embryogenic callus protoplasts of one parent with leaf protoplasts of a second parent often produce cybrid plants of the leaf parent, a phenomenon occurring most often with interspecific fusion combinations. in an attempt to practically exploit this cybridization phenomenon, we conducted somatic fusion experiments combining em ...200414730385
accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during maturation in citrus fruit.the relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during fruit maturation was investigated in three citrus varieties, satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.), valencia orange (citrus sinensis osbeck), and lisbon lemon (citrus limon burm.f.). we cloned the cdnas for phytoene synthase (citpsy), phytoene desaturase (citpds), zeta-carotene (car) desaturase (citzds), carotenoid isomerase (citcrtiso), lycopene beta-cyclase (citlcyb), beta-ring hydroxyl ...200414739348
oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin induces anabolic effects on bone components in the femoral tissues of rats in vivo.the effect of beta-cryptoxanthin on bone components in the femoral tissues of rats was investigated. beta-cryptoxanthin was isolated from satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.). bone tissues were cultured for 48 h in serum-free dulbecco's modified eagle's medium containing either vehicle or beta-cryptoxanthin (10(-7) or 10(-6) m). the presence of beta-cryptoxanthin (10(-7) or 10(-6) m) caused a significant increase in calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal an ...200414758041
significance of c-terminal sequence elements for petunia flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase activity.flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase (fht), a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2-odd), catalyzes the hydroxylation of (2s)-flavanones to (2r/3r)-dihydroflavonols in plants as a key step towards the biosynthesis of flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins. crystallographic studies of 2-odds typically revealed a jelly roll in the enzyme core, and the c-terminus of the enzyme polypeptides was proposed to form a lid covering the active site cavity, thereby reducing the chances for oxidative or proteolytic ...200415013767
estimation of the number of aphids carrying citrus tristeza virus that visit adult citrus trees.aphid species were counted on citrus trees in orchards in valencia, spain, in the spring and autumn of 1997, 1998 and 1999. moericke yellow water traps, the 'sticky shoot' method and counts of established colonies were used in extensive surveys in which 29,502 aphids were recorded and identified. aphis spiraecola and aphis gossypii were the most abundant aphid species. the numbers of aphid species landing on mature trees of grapefruit, sweet orange, lemon and clementine and satsuma mandarins, we ...200415036840
effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.the effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. citrus peels (cp) (5 g) were placed in pyrex petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees c for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. after heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (ee) and water extract (we) (0.1 g/10 ml) of cp were prepared, and total phenol contents (tpc), radical scavenging activity (rsa), and reducing power of the extr ...200415161203
antiallergic activity of hesperidin is activated by intestinal microflora.when hesperidin isolated from pericarpium of citrus unshiu (family rutaceae) was incubated with human intestinal microflora, its main metabolite was hesperetin, which was a main metabolite in urine of orally hesperidin-administered rats. the antiallergic activity of hesperidin and its metabolite hesperetin were investigated. hesperidin did not inhibit the histamine release from rbl-2h3 cells induced by ige. however, its metabolite hesperetin potently inhibited the histamine release from rbl-2h3 ...200415240993
radical scavenging activity and oxidative modification of citrus dehydrin.dehydrins are ubiquitous proteins produced by plants in response to water stress. their functions, however, are not fully understood. the overexpression of citrus unshiu marcov. dehydrin (cucor19) enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic plants by reducing lipid peroxidation promoted by cold stress, suggesting that the cucor19 protein directly scavenges radicals. in this paper, we report the radical scavenging activity and oxidative modification of cucor19. the hydroxyl radical generated by the fe2 ...200415331095
the effect of a traditional chinese prescription for a case of lung examine the effectiveness of ninjin yoei to (nyt; ren-shen-yang-rong-tang in chinese medicine; kotaro pharmaceutical co., ltd., osaka, japan), one of the traditional herbal medicines, against lung carcinoma.200011152062
[the relationship of fructokinase and sugar accumulation during fruit development in satsuma mandarin].sugars accumulation and fructokinase activity during satsuma mandarin fruit development in relation to the effect of extra nitrogenous fertilizer on the activity and expression of fructokinase were studied. the results exhibited that fructokinase activity in the tissues of edible and peel decreased during fruit development, which coincided with the accumulation of sugars, while the contents of sucrose and glucose decreased, and the activity of the enzyme increased in peel tissues of ripened frui ...200415627693
the role of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases in the regulation of carotenoid profiles during maturation in citrus investigate the relationship between a carotenoid profile and gene expression for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, three citrus varieties that exhibit different 9-cis-violaxanthin levels in their juice sacs, satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.; a variety accumulating a low level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), valencia orange (citrus sinensis osbeck; variety accumulating a high level of 9-cis-violaxanthin), and lisbon lemon (citrus limon burm.f.; a variety accumulating an undetectable level of 9-c ...200616714310
characterization of gamma-terpinene synthase from citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin).gamma-terpinene is a monoterpene and a major component of essential oils made from citrus fruits and shows strong antioxidant activity in various assay systems. plant gamma-terpinene synthase is a member of the monoterpene cyclase family, which produces a specific monoterpene through cyclization of geranyl diphosphate (gpp), but the monoterpene cyclases have not been fully characterized. it is necessary to prepare large amounts of gamma-terpinene synthase from citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) fo ...200415630174
passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory activity of flavanones from citrus unshiu and poncirus trifoliata.this study examined the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory activity of the flavanones isolated from the pericarp of citrus unshiu (family rutaceae) and the fruit of poncirus trifoliata (family rutaceae). naringenin, hesperetin and ponciretin potently inhibited ige-induced beta-hexosaminidase release from rbl-2h3 cells and the pca reaction. among the flavanones examined, naringenin was the most potent with an ic50 value for beta-hexosaminidase release from rbl-2h3 cells of 0.029 mm. intrape ...200515678369
effects of chronic administration of fruit extract (citrus unshiu marc) on endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.we investigated the effects of chronic administration of fruit extract (citrus unshiu marc) on the endothelial dysfunction seen in aortae from streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats. a ten-week administration of this fruit extract preserved acetylcholine (ach)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, but not sodium nitroprusside (snp)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation, in the diabetic aorta. in age-matched control rats, chronic administration of the fruit extract had no influence o ...200515684481
functional expression and mutational analysis of flavonol synthase from citrus unshiu.flavonols are produced by the desaturation of flavanols catalyzed by flavonol synthase. the enzyme belongs to the class of intermolecular dioxygenases which depend on molecular oxygen and feii/2-oxoglutarate for activity, and have been in focus of structural studies recently. flavonol synthase cdnas were cloned from six plant species, but none of the enzymes had been studied in detail. therefore, a cdna from citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) designated as flavonol synthase was expressed in escher ...200212180990
characterization of citrus unshiu (c. unshiu marcov. forma miyagawa-wase) blossom aroma by solid-phase microextraction in conjunction with an electronic nose.the volatile composition of the headspace from citrus unshiu marcov. forma miyagawa-wase blossom was investigated. the volatile constituents were absorbed by a solid-phase microextraction (spme) fiber and directly transferred to a gc-ms. volatile compositional changes of c. unshiu blossom prepared via different drying methods (shade, microwave, and freeze-drying methods) were also determined. a total of 96 volatile constituents were confirmed in the headspace from these samples. monoterpene hydr ...200312517105
studies on the radioactive contamination of fruit trees by fission products. 4. 90sr distribution in fruit of the satsuma orange trees grown at an orchard.20. 19734795095
flavonol synthase from citrus unshiu is a bifunctional dioxygenase.flavonol synthase was classified as a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase converting natural (2r,3r)-dihydroflavonols, i.e. dihydrokaempferol, to the corresponding flavonols (kaempferol). flavonol synthase from citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin), expressed in escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, was shown to accept also (2s)-naringenin as a substrate, producing kaempferol in high yield and assigning sequential flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase activities to the enzyme. in ...200312620339
expression analysis of a cold responsive transcript from trifoliate orange by real-time pcr and rt-pcr.clta and cltb are two transcripts produced by the citrus clt gene. cltb is constitutively expressed, while clta is a low temperature responsive transcript expressed in temperatures below 10 degrees c during the acclimation process of some species of citrus. real-time pcr was used to study clta expression pattern in trifoliate orange during acclimation, gradual deacclimation and abrupt deacclimation. a standard curve of nine dilution series from 10 x 10(6) to 10 x 10(-3) fg was constructed, using ...200516151814
altered oral absorption of alcohol by combined aqueous extracts of four herbal plants in rats.this study examined the effect of combined aqueous extracts (bhr) of ginko biloba, mentha arvensis var. piperascens, citrus unshiu, and pueraria lobata var. chinensis on oral absorption of alcohol in rats. the rats were pretreated with bhr, placebo solution identical to bhr without the herbal extract, and isotonic saline. alcohol was administered orally at 1- and 3-g/kg doses and the absorption profiles were compared. after oral administration of 1-g/kg doses, mean area under the curve (auc) and ...200516326435
oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.the effect of beta-cryptoxanthin, a kind of carotenoid, on ovariectomy-induced bone loss was investigated. beta-cryptoxanthin was isolated from satsuma mandarin (citrus unshu. marc). beta-cryptoxanthin (5 or 10 microg/100 g body weight) was orally administered once daily for 3 months to ovariectomized (ovx) rats. ovx induced a significant increase in body weight and a significant decrease in serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations as compared with those of sham-operated (control) r ...200616328006
microbial production of pectin from citrus peel.a new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. for this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of trichosporon penicillatum. the most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. citrus (citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30 degrees c. during the fermentation, the pectin in ...198016345556
effect of chronic administration of fruit extract (citrus unshiu marc.) on glucose tolerance in gk rats, a model of type 2 diabetes.recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high dietary consumption of fruit and vegetables results in lower risks of diabetes. in this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of fruit extract (citrus unshiu marc.) on glucose tolerance in gk rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. after 10 weeks administration of the fruit extract, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests revealed significant decrements of blood glucose levels after glucose loading. our findings further ...200616428854
hesperidin as an inhibitor of lipases from porcine pancreas and the course of our screening work for new types of lipase inhibitors, hesperidin was identified as a simple and small molecular weight inhibitor in the peels of citrus unshiu. hesperidin inhibited lipase activity from porcine pancreas and that from pseudomonas, and their ic50 was 32 and 132 micrograms/ml, respectively. hesperidin, neohesperidin, narirutin, and naringin are known as the main flavonoids in citrus unshiu. neohesperidin also inhibited the lipase from procine pancreas, but did not ...19979028038
isolation of cytoplasts from satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and production of alloplasmic hybrid calluses via cytoplast-protoplast fusion.cytoplasm of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) is known to influence seedlessness. transfer of cytoplasm to a seedy cultivar could possibly lead to the production of seedless citrus fruits. in the present paper cytoplasts were isolated from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of satsuma mandarin via ultra-centrifugation in a discontinuous gradient. no nucleus could be detected in the cytoplasts by dapi (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining compared with normal protoplasts. the cytoplast ...200616477406
chronic administration of satsuma mandarin fruit (citrus unshiu marc.) improves oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat liver.fruits and vegetables contain numerous antioxidants such as carotenoids, vitamins, and phenolic phytochemicals. recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants may reduce the risk for diabetes or its complications. in this study, we investigated the effects of the chronic administration of satsuma mandarin fruit on an antioxidant defense system in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat liver. after a ten-week administration of satsuma mandarin, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in ...200616508175
multiple linear regression analysis of the seasonal changes in the serum concentration of beta-cryptoxanthin.beta-cryptoxanthin (beta-crx) is a carotenoid pigment found in satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) fruit, which is heavily produced in japan. in this study, we evaluated the seasonal changes in the serum beta-crx level and investigated predictors of serum beta-crx level by multiple linear regression analysis. blood tests and self-administered questionnaires were used every other month for one year. the subjects were healthy volunteers, 15 males and 12 females. the serum beta-crx levels increa ...200415386932
wound-induced ethylene formation in albedo tissue of citrus fruit.excised albedo tissue of citrus fruit (citrus unshiu and citrus hassaku) produced ethylene at an increasing rate in response to wounding and aging. the application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) enhanced ethylene production in both the fresh and aged tissues, but this increase was greater in the aged tissue than in the fresh tissue. acc content was very low in fresh tissue but increased greatly in aging tissue, paralleling the rise in ethylene production. aminoethoxyvinylglycine ...198116661686
gibberellins and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of seedless mandarins.satsuma (citrus unshiu [mak] marc.) and clementine (citrus reticulata [hort.] ex. tanaka, cv oroval) are two species of seedless mandarins differing in their tendency to develop parthenocarpic fruits. satsuma is a male-sterile cultivar that shows a high degree of natural parthenocarpy and a high fruit set. seedless clementine varieties are self-incompatible, and in the absence of cross-pollination show a very low ability to set fruit. the gibberellins (gas) ga53, putative 17-oh-ga(53), ga(44), g ...199216669076
[arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal growth on citrus roots and its correlations with soil available phosphorus content and phosphatase activity].in 2004, a field investigation was made on the mycorrhizal infection rate, spore density, soil available phosphorus content, and soil phosphatase activity in the guoqing no. 1 (citrus unshiu )/trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata) and guoqing no. 4 (c. unshiu)/trifoliate orange (p. trifoliata) plantations, aimed to approach the correlations between the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal growth on citrus roots and the available phosphorus content and phosphatase activity in rhizosphere soil. the res ...200616836102
isolation of microprotoplasts from a partially synchronized suspension culture of citrus unshiu.the effect of hydroxyurea (hu) and amiprophos-methyl (apm) on the synchronization of suspension cultures of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu) and micronucleation of the suspension cells sequentially treated with both, hu and apm, were investigated. when suspension cultures in early-log phase were treated with 4 or 10mm hu for 24h, the number of cells in the s-phase and the mitotic index (mi) increased significantly. exposure of the early-log phase suspension culture to 32microm apm led to a marke ...200617032620
diet supplemented with citrus unshiu segment membrane suppresses chemically induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and fatty liver in male db/db mice.the modulatory effects of dietary citrus unshiu segment membrane (cusm) on the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci (acf) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (bcacs) were determined in male c57bl/ksj-db/db (db/db) mice initiated with azoxymethane (aom). male db/db, db/+ and +/+ mice were given 5 weekly subcutaneous injections of aom (15 mg/kg body weight), and then they were fed the diet containing 0.02%, 0.1% or 0.5% cusm for 7 weeks. at week 12, a significant increase in the numbers of acf and bc ...200717066427
regulatory mechanism of food factors in bone metabolism and prevention of osteoporosis.aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. we have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which a ...200617077614
[changes of light energy distribution in reaction centers of citrus unshiu leaf photosystem under different light intensities].in order to further understand the light energy distribution in photochemical reaction centers of fruit trees, this paper employed modulated fluorescence technique to study the state transition of photosystem in citrus unshiu leaves under high and low light intensities. the results indicated that under low light intensity of 100 micromol x m(-2) s(-1), the pq pool was in reduction state due to q(a) reduction, which made the light energy distribution in photosystem changed from ps ii to ps i; whi ...200415707318
seasonal changes in the relationship between serum concentration of beta-cryptoxanthin and serum lipid levels.beta-cryptoxanthin (beta-crx) is a carotenoid pigment found especially in satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) fruit, which is mainly produced in japan. previously, we found that serum beta-crx concentrations rose to extreme levels as the frequency of consumption of satsuma mandarin increases. using 94 non-smoking female volunteers, the present study evaluated the relationship between serum concentration of beta-crx and serum lipid levels in september, when the satsuma mandarin is not in seaso ...200415895516
identification of cold acclimated genes in leaves of citrus unshiu by mrna differential display.citrus unshiu is freeze tolerant to -10 degrees c when fully acclimated after exposure to cold, nonfreezing temperatures. to gain an understanding of its cold tolerance mechanism, mrna differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (ddrt-pcr) and quantitative relative rt-pcr were used to study gene expression under a gradual cold-acclimation temperature regime. six up-regulated and two down regulated genes were identified based on their amino acid sequences. the identified ...200516125877
endogenous free polyamines and their role in fruit set of low and high parthenocarpic ability citrus cultivars.endogenous free polyamines (pas), putrescine, spermidine and spermine, from developing fruitlets of citrus species (citrus unshiu marc. and citrus clementina hort ex tanaka) which differ in their parthenocarpic ability, and from uniflowered leafy and leafless inflorescences differing in their ability to set, have been determined by dansylation and separation of dansyl derivatives by hplc. no significant differences in pas content were observed between species or between leafy and leafless inflor ...200516146310
differences in seasonal expression of flowering genes between deciduous trifoliate orange and evergreen satsuma determine differences in seasonal flowering between evergreen and deciduous woody perennials, endogenous expression of flowering-related genes was investigated in satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) and its close relative, trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf.), which are evergreen and deciduous, respectively, and show different seasonal flowering characteristics. in satsuma mandarin, in which floral induction is triggered by low temperatures during fall and winter, mrna levels ...200919364704
characterization of a cdna encoding metallothionein 3 from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.).a cdna encoding metallothionein (mt) was isolated from a library constructed with poly a(+) rna purified from 48 h etiolated cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) cotyledons. this cdna encodes a deduced protein with 63 residues and a molecular weight of 6.3 kda. the protein has 10 cysteines of which 4 are within the cxxcxcxxxxxc amino-terminus motif and six are within the cxcxxxcxcxxcxc carboxyl-terminus motif characteristic of the type iii mt (mt3). the cotton mt3 protein sequence is 76.2, 69.8, 66.7, ...200516147860
isolation of antioxidative phenolic glucosides from lemon juice and their suppressive effect on the expression of blood adhesion molecules.phenolic glucosides having radical scavenging activity were examined from the fraction eluted with 20% methanol on amberlite xad-2 resin applied to lemon (citrus limon) juice by using reversed phase chromatography. four phenolic glucosides were identified as 1-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 6,8-di-c-glucosylapigenin and 6,8-di-c-glucosyldiosmetin by (1)h-nmr, (13)c-nmr, and ms analyses. they exhibited radical scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydra ...200717690486
fruit set dependence on carbohydrate availability in citrus trees.we generated source-sink imbalances by defoliation and sucrose supplementation by stem injection, to investigate effects of carbohydrate availability on fruitlet growth and abscission in cv. okitsu of satsuma mandarins (citrus unshiu (mak.) marc.). partial defoliation promoted fruitlet abscission, whereas sucrose supplementation increased citrus fruit set by more than 10%. moreover, when applied together, sucrose supplementation counteracted the effect of partial defoliation on fruit set. when s ...200312566270
effects of citrus unshiu powder on the cytokine balance in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen.we evaluated the effects of a 50% methanol extract of citrus unshiu powder (mec) on cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) obtained from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to cedar pollen. the levels of cytokines, such as tnf-alpha, ifn-gamma, il-2, il-4, il-5, il-10, il-12 (p70), il-13, and gm-csf, produced by pollen-stimulated pbmc were measured. we found that mec suppressed pollen-induced tnf-alpha release and increased ifn-gamma release from pbmcs. the results suggest ...200717986783
increased cift abundance in the stem correlates with floral induction by low temperature in satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.).after several years in the juvenile phase, adult citrus trees show seasonal periodicity of flowering. a prolonged exposure to low temperature is one of the most important environmental cues for floral induction in citrus. in the present study, the expression of flowering-related genes during the annual cycle of flowering and inductive low-temperature treatment in satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) trees is investigated. simultaneously, floral induction, which occurs before the period of morp ...200718000016
lipolysis induced by segment wall extract from satsuma mandarin orange (citrus unshu mark).the lipolysis induced by satsuma mandarin orange (citrus unshu mark) was investigated using rat fat cells. peel or segment wall extract from satsuma mandarin orange induced the lipolysis in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas juice sac extract did not induce the lipolysis. high concentration of synephrine, which is an adrenergic amine, was detected in the peel or segment wall extract, whereas it was not detected in the juice sac extract. the segment wall extracts from iyokan and orange had ...200718202545
minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water.some dried citrus peels, more familiar as chenpi in china, have been widely used in traditional chinese medicines from ancient times. this paper reports the efficiency of infusion cooking on extracting minerals and phenolic compounds (flavanone glycosides [fgs], polymethoxylated flavones [pmfs], and phenolic acids), and also antioxidant activity of hot water extract of citrus peels. peels of 2 citrus varieties, namely, satsuma mandarin (c. unshiu marc.) and ponkan (c. poonensis hort. ex tanaka), ...200818211343
potential sources of microbial contamination of satsuma mandarin fruit in japan, from production through packing shed.potential sources of microbial contamination of satsuma mandarin fruit were investigated from production through the packing shed in the 2005 season. microbial counts in the peel and flesh during the fruit development stage were below 2.4 log cfu/g for bacteria and 3 log cfu/g for fungi, except for the peel in august and september. in the field environment, the highest microbial counts were found in fallen leaves on the ground, followed by soil, organic fertilizer, and agricultural water. only t ...200818389696
anti-allergic effect of a combination of citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of citrus unshiu (cu-ext) on type iv allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (pc-cd) in mice. oral administration of cu-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of pc-cd. the inhibitory activities of combinations of cu-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of pc-cd we ...200818404324
flavonoid glycosides and limonoids from citrus molasses.molasses of tangerine orange (citrus unshiu markovich) is obtained as a waste product in the course of tangerine orange juice production. this molasses is expected to be a useful source of organic compounds such as flavonoids and limonoids. to elucidate a use for this molasses waste, we isolated and identified its organic constituents. two new flavanonol glycosides were isolated from tangerine orange molasses, along with several flavonoids such as hesperidine, narirutin, eriodictyol, 3',4',5,6,7 ...200818404354
evaluation of the anti-allergic activity of citrus unshiu using rat basophilic leukemia rbl-2h3 cells as well as basophils of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen.the anti-allergic activity of the 50% methanol extract of citrus unshiu powder (mec) was examined. fifty percent methanol extract of mec powder showed potent inhibitory activity against histamine release from basophils of patients suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis to ceder pollen. to examine this anti-allergic mechanism in detail, we next used rat basophlilic leukemia rbl-2h3 cells. mec significantly inhibited ige-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release from rbl-2h3 cells. sinc ...200616465400
delay expression of limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase makes delayed bitterness in citrus.genes encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase from albedo of six citrus species with different levels of delayed bitterness are isolated and cloned in vector ptz57r/t. our results indicate that gene sequence of sweet lime (with intense juice delayed bitterness) have complete identity with satsuma mandarin (without distinctive juice delayed bitterness). also gene sequence of marsh seedless grapefruit, local orange and thompson navel orange (with mild juice delayed bitterness) have very similari ...200818407832
seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in alabama satsuma citrus.six alabama satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, dialeurodes citri (ashmead); purple scale, lepidosaphes beckii (newman); glover scale, l. gloveri (packard); and citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor). two distinct population peaks were re ...200818419929
comparative evaluation of 12 immature citrus fruit extracts for the inhibition of cytochrome p450 isoform a previous study we found that 50% ethanol extracts of immature fruits of citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) have anti-allergic effects against the type i, ii and iv allergic reactions. however, many adverse interactions between citrus fruit, especially grapefruit juice, and drugs have been reported due to the inhibition of cytochrome p450 (cyp) activities. the purpose of this study was to examine the competitive inhibitory effects of extracts from immature citrus fruit on cyp activity. extract ...200818451520
phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc.) peels.ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae) was used to extract phenolic compounds from satsuma mandarin ( citrus unshiu marc.) peels (smp), and maceration extraction (me) was used as a control. the effects of ultrasonic time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min), temperature (15, 30, and 40 degrees c), and ultrasonic power (3.2, 8, 30, and 56 w) on phenolic compounds were investigated. high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) coupled with a photodiode array (pda) detector was used for the analysis of ...200818572916
synephrine content of juice from satsuma mandarins (citrus unshiu marcovitch).synephrine, the main protoalkaloid in citrus species, is commonly analyzed as the active component in citrus peel-containing herbal supplements, but the edible parts of mandarins have been largely ignored. the synephrine concentration has been determined in the juices of citrus unshiu mandarins harvested from 10 different groves located in a major growing region in california. for comparison, the physicochemical properties of the juices, including ph, conductivity, soluble solids content, and ti ...200818771270
pathogenic interactions between xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and cultivars of pummelo (citrus grandis).abstract the aggressiveness of strains of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven citrus species, including citrus sinensis (navel orange), c. paradisi (grapefruit), c. unshiu (satsuma mandarin), c. junos (yuzu), c. aurantifolia ('mexican' lime), c. tachibana (tachibana), and c. grandis (pummelo: 'otachibana', 'banpeiyu', and 'anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. the existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness wa ...200018943380
[effects of different calcium salts on freezing resistance of satsuma mandarin].the study on the effects of foliar spraying 20 mmol x l(-1) of cacl2, ca (no3)2 and caac2 on the freezing resistance of satsuma mandarin (citrus unshiu marc. cv. guoqing no. 1) showed that after treated with these ca salts, the leaves of test plant had a lower half lethal temperature (lt50) than the control (sprayed with distilled water). the lt50 after treated with cacl2 was 0.54 degrees c lower, whereas that after treated with caac2 and ca (no3)2 was 1.34 degrees c and 1.35 degrees c lower, re ...200818975739
induction of phytoalexins biosynthesis in orange fruit by the biocontrol yeast rhodotorula glutinis.the biocontrol yeast rhodotorula glutinis, isolate 21a, obtained from tomato fruit was used to control penicillium digitatum, p. italicum and botrytis cinerea on artificially wounded citrus fruit. orange and satsuma mandarin fruit were treated with the biocontrol yeast, inoculated with the pathogens and stored for 7 days at 23 degrees c. on orange fruit the antagonist compared to the control reduced decay by 92.2, 88.4 and 96.2% for p. digitatum, p. italicum and b. cinerea, respectively. on sats ...200617390839
citrus compounds inhibit inflammation- and obesity-related colon carcinogenesis in mice.dietary polyphenols are important potential chemopreventive natural agents. other agents, such as citrus compounds, are also candidates for cancer chemopreventives. they act on multiple key elements in signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and obesity. this short review article provides our findings of preclinical studies on potential chemopreventive activities of dietary citrus compounds, auraptene, collinin, and citrus unshiu ...200819003583
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