[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
[emmonsia crescencse emmons et jellison, 1960- a common cause of adiaspiromycosis in squirrels (sciurus vulgaris l.) in czechoslovakia]. 19761035789
the autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the tribec mountain range.small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. in order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the tribec region and adjacent parts of the hronský inovec mountains. the following mammals are discussed: ...19675298539
parapoxvirus infection of the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris). 19816275598
an investigation into the health and welfare of red squirrels, sciurus vulgaris, involved in reintroduction studies.the threats posed by parapoxvirus infection, metabolic bone disease and coccidiosis to the reintroduction of red squirrels into thetford chase were investigated by making blood biochemical, radiological and parasitological examinations on the squirrels before they were released and on resident squirrels. red squirrels found dead in thetford chase were examined post mortem by parasitological, electron microscopical and radiological techniques. parapoxvirus infection was the probable cause of deat ...19958578648
genetic structure of fragmented populations of red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) in the uk.the relationships among 207 squirrels from 12 locations in the uk and three in mainland europe were examined using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region sequence. twenty-six haplotypes were detected, many of which were population specific. eighty per cent of the populations analysed contained two or more haplotypes. hierarchical analysis of molecular variance showed the majority of genetic variation to be partitioned among populations. genetic diversity varied considerably within the uk, and ...199910703551
oral disease in free-living red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the united kingdom.ninety-one red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) found dead in the uk between january 1994 and august 1998 were necropsied at the institute of zoology (london, uk); their oral cavities were examined visually, and in eight cases, radiographically. four red squirrels, which had evidence of oral disease when necropsied as part of a mortality survey, also were examined. a low prevalence (prevalence = 0.033, se = 0.02, n = 91) of oral disease was found in free-living red squirrels. in only two cases was o ...200415362817
genomic characterization of a novel poxvirus contributing to the decline of the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) in the uk.the genome of a virulent squirrelpox virus (sqpv) isolate was characterized in order to determine its relationship with other poxviruses. restriction enzyme analysis suggested a genome length of approximately 158 kb, whilst sequence analysis of the two ends of the genome indicated a g + c composition of approximately 66 %. two contiguous stretches of 23 and 37 kb at the left-hand and right-hand ends of the genome, respectively, were sequenced allowing the identification of at least 59 genes cont ...200616847106
coevolution between crossbills and black pine: the importance of competitors, forest area and resource stability.studies of predator-prey interactions have found that geographically structured coevolution has played an important role in the adaptive diversification of crossbills (loxia spp.). we extend those studies by considering common crossbills (l. curvirostra) in the mediterranean where they rely on seeds in the cones of black pine (pinus nigra). on the continent, where tree squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) are present, enhanced defenses against crossbills were most evident in larger areas of pine forest. ...200919228273
[comparative study of the physico-chemical properties and chemical structure of the hemoglobin and myoglobin of sciurus vulgaris protein]. 19734709881
the role of small rodents and hedgehogs in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis.the role of small rodents and hedgehogs in the circulation of tick-borne encephalitis in natural foci in the tribec region of czechoslovakia has been studied. isolation of virus from the blood of apodemus flavicollis, clethrionomys glareolus and erinaceus roumanicus, as well as the demonstration of antibodies in the sera of these mammals and of a. sylvaticus, microtus arvalis and sciurus vulgaris, showed that these mammals had been in contact with the virus in recent years. the proportion of pos ...19675298543
[great degree of homology between the ancestral karyotype of squirrels (rodents) and that of primates and carnivores].the karyotype of 7 species of sciurinae representative of 6 tribes were compared: atlantoxerus getulus, menetes berdmorei, callosciurus flavimanus, heliosciurus gambianus, sciurus vulgaris, eutamias sibiricus, and marmota monax. homoeologies between almost all chromosome segments were found. numerous similarities with the karyotypes of certain primates and carnivora were observed. a presumed ancestral karyotype of the sciurinae is proposed.19846335365
campylobacter jejuni in the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) population of southern italy.rectal swab samples were collected from 60 red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) from july 2006 to april 2007 in southern italy. samples were tested for campylobacter jejuni and c. coli by culture methods and suspected colonies were then confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. c. jejuni was detected in 5/60 (8.3%) samples examined but infection status was not related to age or sex and c. coli was not isolated. this is believed to be the first report of c. jejuni infection in the red squirrel.200917980635
identification, using isoenzyme electrophoresis and monoclonal antibodies, of leishmania isolated from humans and wild animals of ecuador.six strains of leishmania isolated from wild mammals and humans on the pacific coast of ecuador were identified by isoenzyme electrophoresis and by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. single isolates from sciurus vulgaris, potos flavus, and tamandua tetradactyla were identified as leishmania amazonensis. three other strains, isolated from cutaneous lesions of humans, were identified as leishmania panamensis.19892919726
an immunohistochemical study of the gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine cells in the alimentary tract of the korean tree squirrel, sciurus vulgaris corea.the regional distribution and relative frequencies of gastrointestinal endocrine cells were studied immunohistochemically in the gastrointestinal mucosa of korean tree squirrels. seven kinds of endocrine cells were identified in this study. although a large number of 5-hydroxytryptamine-immunoreactive cells were seen throughout the gastrointestinal tract, they were most predominant in the duodenum. a moderate number of glucagon-immunoreactive cells which were restricted to the cardia and fundus ...19911821436
experimental infection of the squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and the muskrat (ondatra zibethica) with tahyna virus (california group, bunyaviridae).two squirrels aged 16 weeks and three muskrats aged 24 weeks were subcutaneously infected with a dose of 400 smicld50 of the extraneurally passaged "236" strain of tahyna virus. viremia was detected in one squirrel (48 and 96 hours post infection) and in two muskrats (24 and 48 hours p.i.). seroconversion was demonstrated by plaque-reduction neutralization test (prnt) 21 days p.i. in all animals.19873297950
experimental infection of squirrels sciurus vulgaris by monkey pox virus. 19892574948
natural infection with two genotypes of cryptosporidium in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in italy.we investigated the genotypes of cryptosporidium infecting red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris l.) in two areas of the western alps in italy. examination of 141 faecal samples from 70 red squirrels revealed oocysts of cryptosporidium in 17 animals (24.3%). based on 18s rrna gene sequencing, two genotypes of cryptosporidium species were found: 15 squirrels were positive for the cryptosporidium ferret genotype and 2 for the cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype i. the occurrence and intensity of cryptospo ...200818666411
[paranoplocephala longivaginata sp. n. (cyclophyllidea: anoplocephalidae)--a new cestode from rodents of the western siberia].a new species of anoplocephalidean cestode paranoplocephala longivaginata sp. n. from some rodents (clethrionomys rutilus, sciurus vulgaris) of the western siberia is described. the new species differs from formerly known species of the genus paranoplocephala by a structure of copulatory organs: the length of cirrus and the length of vagina exceed the length of genital bursa more than 1.5 times; the internal surface of the vagina is covered with hair-like bristles along all its length.19989813885
tahyna virus in squirrels/sciurus vulgaris l. 19666006819
[organization of the receptive fields of the superior colliculus neurons of the squirrel sciurus vulgaris].studies have been made on the reaction of single neurons of the superior colliculus to stationary and moving visual stimuli in immobilized squirrels. the main bulk of collicular units (59%) is not directionally selective, 11%--exhibit high directional selectivity and 30%--were found to be relatively selective. most of the cells (85%) "prefer" high speed of stimulus motion. optimal speed for these neurons is equal to 30--100 degree/sec. testing by a stationary light spot (0.5degree in diameter), ...1976941588
poxvirus identified in a red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) from spain. 201121257595
[chromosomal phylogeny of 7 species of sciurinae].the sequence of chromosomal rearrangements that leads to the karyotypes of living species of sciurinae is hardly compatible with a dichotomic evolution. the most probable hypothesis is that of a populational chromosomal evolution: the different lineages would have been isolated successively from an ancestral population in which several chromosomal rearrangements would have spread to more or less important fractions of the population. the proposed order in the succession of these isolations (marm ...19853874584
bone assessment of free-living red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) from the united kingdom.metabolic bone disease has been reported in free-living red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the united kingdom but the prevalence of this disease is unknown. in this study the bone quality of free-living red squirrels in the uk was assessed by radiology and bone densitometry. the study comprised 20 red squirrels found dead and submitted to the zoological society of london (uk) between 1997 and 1998, 10 were from the isle of wight (iow), where gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) are absent, and ...200415465719
[study of the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chains of the hemoglobin of sciurus vulgaris protein]. 19724662621
geographical distance and physical barriers shape the genetic structure of eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the italian squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) are widely distributed throughout eurasia, occurring in many types of coniferous and mixed-deciduous forests. in fragmented landscapes, small and partly isolated populations with low immigration rates show reduced genetic diversity, but reforestation can increase gene flow and restore levels of genetic variation in a few decades. no studies have so far investigated the genetic structure of red squirrel in large, continuous forests. the italian alps are presently ...200515660938
new world origins for haemoparasites infecting united kingdom grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in england and the united states.phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the old and new worlds. we characterized bartonella isolated from eastern grey squirrels (sciurius carolinensis) in the united states and from grey and red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the united kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (glta and groel). isolates from grey squirrels in the united states and the united kingdom were identical, and most similar to bartonella vinsonii, ...200212558350
epidemics of squirrelpox virus disease in red squirrels ( sciurus vulgaris): temporal and serological findings.squirrelpox virus (sqpv) causes a fatal disease in free-living red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) which has contributed to their decline in the united kingdom. given the difficulty of carrying out and funding experimental investigations on free-living wild mammals, data collected from closely monitored natural outbreaks of disease is crucial to our understanding of disease epidemiology. a conservation programme was initiated in the 1990s to bolster the population of red squirrels in the coniferous ...200918606024
detection of new babesia microti-like parasites in a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) with a suppressed plasmodium cynomolgi infection.a new type of piroplasm, phylogenetically closest to babesia microti-like parasites previously detected in eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris orientis), was identified in a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) imported from china. after challenge with plasmodium cynomolgi m strain blood-stage parasites, the rhesus monkey repeatedly showed markedly reduced levels of plasmodium parasitemia when compared with animals not infected with this organism.200818385363
rotavirus in a wild english red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) identified by electron microscopy. 201121821691
[fleas community in introduced siberian chipmunks (tamias sibiricus laxmann) in forest of sénart, france].we examined the fleas community in an introduced population of siberian chipmunks, tamias sibiricus, between 2005 and 2007, in the forest of sénart (essonne, france). we collected and identified 383 fleas on 463 chipmunks (total: 1,891 captures on 471 chipmunks). in 2005, 120 fleas were also collected on 65 bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus, and on 25 wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus, trapped within the same area. ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum formed 73.6% of the chipmunks' flea community, w ...200818416245
babesia microti-like parasites detected in eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris orientis) in hokkaido, japan.six eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris orientis), victims of road traffic found during 2002 and 2004 near the noppro forest park in ebetsu, hokkaido, japan, were examined for the presence of babesia parasites. three of the six squirrels exhibited positive signals by nested pcrs targeting both the 18s rrna and beta-tubulin genes. three squirrels proved to be infected with a b. microti-like parasite as evidenced by sequencing the amplified dnas and by the morphology of the intraerythrocytic ...200616891774
a novel poxvirus lethal to red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris).a parapoxvirus has been implicated in the decline of the red squirrel in the united kingdom. virus was isolated from an outbreak of lethal disease in red squirrels in the north-east of england. experimental infection of captive-bred red squirrels confirmed that this virus was the cause of the severe skin lesions observed. electron microscopic examination of the virus showed that it had a morphology typical of parapoxviruses whilst preliminary sequence data suggested a genomic g+c composition of ...200314645914
Squirrel adenovirus type 1 in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Germany. 201121697189
morphocytochemical analysis of neuron populations in the ganglion layer of the cerebellar cortex of birds and mammals living in similar habitats.the neuron populations in the ganglion layer of the cerebellar cortex of birds and mammals living in similar habitats, i.e., the common squirrel and the house sparrow (sciurus vulgaris and passer domesticus), living in an air/land habitat, and the swamp beaver (nutria) and domestic goose (myocastor coypus and anser domesticus), living in an earth-water habitat, were studied. morphocytochemical measures were assessed, i.e., the density of purkinje cells per unit gyrus length and their sizes, stai ...200516270169
squirrelpox virus: assessing prevalence, transmission and environmental squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) declined in great britain and ireland during the last century, due to habitat loss and the introduction of grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), which competitively exclude the red squirrel and act as a reservoir for squirrelpox virus (sqpv). the disease is generally fatal to red squirrels and their ecological replacement by grey squirrels is up to 25 times faster where the virus is present. we aimed to determine: (1) the seropositivity and prevalence of sqpv dn ...201424586845
effects of parasitism and morphology on squirrelpox virus seroprevalence in grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis).invasive species have been cited as major causes of population extinctions in several animal and plant classes worldwide. the north american grey squirrel (sciurus carolinensis) has a major detrimental effect on native red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) populations across britain and ireland, in part because it can be a reservoir host for the deadly squirrelpox virus (sqpv). whilst various researchers have investigated the epizootiology of sqpv disease in grey squirrels and have modelled the conseq ...201424416155
epidemiology of leishmaniasis in ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in ecuador by the ministry of health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. this article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a n ...200415654419
the geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and aleppo pine.the interactions between many species are structured in a geographic mosaic of populations among which selection is divergent. here we tested the hypothesis that such a geographic selection mosaic arises for common crossbills (loxia curvirostra) feeding on seeds in the cones of aleppo pine (pinus halepensis) because of geographic variation in the occurrence of european red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris). on the iberian peninsula, sciurus exerted directional selection favouring larger cones with la ...200515715841
prevalence of coccidia parasites (protozoa) in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris): effects of host phenotype and environmental factors.we investigated the relative importance of environmental factors versus host phenotype in determining parasite prevalence in eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris). one hundred and forty-three fecal samples of 116 different squirrels collected in 2000 and 2001 from five study areas in the italian alps, were examined for intestinal protozoans. two species of eimeria were present with a medium to high prevalence in both years and in all areas, while two other species were rare, occurring only i ...200312898385
relationship between borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) and ixodes ricinus in enzootic areas in switzerland.the infection and reservoir status of red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were studied in switzerland. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 15 skin samples from 4/6 dead red squirrels, victims of road traffic. isolates were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp): b. burgdorferi sensu stricto was present in 14 culture tubes containing skin samples and b. afzelii in two other tubes. a mixed infection was revealed in one case. a tota ...19989638274
red squirrels in the british isles are infected with leprosy bacilli.leprosy, caused by infection with mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the british isles. red squirrels in great britain (sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found m. lepromatosis in squirrels from england, ireland, and scotland, and m. leprae in squirrels from brownsea island, england. infection was detected in overt ...201627846605
hepatozoon species infection in wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) on the isle of wight.postmortem examinations of 49 red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) found dead on the isle of wight revealed the presence of a hepatozoon species in 18 of them (37 per cent). the prevalence of infection was highest in subadult animals and no juveniles were infected. the prevalence was higher in the squirrels dying from natural causes (nine of 12) than in squirrels killed in road accidents (seven of 27). the weight of infection varied, and there were heavy infections in squirrels dying from toxoplasmo ...200616905733
first report of eimeria lancasterensis in a red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris l.) in turkey.a case of coccidiosis in a young, red male squirrel (sciurus vulgaris l.) has been described in this report. the squirrel was found dead and presented to the department of pathology for necropsy. a traumatic lesion was observed on the face that could have caused death. at necropsy the large and small intestines were swollen due to fluid and gas. during the examination of gut content numerous coccidia oocysts were observed. after sporulation, the oocysts were identified as those of eimeria lancas ...200919851975
biodiversity threats from outside to inside: effects of alien grey squirrel (sciurus carolinensis) on helminth community of native red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris).biological invasions are among the major causes of biodiversity loss worldwide, and parasites carried or acquired by invaders may represent an added threat to native species. we compared gastrointestinal helminth communities of native eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the presence and absence of introduced eastern grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) to detect alterations induced by the alien species. in particular, we investigated whether spillover of a north american nematode stron ...201525877391
macroparasite community of the eurasian red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.the eurasian red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. we aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. we examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ...201323873618
poxvirus infection in an american red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonicus) from northwestern canada.there are two recognized poxviruses that are associated with disease in tree squirrels: squirrel fibroma virus (sqfv), leporipoxvirus, which affects eastern grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) in eastern north america, and squirrelpox virus (sqpv), a member of a newly identified poxvirus genus, which affects european red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the united kingdom. in august 2008, a cutaneous poxvirus-associated disease was identified in a north american red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudso ...200919901387
trace metal concentrations in squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and black rat (rattus muridae) inhabiting roadside ecosystem. 200111353372
causes of mortality and pathological lesions observed post-mortem in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in great britain.the red squirrel population in great britain has declined dramatically in recent decades, principally due to squirrelpox. concern exists that red squirrels may become extinct nationally and, as there has been limited research in to diseases other than squirrelpox, this study aimed to identify additional causes of mortality.201324238087
mortality in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) associated with exudative squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) found dead or dying on the isle of wight and the island of jersey were suffering from exudative, ulcerative dermatitis and superficial staphylococcal pyoderma. the principal gross lesions were on the lips, eyelids and feet and showed similarities to those of squirrelpox. the histopathological lesions were also similar and, although there was no ballooning degeneration of epidermal cells, intracytoplasmic inclusions resembling those seen in poxvirus infections wer ...201020622205
high prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the european red squirrel sciurus vulgaris in france.the european red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) has long been suspected to be a reservoir host of the agents of lyme borreliosis, in particular b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). however, very few data support this hypothesis. hereafter, we investigated the infections with b. burgdorferi genospecies in road-killed red squirrels collected across france. we also characterized the diversity of hard tick species collected from a subsample of hosts. dna of b. burgdorferi genospecies were detected and ...201424446554
loss of octarepeats in two processed prion pseudogenes in the red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris.the n-terminal region of the mammalian prion protein (prp) contains an 'octapeptide' repeat which is involved in copper binding. this eight- or nine-residue peptide is repeated four to seven times, depending on the species, and polymorphisms in repeat number do occur. alleles with three repeats are very rare in humans and goats, and deduced prp sequences with two repeats have only been reported in two lemur species and in the red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris. we here describe that the red squirrel ...201020878152
catenotaenia dendritica (cestoda: catenotaeniidae) and three ectoparasite species in the red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris, from cheongju, korea.parasites are recorded from the red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris, from cheongju, the republic of korea. a total of 5 road-killed squirrels were thoroughly examined for internal and external parasites from november 2011 to may 2014. total 4 parasite species, including 1 tapeworm and 3 ectoparasite species were recovered. they were morphologically identified as catenotaenia dendritica (cestoda: catenotaeniidae), hirstionyssus sciurinus, leptotrombidium pallidum, and ceratophyllus (monopsyllus) indag ...201627658604
fatal systemic toxoplasma gondii infection in a red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris), a swinhoe's striped squirrel (tamiops swinhoei) and a new world porcupine (erethizontidae sp.).toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease that affects man and animals worldwide. the primary hosts and major reservoir for toxoplasma gondii are felids and the intermediate hosts are most warm-blooded animals including man. this report describes fatal toxoplasmosis in three different rodent species in germany: a female red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and a male swinhoe's striped squirrel (tamiops swinhoei), both kept as pets, and a female new world porcupine (erethizontidae sp.) from a zoo. all thre ...201726987509
toxoplasma gondii in wild red squirrels, the netherlands, 2014. 201526583779
poxviral disease in red squirrels sciurus vulgaris in the uk: spatial and temporal trends of an emerging threat.the squirrel poxvirus (sqpv) is the probable mediator of apparent competition between the introduced invading gray squirrel (sciurus carolinensis) and the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) in the uk, and modeling studies have shown that this viral disease has had a significant impact on the decline of the red squirrel in the uk. however, given our limited understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, and more generally the effects of invasive species on parasite ecology, there is a need to inv ...200818923872
diversity and host specificity of coccidia (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) in native and introduced squirrel species.introduction of alien species into new areas can have detrimental effects on native ecosystems and impact the native species. the present study aims to identify coccidia infecting native and introduced squirrels in italy, to gain insight into possible transmission patterns and role of monoxenous coccidia in mediating the competition between alien and native hosts. we collected 540 faecal samples of native red squirrels, sciurus vulgaris, invasive alien grey squirrels, s. carolinensis, and introd ...201627268408
the kinematic consequences of locomotion on sloped arboreal substrates in a generalized (rattus norvegicus) and a specialized (sciurus vulgaris) rodent.small mammals must negotiate terrains that consist of numerous substrates that vary in diameter, surface structure, rigidity and orientation. most studies on mammals have focused on the effects of substrate diameter during horizontal locomotion, especially in small- to medium-sized primates and marsupials. locomotion across sloped arboreal substrates, however, is poorly understood. here, in order to determine which locomotor parameters a terrestrial mammal, the rat, and a tree-dwelling mammal, t ...201121753049
new data about the helminth fauna of the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris linnaeus, 1758) in belorussian polesie.the result of helminthological examination of 5 red squirrels in belorussian polesie during 2003-2012 is presented. two species of helminths were found: taenia martis (zeder, 1803) larvae and syphacia thompsoni price, 1928. the red squirrel for the first time established as host of cestode t. martis. the nematode s. thompsoni registered as syphacia sp. in this region between 1985 and 2000.201627876996
retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in great britain.transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) across great britain between 2000 and 2009. examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. in most cases, me ...201021262731
assessing the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern china.forest management often has cumulative, long-lasting effects on wildlife habitat suitability and the effects may be impractical to evaluate using landscape-scale field experiments. to understand such effects, we linked a spatially explicit landscape disturbance and succession model (landis) with habitat suitability index (hsi) models to assess the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern china. landis was applied to simulate future forest ...201020354853
comparative anatomy and systematic implications of the turbinal skeleton in lagomorpha (mammalia).in order to elucidate the systematic relevance of the turbinal skeleton in lagomorpha the ethmoidal regions of 6 ochotonid, 21 leporid, and 2 outgroup species (sciurus vulgaris, tupaia sp.) species were investigated by high-resolution computed tomography (μct). number and shape of turbinals correspond to major clades and to several genera. all lagomorpha under study have a deeply excavated nasoturbinal that is continuous with the lamina semicircularis; a feature likely to be an autapomorphy of l ...201425312363
epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, sciurus infectious disease caused by squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, sciurus vulgaris, in the british isles. because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, an ...201121441198
acute fatal toxoplasmosis in three eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) caused by genotype ii of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii parasites belonging to endemic genotype ii caused fatal infection in three (16%) of 19 eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) sent for necropsy in finland between may 2006 and april 2009. the liver, spleen, and lungs were the organs most affected in all three cases, and high numbers of t. gondii parasites were visualized immunohistochemically in all the tissue samples available from them. the genotyping of the parasite strains was based on the results of analysis of length p ...201222493121
spontaneous lipoprotein glomerulopathy-like nephropathy in a squirrel (sciurus vulgaris).lipoprotein glomerulopathy (lpg) is a rare human glomerular disease caused by abnormal lipid metabolism. naturally occurring lpg has not been reported in animals. we describe the histopathological characterization of spontaneous lpg-like nephropathy in a captive squirrel ( sciurus vulgaris ). macroscopically, swollen glomeruli were distinctively identified as fine white granules in the renal cortex. histologically, most glomeruli were markedly enlarged with distended capillaries containing faint ...201627468047
atypical histiocytosis in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris).four red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) were subjected to necropsy examination over a 3-year period as part of a broader surveillance study. the squirrels presented with cutaneous, subcutaneous and/or internal swellings and nodules that consisted microscopically of sheets of atypical round cells and multinucleated giant cells. there was moderate anisokaryosis with rare mitoses. nuclei ranged from oval to indented or c-shaped and some were bizarre, twisted or multilobulated. many giant cells also h ...201728320532
ljungan virus and an adenovirus in italian squirrel populations.we report ljungan virus infection in eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) for the first time, and extend the known distribution of adenoviruses in both native red squirrels and alien gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) to southern europe.201424484493
modern analyses on an historical data set: skull morphology of italian red squirrel populations.recent molecular evidence suggests that sciurus vulgaris populations from calabria (southern italy) are distinct from those occurring in northern and central italy. here, we re-analyzed using multivariate and univariate techniques an historical dataset provided by cavazza (1913), who documented measurements for the now extinct squirrel population from campania. both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that the sample from calabria was homogenous and relatively distinct compared to the ...201424478584
[morphological and cytochemical analysis of neuronal populations in the ganglion cell layer of the cerebellar cortex in birds and mammals living in similar habitats].neuron populations of ganglion cell layer of cerebellar cortex were studied in birds and mammals, which were living in similar habitats: air-land habitat (squirrel--sciurus vulgaris and sparrow--passer domesticus) and land-water habitat (nutria--myocastor coypus and goose--anser domesticus). the following morpho-cytochemical indices were analyzed: density of purkinje cell distribution per unit gyms length, area parameters, tinctorial properties, protein content of neuron populations of ganglion ...200415839246
mitochondrial genetic diversity of eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) from denmark.melanistic eurasian red squirrels sciurus vulgaris are commonly found on the danish island of funen. they are thought to represent native danish squirrel types and are presently under threat from admixture with introduced red squirrels. in response, a conservation program was started in 2009 that involves the translocation of melanistic squirrels from funen to the squirrel-free island of langeland. using mitochondrial dna of 101 historical and modern samples from throughout denmark, we assess fo ...201526519513
european red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface.infectious disease introduced by non-native species is increasingly cited as a facilitator of native population declines, but direct evidence may be lacking due to inadequate population and disease prevalence data surrounding an outbreak. previous indirect evidence and theoretical models support squirrelpox virus (sqpv) as being potentially involved in the decline of red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) following the introduction of the non-native gray squirrel (sciurus carolinensis) to the united k ...201425614793
[study of the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the myoglobin of the squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) and of the otter (lutra lutra)]. 20064790765
adenovirus particles from a wild red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) from northern ireland. 201222354657
novel host-related virulence factors are encoded by squirrelpox virus, the main causative agent of epidemic disease in red squirrels in the uk.squirrelpox virus (sqpv) shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in north american grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), in which the virus is endemic. however, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in eurasian red squirrels (s. vulgaris) in great britain, which are now threatened. here we report the genome sequence of sqpv. comparison with other poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed sqpv to be in a new chor ...201424983354
causes of red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) mortality in england. 201020852252
epidemiological and postmortem findings in 262 red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in scotland, 2005 to 2009.postmortem and virological examinations for squirrelpox virus (sqpv) were carried out on 262 red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) found dead or moribund in scotland between september 2005 and july 2009, to determine the likely causes of death and highlight factors that might be threats to the red squirrel population. most of the squirrels were submitted from dumfries and galloway, and 71 per cent of them were adults. road traffic accidents, squirrelpox, trauma or starvation were responsible for deat ...201020729517
adenovirus in a red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) from scotland. 201020675636
the use of diazacon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, sciurus carolinensis.the grey squirrel, sciurus carolinensis gmelin, is an invasive alien species introduced into great britain in the late nineteenth century and into northern italy during the early twentieth century. grey squirrels have displaced the native european red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris l., throughout much of great britain and have a significant impact on trees and woodlands through bark-stripping activity. in britain, eradication is no longer an option at a regional scale, but fertility control offers a ...201322791583
feeding of grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) with the contraceptive agent diazacon™: effect on cholesterol, hematology, and blood chemistry.grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) are an invasive species in britain and italy. they have replaced native red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) throughout most of britain, and cause damage to trees. currently, lethal control is used to manage grey squirrel populations in britain, but nonlethal methods might be more acceptable to the public. one such method is contraception with 20,25-diazacholesterol dihydrochloride (diazacon™). diazacon™ inhibits the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol, res ...201122182332
phylogenetic relationships among japanese species of the family sciuridae (mammalia, rodentia), inferred from nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 12s ribosomal rna order to investigate phylogenetic relationships of the family sciuridae living in japan, we sequenced partial regions (379 bases) of mitochondrial 12s rrna genes in six species of japanese and other asian squirrels. phylogenetic trees constructed by sequence data indicated that two genera of flying squirrels (petaurista and pteromys) were clustered in a group distinct from non-flying squirrels, suggesting a possible monophyletic relationships of these flying squirrels. the evolutionary distan ...19968940915
[effects of different forest management alternatives on sciurus vulgaris habitat].a spatially explicit landscape model landis was applied to simulate the forest landscape changes under four management alternatives (no cutting, clear cutting, selective cutting i and ii) in youhao forestry bureau located in small xing' an mountain from 2000 to 2200. the outcomes from landis were combined with a landscape-level habitat suitability index (hsi) model in a gis environment to assess sciurus vulgaris habitat quality. the results showed that the increase of suitable habitat area and t ...200818655576
enteric adenovirus infection in a red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris). 200717369486
helminth fauna of the red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris linnaeus, 1758) in belorussian polesie. 200212375168
eurasian red squirrels show little seasonal variation in metabolism in food-enriched expenditure and ambient temperature (ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. while the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. to explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of eurasian red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. in e ...201729048992
berlin squirrelpox virus, a new poxvirus in red squirrels, berlin, germany.near berlin, germany, several juvenile red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) were found with moist, crusty skin lesions. histology, electron microscopy, and cell culture isolation revealed an orthopoxvirus-like infection. subsequent pcr and genome analysis identified a new poxvirus (berlin squirrelpox virus) that could not be assigned to any known poxvirus genera.201728930029
effects of visitor numbers on captive european red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) and impacts on visitor experience.visitors to zoological collections can have substantial effects on captive animals that vary according to species, enclosure design, visitor proximity, and husbandry methods. one particularly intense form of visitor interaction occurs in immersive exhibits such as walk-through enclosures. such enclosures are increasingly common but effects on animal behavior are currently understudied. here, the behavior of captive european red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) is studied in relation to visitor numbe ...201728221674
[functional characteristics of the binocular sector neurones of the squirrel sciurus vulgaris striate cortex]. 200610198997
effects of temporal and spatial variation in habitat quality on red squirrel dispersal behaviourimmigration patterns and the frequency of breeding dispersal in tree squirrels are predicted to be related to the amount of temporal and spatial variation in tree seed crops, their primary food supply. we studied eurasian red squirrel, sciurus vulgarisdispersal patterns in a stable habitat with predictable food supply and a variable habitat with large temporal and spatial variations in food availability. in both habitats, we observed a male-biased immigration in spring and a female-biased immigr ...19979268475
fitness consequences of hoarding behaviour in the eurasian red squirrel.hoarding increases food availability during periods of scarcity, and therefore should enhance fitness. although short-term advantages of hoarding have been described for birds, effects over an animal's lifetime have not yet been documented. here, we report that in the red squirrel, sciurus vulgaris, individuals which recovered many cached tree seeds increased their body mass and were more likely to survive the spring breeding season than those that recovered fewer seeds. there was no significant ...19958587886
habitat area and structure affect the impact of seed predators and the potential for coevolutionary arms races.both habitat patch size and structure affect the abundance and occurrence of species and thereby can affect the ecology and evolution of species interactions. here we contrast the level of seed predation and selection exerted by common crossbills (loxia curvirostra complex) and red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in the extensive mountain pine (pinus uncinata) forests in the pyrenees with their level of seed predation in two small, isolated forests. crossbills consumed 5.1 times more seeds in the p ...201020426338
host-pathogen dynamics of squirrelpox virus infection in red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris).to improve our understanding of squirrelpox virus (sqpv) infection in the susceptible host, three red squirrels were challenged with wild-type sqpv via scarification of the hind-limb skin. all squirrels seroconverted to the infection by the end of the experiment (17 days post-challenge). challenged animals suffered disease characterised by the development of multiple skin and oral lesions with rapid progression of skin lesions at the infection site by day 10 post-challenge. no internal pathologi ...201626711024
melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r) gene sequence variation and melanism in the gray (sciurus carolinensis), fox (sciurus niger), and red (sciurus vulgaris) squirrel.sequence variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (mc1r) gene are associated with melanism in many different species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. the gray squirrel (sciurus carolinensis), found in the british isles, was introduced from north america in the late 19th century. melanism in the british gray squirrel is associated with a 24-bp deletion in the mc1r. to investigate the origin of this mutation, we sequenced the mc1r of 95 individuals including 44 melanic gray squirrels from both th ...201424534267
nutritional osteodystrophy in a free-living red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris). 1977836605
[the locomotor activity of the squirrel (sciurus vulgaris)].the locomotor activity of sciurus vulgaris has been observed in the field and in caged animals.onset and cessation of activity (data from the cage only): activity starts before sunrise and correlation with sunrise is very high (0.838≤r≤0.990). cessation of activity normally lies before sunset, during summer late in the afternoon, in winter often already before noon. it is scatterd to a greater extent than onset of activity, correlation with sunset being 0.535≤r ≤0.798.daily pattern: it is a bige ...197528308935
[research progress on molecular ecology of sciurus vulgaris].today, the main threats for sciurus vulgaris are illegal hunting, deforestation, and subsequent population fragmentation, combined with interspecific competition from s. carolinensis in some regions of europe, which has led to a sharp reduction in the number of population. s. vulgaris has been listed as near threatened iucn red list and included in key protected wild animals in jilin province, china. the molecular ecology of s. vulgaris is developing rapidly with the rapid development of molecul ...201526211081
asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (sciurus vulgaris).asymmetry in motor patterns is present in a wide variety of animals. many lateralized behaviors seem to depend on brain asymmetry, as it is the case of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris). red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. we aimed to ...201525714614
complete mitochondrial genome sequence of marmota himalayana (rodentia: sciuridae) and phylogenetic analysis within rodentia.this is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from himalayan marmot (marmota himalayana, class marmota). we determined the m. himalayana mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence by using long-pcr methods and a primer-walking sequencing strategy with genus-specific primers. the complete mt genome of m. himalayana was 16,443 bp in length and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rna (rrna) genes, 22 transfer rna (trna) genes, and a typical control region (cr). gene order ...201424782088
[demonstration of enamel structure and of v. korff's dentin on a total preparation on rodent incisors (sciurus vulgaris)]. 19685718923
[hyperinfestation of squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) by an anoplure, neohematopinus sciuri jancke, 1931]. 20035950217
[reproduction and endocrine cycles in squirrels (sciurus vulgaris)]. 19666006496
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