photosynthesis by rapidly expanding green strobili of pinus resinosa. 19705452529
lb-aut7, a novel symbiosis-regulated gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, laccaria bicolor, is functionally related to vesicular transport and autophagocytosis.we have identified lb-aut7, a gene differentially expressed 6 h after ectomycorrhizal interaction between laccaria bicolor and pinus resinosa. lb-aut7p can functionally complement its saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, which is involved in the attachment of autophagosomes to microtubules. our findings suggest the induction of an autophagocytosis-like vesicular transport process during ectomycorrhizal interaction.199910074098
rapid expansion of microsatellite sequences in pines.microsatellite persistence time and evolutionary change was studied among five species of pines, which included a pair of closely related species (pinus sylvestris and pinus resinosa) in the subgenus pinus, their relative pinus radiata, and another closely related species pair (pinus strobus and pinus lambertiana) in the subgenus strobus. the effective population sizes of these species are known to have ranged from the very small bottlenecks of p. resinosa to vast populations of p. sylvestris. t ...200010677848
geographic pattern of genetic variation in pinus resinosa: area of greatest diversity is not the origin of postglacial populations.genetic diversity is low in natural populations of red pine, pinus resinosa, a species that has a vast range across north-eastern north america. in this study, we examined 10 chloroplast microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (cpssr) loci in 136 individuals from 10 widespread populations. substantial variation for the cpssr loci was observed in the study populations. the contrast with red pine's lack of variation for other types of loci is likely to be due to the higher mutation rates typical ...200111251791
coniferyl alcohol metabolism in conifers -- ii. coniferyl alcohol and dihydroconiferyl alcohol biosynthesis.coniferaldehyde and nadph when incubated with microsomes isolated from developing xylem of pinus strobus yielded coniferyl alcohol and dihydroconiferyl alcohol in vitro. d-(+)-pinitol was also found to be a microsomal constituent. endogenous e-coniferyl alcohol content, quantified in dormant buds, cambium, bark and needles of pinus resinosa and p. strobus by isotope-dilution combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gc/ms) using ring-(13)c(6)-coniferyl alcohol, was at a level similar to tha ...200111430982
identification and characterization of rapd markers inferring genetic relationships among pine genomic dnas were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. genetic relationships among eight pine species (pinus sylvestris, pinus strobus, pinus rigida, pinus resinosa, pinus nigra, pinus contorta, pinus monticola, and pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. the degree of band s ...200211908668
field measurements of root respiration indicate little to no seasonal temperature acclimation for sugar maple and red pine.increasing global temperatures could potentially cause large increases in root respiration and associated soil co2 efflux. however, if root respiration acclimates to higher temperatures, increases in soil co2 efflux from this source would be much less. throughout the snow-free season, we measured fine root respiration in the field at ambient soil temperature in a sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh.) forest and a red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) plantation in michigan. the objectives were to determi ...200312566263
a novel sex-specific and inducible monoterpene synthase activity associated with a pine bark beetle, the pine engraver, ips pini.ecological interactions of conifers and coniferophagous bark beetles are determined in part by terpenoids (isoprenoids), which are major defense metabolites of conifer oleoresin. curiously, similar compounds are important aggregation pheromones of conifer-attacking bark beetles. terpene synthases are responsible for generating the enormous variety of terpenoid carbon skeletons found in nature. these catalysts convert short-chain prenyl diphosphates to a diverse assortment of hemiterpene, monoter ...200312712251
comparison of selection methods for optimizing genetic gain and gene diversity in a red pine ( pinus resinosa ait.) seedling seed orchard.four selection methods, individual selection (is), family selection (fs), family plus within-family selection (fwfs) and combined selection (cs), were used to estimate genetic gain [ e( g)] for stem volume and gene diversity ( gd) for ten theoretical selection intensities in a 108-family, 12-year-old red pine seedling seed orchard. estimated genetic gain for stem volume ranged from 4.6% to 11.8% across all selection methods and intensities with cs consistently having the highest gains and fs the ...200312838390
composition of gum turpentines of pines. xv. a report on pinus resinosa and pinus reflexa. 195213022429
synthesis of shikimic acid-c-14 in pinus resinosa, ait. from some c-14-labelled compounds. 196314002677
belowground carbon allocation in unfertilized and fertilized red pine plantations in northern wisconsin.we estimated carbon allocation to belowground processes in unfertilized and fertilized red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) plantations in northern wisconsin to determine how soil fertility affects belowground allocation patterns. we used soil co(2) efflux and litterfall measurements to estimate total belowground carbon allocation (root production and root respiration) by the carbon balance method, established root-free trenched plots to examine treatment effects on microbial respiration, estimated fi ...199514965955
steady-state nutrition of pinus resinosa seedlings: response to nutrient loading, irrigation and hardening test effects of fertilization on late-season growth and nutrient content of container-grown red pine (pinus resinosa ait.), seedlings were subjected to a factorial combination of two fertilization regimes (exponentially increasing concentrations providing 25 (1n) and 75 (3n) mg n seedling(-1), respectively) and two irrigation regimes (well-watered and water-stressed) followed by drought-hardening or nonhardening. the fertilization treatments gave rise to steady-state nutrition in the seedling ...199414967607
canopy dynamics and aboveground production of five tree species with different leaf longevities.canopy dynamics and aboveground net primary production (anpp) were studied in replicated monospecific and dual-species plantations comprised of species with different leaf longevities. in the monospecific plantations, leaf longevity averaged 5, 6, 36, 46 and 66 months for quercus rubra l., larix decidua miller, pinus strobus l., pinus resinosa ait. and picea abies (l.) karst., respectively. specific leaf area, maximum net photosynthesis per unit mass (a/mass), leaf n per unit mass (n(leaf)/mass) ...199314969905
seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of pinus nigra and pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) and austrian pine (pinus nigra arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. during most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. the electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. to obtain a relia ...199214969949
estimation of leaf area index in fourteen southern wisconsin forest stands using a portable radiometer.projected leaf area index (lai) and beer-lambert law extinction coefficients (k) were estimated for 28-year-old picea abies (l.) karst., larix decidua mill., pinus resinosa ait., and pinus strobus l. plantations using vertical profile data obtained with a portable integrating radiometer (sunfleck ceptometer). predicted lai values were compared with direct measures of lai. based on dimensional analysis, lai ranged from 5.0 for larix decidua to 10.5 for picea abies. significant inverse relationshi ...199014972910
detection and physical mapping of the 18s-5.8s-26s rdna and the pkfj660 probe with microsatellite sequences derived from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) in conifer species.sequences homologous to the pkfj660 probe, a fragment of dna derived from the rice blast fungus (magnaporthe grisea) carrying tc/ag repeat microsatellite sequences and 30 bp direct repeats were identified in the genome of picea (spruce) and pinus (pine) species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) and slot blot analyses. slot blot analysis using the pkfj660 probe revealed hybridization signals with genomic dnas from various pine and spruce species. further analyses indicated that the cop ...200415032949
changes in freezing tolerance, plasma membrane h+-atpase activity and fatty acid composition in pinus resinosa needles during cold acclimation and has previously been suggested that plasma membrane atpase (pm h+-atpase, ec is a site of incipient freezing injury because activity increases following cold acclimation and there are published data indicating that activity of pm h+-atpase is modulated by changes in lipids associated with the enzyme. to test and extend these findings in a tree species, we analyzed pm h+-atpase activity and the fatty acid (fa) composition of glycerolipids in purified plasma membranes (pms) prepared by ...200616510394
biological processing of pine logs for pulp and paper production with phlebiopsis gigantea.phlebiopsis gigantea (=phanerochaete gigantea) is a white rot fungus that rapidly colonizes cut stumps, stems, and branches of pine. two laboratory and several field studies showed that inoculation of red pine logs, pinus resinosa, with p. gigantea reduced the pitch content of wood, facilitated bark removal, modified wood cells, and controlled detrimental sapstain. isolations from inoculated logs revealed up to 100 and 80% colonization of the sapwood by p. gigantea after 8 weeks in the field and ...199716535609
phosphorus distribution in red pine roots and the ectomycorrhizal fungus hebeloma pines (pinus resinosa ait.) were grown in a pasteurized sandy loam either unamended with phosphate or fertilized with one of two levels of phosphate (34 or 136 mg/kg) as superphosphate, and with and without addition of hebeloma arenosa inoculum. shoot and total dry weights of mycorrhizal seedlings grown in soil unamended with p were greater than those for nonmycorrhizal seedlings grown in the same soil, but less than the dry weights of seedlings grown in soil amended with middle to high leve ...199216653050
effects of changing stomatal width in a red pine forest on soil water content, leaf water potential, bole diameter, and growth.spraying a 16 meter tall stand of red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) with 10(-3)m phenylmercuric acetate in early june and again in mid-july resulted in the water use between june 1 and october 25 being reduced by almost 10%. it was demonstrated that this was caused by an increase in the leaf resistance with partial stomatal closure, which reduced absolute water potential in the needles by 1 to 3 bars in the middle of the day. smaller demands were made upon the reserves of water in the bole of the t ...196816656870
seasonal course of photosynthesis, respiration, and distribution of c in young pinus resinosa trees as related to wood formation.rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and distribution of (14)c were determined for new (current season's) and old (previous season's) needles at 10 times during the seasonal development of young pinus resinosa ait. trees. the seasonal changes in these factors associated with the development of the new shoot were related to known seasonal patterns of wood photosynthesis per gram of needle dry weight (photosynthetic efficiency) was maximum in the old needles at the time ...196816656946
changes in nucleic acid fractions of seed components of red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) during germination.changes in nucleic acid fractions of pinus resinosa during seed germination were studied. at various stages of seed germination, embryos and megagametophytes were surgically separated and nucleic acids were extracted separately by a phenol-method. total nucleic acids were fractionated on single-layer methylated albumin kieselguhr (mak) columns. total nucleic acids in embryos increased significantly 2 days after seeds were moistened, whereas, in megagametophytes, total nucleic acids stayed almost ...196916657263
mobilization and incorporation of photoassimilated c by growing vegetative and reproductive tissues of adult pinus resinosa ait. trees.variations in translocation and incorporation of (14)c-labeled photosynthate in actively growing vegetative and reproductive tissues of 20-year-old pinus resinosa trees with time were investigated. five hours after exposure of 1-year-old needles on second order branches to (14)co(2), 90% of the recoverable activity was still in the needles. the 1-year-old bark showed a small amount of activity, but terminal sinks had accumulated little (14)c. after 24 hours, activity in the 1-year-old needles de ...197016657314
cadmium uptake by pinus resinosa ait. pollen and the effect on cation release and membrane permeability.cadmium uptake by red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) pollen from a graded series of cd(2+) solutions (0 to 2.88 microequivalents per 50 milligrams pollen) and its effect on membrane integrity were examined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. uptake was strongly dependent on cd(2+) concentration and was limited to adsorption and cation exchange in pollen walls during a 3-hour measurement period. good correlation between measured cd(2+) uptake and that predicted by the langmuir and freundlich isotherm ...197916660967
ethylene, ethane, acetaldehyde, and ethanol production by plants under pine (pinus resinosa ait.) and paper birch (betula papyrifera marsh.) seedlings exposed to sulfur dioxide produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, and exhibited increased production of ethylene and ethane. gas chromatographic measurement of head space gas from incubation tubes containing leaves or seedlings was a simple method of simultaneously measuring all four compounds. increased ethylene production had two phases, a moderate increase from the beginning of the stress period and a large increas ...198216662306
quantifying apoplastic flux through red pine root systems using trisodium, 3-hydroxy-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulfonate.the fluorescent compound trisodium, 3-hydroxy-5,8,10-pyrenetrisulfonate (pts) was used to quantify the apoplastic flux through red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) root systems-that portion of the total water flux reaching the xylem without ever crossing a semipermeable membrane. flow was induced by pressure through detopped root systems, and by transpiration through intact seedlings. apoplastic flux was determined by multiplying total flux by the ratio of pts concentration in the xylem exudate to pts ...198516664010
interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.we investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (e (c)) and per unit leaf area (e (l)) across seven tree species in northern wisconsin over two years. these species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. three species, wetland balsam fir (abies balsame ...200717169902
on temporal partitioning of a community of ectomycorrhizal fungi.several mechanisms may contribute to the high species richness often reported in ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungal communities, including spatial and temporal partitioning. here, we focus on temporal partitioning. using molecular methods, we determined the frequencies of occurrence of ecm fungal species detected as hyphae and ecm roots in the forest floor of a pinus resinosa plantation during a 13-month period. we then used a novel statistical procedure to place the most frequently occurring ecm fung ...200717388904
use of indigenous rubidium to trace potassium fertilizer in the pinus resinosa ecosystem. 197817752465
use of indigenous rubidium to trace potassium fertilizer in the pinus resinosa ecosystem. 197817752466
conservation of potassium in the pinus resinosa ecosystem.rubidium-potassium ratios were determined on foliage, litter, and surface soils of plots in two plantations of pinus resinosa 41 to 46 years old previously fertilized once with potassium. calculations based on indigenous soil rubidium as the "tagging" ion demonstrate that after 9 years some 60 percent of the foliage potassium is still derived from the fertilizer, and after 23 years about 40 percent of the foliage potassium is derived from the fertilizer. additional fertilizer potassium is presen ...197717755363
isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the wood of pinus resinosa.methanol extracts of wood from pinus resinosa were found to be selectively cytotoxic against human lung carcinoma cells, a549 (ic50 41 +/- 6 microg/ml), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, dld-1 (ic50 47 +/- 4 microg/ml) in comparison with healthy cells, ws1 (ic50 130 +/- 11 microg/ml). five known compounds were isolated and identified by 1h, 13c nmrspectroscopy and hr-esi-ms mass spectrometry as, pinosylvin monomethyl ether (1), pinosylvin (2), pinosylvin dimethyl ether (3), pinobanksin (4) ...200818389469
effects of moderate water stress on disease development by sphaeropsis sapinea on red pine.abstract the aggressiveness of sphaeropsis sapinea isolates was compared on water-stressed and nonstressed 3-year-old red pines (pinus resinosa) in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. water was withheld from stressed seedlings to achieve mean predawn needle water potentials (psi(pd)) above -1.9 mpa. the lowest mean psi(pd) of well-watered seedlings was maintained at or above -0.8 mpa. young shoots were inoculated by placing colonized agar plugs on wounds made by removing a needle fascicle ...199718945121
two new species of aphelenchoididae (nemata) from declining red pines in maryland.aphelenchoides resinosi n. sp. and ektaphelenchus joyceae n. sp. are described and illustrated from red pines of the allegheny plateau of maryland, usa. the new species were found in trees infested with bursaphelenchus xylophilus. primary diagnostic characters of a. resinosi females are constriction of the head, basal stylet knobs, tong postuterine sac, two incisures in the lateral field, and conical tail four to five anal body widths long with a simple terminal mucro. diagnostic characters of t ...199519277282
pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, associated with red pine, pinus resinosa, in western pines pinus resinosa in garrett and allegany counties, maryland, were examined during 1982-84 to determine distribution of the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, within and among trees. approximately 25-year-old (younger) and 47-year-old (older) trees were subdivided into the following categories: 1) trees with mostly green needles; 2) trees with mostly reddish-brown needles; 3) trees lacking needles but with bark intact; 4) trees lacking both needles and bark; and 5) trees with ...198619294229
wood {delta}13c, {delta}18o and radial growth responses of residual red pine to variable retention harvesting.variable retention harvests are used to enhance the development of structural complexity in managed forests by retaining living trees and other structural legacies from the pre-harvest ecosystem. while harvesting should increase resource availability to residual trees, greater crown exposure may also increase environmental stress, which makes it difficult to predict growth in different structural environments. we used stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)c) of annual rings from red pine trees ...201020038504
[effects of soil acidity on pinus resinosa seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].red pine (pinus resinosa) is one of the most important tree species for timber plantation in north america, and preliminary success has been achieved in its introduction to the mountainous area of northeast china since 2004. in order to expand its growth area in other parts of northeast china, a pot experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of this tree species to varying soil acidity. p. resinosa seedlings were grown in soils with different acidity (ph = 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0) to ...200920353055
forest restoration in a mixed-ownership landscape under climate change.the extent to which current landscapes deviate from the historical range of natural variability (rnv) is a common means of defining and ranking regional conservation targets. however, climate-induced shifts in forest composition may render obsolete restoration strategies and conservation targets based on historic climate conditions and disturbance regimes. we used a spatially explicit forest ecosystem model, landis-ii, to simulate the interaction of climate change and forest management in northe ...201020405791
thinning pine plantations to reestablish oak openings species in northwestern ohio.globally the area in forest plantations is rising by 2% annually, increasing the importance of plantations for production of human goods and services and for ecological functions such as carbon storage and biodiversity conservation. specifically in the great lakes states and provinces of midwestern north america, thousands of hectares of pine plantations were established in the early and mid-1900s to revegetate abandoned agricultural fields that had replaced mixed-species forests and oak-prairie ...201020680628
northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, ontario, canada.climate change is expected to promote migration of species. in ecotones, areas of ecological tension, disturbances may provide opportunities for some migrating species to establish in otherwise competitive environments. the size of and time since disturbance may determine the establishment ability of these species. we investigated gap dynamics of an old-growth red pine (pinus resinosa sol. ex aiton) forest in the great lakes-st. lawrence forest in northern ontario, canada, a transition zone betw ...201020859751
plant canopy gap-size analysis theory for improving optical measurements of leaf-area index.optical instruments currently available for measuring the leaf-area index (lai) of a plant canopy all utilize only the canopy gap-fraction information. these instruments include the li-cor lai-2000 plant canopy analyzer, decagon, and demon. the advantages of utilizing both the canopy gap-fraction and gap-size information are shown. for the purpose of measuring the canopy gap size, a prototype sunfleck-lai instrument named tracing radiation and architecture of canopies (trac), has been developed ...199521060464
a comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. the tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [tsuga ssp], western red cedar (thuja plicata), red oak [quercus rubra], douglas fir [pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [pinus resinosa], and tamarack [larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [cca], creosote, al ...201121222116
can ectomycorrhizal colonization of pinus resinosa roots affect their decomposition?in many forest ecosystems, fine root litter comprises a large pool of organic carbon and nutrients. in temperate climates ectomycorrhizal fungi colonize the roots of many forest plant species. if ectomycorrhizal colonization influenced root decomposition, it could significantly influence carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. fungal tissues and fine roots may decompose at different rates and, therefore, ectomycorrhizal colonization may either hasten or retard root decomposition. unfortunatel ...201121418224
an autoregulatory feedback loop involving pap1 and tas4 in response to sugars in arabidopsis.mir828 in arabidopsis triggers the cleavage of trans-acting sirna gene 4 (tas4) transcripts and production of small interfering rnas (ta-sirnas). one sirna, tas4-sirna81(-), targets a set of myb transcription factors including pap1, pap2, and myb113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. interestingly, mir828 also targets myb113, suggesting a close relationship between these mybs, mir828, and tas4, but their evolutionary origins are unknown. we found that pap1, pap2, and tas4 expre ...201121533841
geographic pattern of genetic diversity in pinus resinosa: contact zone between descendants of glacial refugia.although red pine (pinus resinosa) generally has low or completely lacks variation for molecular markers, some variation is observed for chloroplast microsatellites (cpssrs). we sampled and examined 10 cpssrs for 19 populations. analysis of these populations plus 10 previously studied populations shows that the geographic distribution of genetic diversity over the range of p. resinosa is markedly nonuniform. although the pattern exhibits little isolation by distance, there is a region centered i ...200521652388
microsatellite analysis reveals genetically distinct populations of red pine (pinus resinosa, pinaceae).red pine (pinus resinosa ait.) is an ecologically and economically important forest tree species of northeastern north america and is considered one of the most genetically depauperate conifer species in the region. we have isolated and characterized 13 nuclear microsatellite loci by screening a partial genomic library with di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeat oligonucleotide probes. in an analysis of over 500 individuals representing 17 red pine populations from manitoba through newfoundland, ...200521652464
common mortality factors of woodwasp larvae in three northeastern united states host species.very little is presently known about the natural enemies and mortality factors associated with siricids (hymenoptera: siricidae) in the united states of america (usa), especially those that may directly affect the woodwasp, sirex noctilio fabricius (hymenoptera: siricidae). s. noctilio is an invasive woodwasp, is considered a major economic pest of pine, and has a severe effect on north american pine species planted in the southern hemisphere. the mortality factors of siricid larvae were determi ...201223421560
arboreal insects associated with herbicide-stressed pinus resinosa and pinus sylvestris used as sirex noctilio trap trees in new september of 2004, sirex noctilio f. (hymenoptera: siricidae) was detected in new york state and later found to be established over a larger area, including parts of southeastern canada and the northeastern united states. a key component of s. noctilio detection and management plans in other parts of the world where s. noctilio has become established are chemically girdled trap trees. trap tree usage in north america is confounded by the presence of diverse communities of organisms that inhab ...201223321081
microbial symbionts shape the sterol profile of the xylem-feeding woodwasp, sirex noctilio.the symbiotic fungus amylostereum areolatum is essential for growth and development of larvae of the invasive woodwasp, sirex noctilio. in the nutrient poor xylem of pine trees, upon which sirex feeds, it is unknown whether amylostereum facilitates survival directly through consumption (mycetophagy) and/or indirectly through digestion of recalcitrant plant polymers (external rumen hypothesis). we tested these alternative hypotheses for amylostereum involvement in sirex foraging using the innate ...201323224570
antioxidant potential of bark extracts from boreal forest conifers.the bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by native americans to treat various ailments and diseases. some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ros) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. in this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by native americans i ...201326784337
bottom-up meets top-down: leaf litter inputs influence predator-prey interactions in wetlands.while the common conceptual role of resource subsidies is one of bottom-up nutrient and energy supply, inputs can also alter the structural complexity of environments. this can further impact resource flow by providing refuge for prey and decreasing predation rates. however, the direct influence of different organic subsidies on predator-prey dynamics is rarely examined. in forested wetlands, leaf litter inputs are a dominant energy and nutrient resource and they can also increase benthic surfac ...201323386045
contrasting patterns of diterpene acid induction by red pine and white spruce to simulated bark beetle attack, and interspecific differences in sensitivity among fungal associates.conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. these defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. we assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (picea glauca) and red pine (pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of f ...201526003180
cross-attraction between two species of matsucoccus : extraction, bioassay, and isolation of the sex laboratory bioassays, males of matsucoccus resinosae from pinus resinosa in new york and matsucoccus n. sp. from pinus thunbergiana in korea were strongly attracted to crude hexane extracts of m. resinosae females, and m. resinosae males responded strongly to extracts of matsucoccus n. sp. females. males of the two species responded similarly to gas chromatographic fractions and subfractions of a pentane extract of m. resinosae females. sex pheromones of these two species appear to be the sam ...198624306902
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