non-reproductive copulation behavior among tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at huangshan, china.non-reproductive copulation, which takes place outside of the mating season and does not result in conception and birth, was studied in a free-ranging group of tibetan monkeys (macaca thibetana) at mt. huangshan, china, in the birth seasons of 1992 and 1997. we employed all occurrence and focal animal samplings to record sexual and related behaviors and affiliation interactions, respectively. compared with sexual behavior in mating season, non-reproductive copulation occurred at a lower frequenc ...200717024512
the complete mitochondrial genome of macaca thibetana and a novel nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene.the complete mitochondrial genome of macaca thibetana was determined by the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (la-pcr) and primer walking sequencing methods. it is 16,540 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes, two ribosomal rna genes and one control region. most codon usage followed the typical pattern of vertebrates. two rare start codons were found, in which gtg initiated the nadh dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nd1) gene and the atp8 gene, and att initiated the nd2 ...200919013508
[comparisons of aggressive behavior for tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) to tourists from mt. huangshan, china].to investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (macaca thibetana) and tourists at mt. huangshan in two periods (nov.-dec.2008 and apr.-may 2009). after we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.o ...201020740706
seasonal variation and synchronization of sexual behaviors in free-ranging male tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at huangshan, china.although seasonal breeding has been documented in many non-human primates, it is not clear whether sexual behaviors show seasonal variation among male individuals. to test this hypothesis, the focal animal sampling method and continuous recording were used to investigate seasonal variation and synchronization of sexual behaviors in five male tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at mt. huangshan from oct 2005 to sept 2006. both copulatory and sexually motivated behaviors (i.e., sexual chase, grima ...201020979253
collective movement in the tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana): early joiners write the rule of the game.collective behavior has recently attracted a great deal of interest in both natural and social sciences. while the role of leadership has been closely scrutinized, the rules used by joiners in collective decision making have received far less attention. two main hypotheses have been proposed concerning these rules: mimetism and quorum. mimetism predicts that individuals are increasingly likely to join collective behavior as the number of participants increases. it can be further divided into sel ...201525992882
comparative analysis of genotypic diversity in entamoeba nuttalli isolates from tibetan macaques and rhesus macaques in china.we have recently demonstrated the potentially virulent species entamoeba nuttalli as one of the highly prevalent parasites in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) in mount long-hu and gui-yang in china. tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) is a unique species living in china. to evaluate the prevalence of entamoeba species in wild tibetan macaques, we obtained 89 stool samples in mount e-mei of si-chuan province in china. pcr analysis detected e. nuttalli, entamoeba coli, and entamoeba polecki st2 in ...201626723919
male tibetan macaques'(macaca thibetana) choice of infant bridging male tibetan (macaca thibetana), barbary (m. sylvanus), and stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides) engage in bridging, a ritualized infant-handling behavior. previous researchers found a bias toward the use of male infants for this behavior, but its function is debated. explanations include three hypotheses: paternal care, mating effort, and agonistic buffering. we studied a group of habituated, provisioned tibetan macaques to test whether adult males' affiliative relationships with females ...201424866493
identification of mhc class i sequences in four species of macaca of china.tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana), stump-tailed macaques (m. arctoides), assamese macaques (m. assamensis), and northern pig-tailed macaques (m. leonina) are four major species of macaca in china. in order to effectively use these species in biomedical research, thorough investigations of their mhc immunogenetics are required. in this study, we identified mhc class i sequences using cdna cloning and sequencing on a cohort of six m. thibetana, three m. arctoides, three m. assamensis, and three ...201324045838
sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis of toll-like receptor (tlr) 4 gene in the tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana).in this study, the complete coding region sequence of an innate immune-related tlr4 gene was obtained from the tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) genome via pcr and direct sequencing. the sequence had a total length of 2481 bp, contained 3 complete exons, and encoded 826 amino acids (aas); its isoelectric point was 5.703, and the molecular weight was 94.72 kda. the high structure prediction showed that the protein was comprised of one extracellular region, one transmembrane region, and one intra ...201525867333
whole-genome sequencing of tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) provides new insight into the macaque evolutionary history.macaques are the most widely distributed nonhuman primates and used as animal models in biomedical research. the availability of full-genome sequences from them would be essential to both biomedical and primate evolutionary studies. previous studies have reported whole-genome sequences from rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaque (m. fascicularis, ce), both of which belong to the fascicularis group. here, we present a 37-fold coverage genome sequence of the tibetan macaque (m. thi ...201424648498
the trimcyp genotype in four species of macaques in china.the tripartite motif protein (trim)5α/cypa fusion protein trimcyp in old world monkeys is generally considered unable to restrict hiv-1 replication. monkeys with trimcyp can serve as a unique animal model for studies of hiv-1 infection. the present study investigated the distribution and expression status of trimcyp in four species of macaques originating from china and its borderlands: pigtail macaques (macaca nemestrina), rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta), long-tailed macaques (macaca fascicula ...201323233150
generation and characterization of the blood transcriptome of macaca thibetana and comparative analysis with m. mulatta.transcriptome profiles provide a large transcript sequence data set for genomic study, particularly in organisms that have no accurate genome data published. the tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) is commonly considered to be an endemic species to china and an important animal in biomedical research in the present day. in the present study, we report the de novo assembly and characterization of the blood transcriptome of the tibetan macaque from three individuals, and we also sequenced the blood ...201728428989
the prospect of rising in rank is key to long-term stability in tibetan macaque of the most fundamental questions in behavioural biology is why societies can persist for a long period of time. while researchers in animal behaviour have been hindered by a lack of an aggregate measure (such as social mobility) to quantify the dynamics of animal societies, researchers in social sciences have been challenged by the complexity and diversity of human societies. as a result, direct empirical evidence is still lacking for the hypothesized causal relationship between social mobi ...201728765545
the ontogeny of talo-crural appositional articular morphology among catarrhine taxa: adult shape reflects substrate use.the upper ankle joint forms a single articular plane between organism and the foot and substrate. singular warp analysis shows that its shape reflects substrate use. this study explores whether the differences in shape are genetic with a developmental trajectory evident during ontogeny or epigenetic and the result of substrate use by the individual. a total of 418 matched distal tibial and proximal talar landmarked surfaces from adult and subadult specimens from 12 diverse catarrhine taxa were s ...201424842582
park rangers' behaviors and their effects on tourists and tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at mt. huangshan, china.previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (nhps) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. we explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (sdbs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the valley of the wild monkeys (vwm) in mt. huangshan, anhui province, china. the two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaq ...201426480324
somatometric measurements, and clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana).limited physiological data for tibetan macaques are available at present. this study will provide more rationale for evaluating this species.201323952261
effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana), also known as chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. although tibetan macaques are old world monkeys in the genus of macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. we used 69 apparently healthy tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. significant a ...201424411774
using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in macaca thibetana.biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. they predict that when within-group contest competition (wgc) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. in contrast, when wgc is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. we tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned ...201121922505
triadic male-female-infant relationships and bridging behaviour among tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana). 19958529972
first occurrence of twins in provisioned free-ranging tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at huangshan, china.a first case of newborn tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) twins was observed in a free-ranging group at huangshan, china. the female that gave birth to the twins was studied during their first 5 months post-partum, and her activity budget was compared to those of adult females with single or no offspring in order to assess her behavioral changes. our report shows that female tibetan macaques can produce twins, and that twins can successfully survive. the adult female with twins spent more time ...201221928063
comparative investigations of social context-dependent dominance in captive chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) and wild tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).theoretical definitions of dominance, how dominance is structured and organized in nature, and how dominance is measured have varied as investigators seek to classify and organize social systems in gregarious species. given the variability in behavioral measures and statistical methods used to derive dominance rankings, we conducted a comparative analysis of dominance using existing statistical techniques to analyze dominance ranks, social context-dependent dominance structures, the reliability ...201830224738
[isolation and characterization of twenty-one polymorphic microsatellite loci in the tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana)].twenty-one microsatellite loci were isolated from ac-enriched library of tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana). the number of alleles at the 21 microsatellite loci ranged from 8 to 15, with an average of 12.2 per locus. polymorphism information content (pic) ranged from 0.805 to 0.910 with an average of 0.873. the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 0.792 and from 0.843 to 0.938, respectively. these microsatellite loci will be useful for future studies that relate to the gen ...201121938964
grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. in this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at huangshan, china, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for groomin ...201222539271
experimental tibetan monkey domestication and its application for intraocular pressure train tibetan monkey (macaca thibetana) for intraocular pressure (iop) measurement in conscious state and obtain normal iop in conscious tibetan macaque.201222773972
noninvasive saliva collection for dna analyses from free-ranging tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).cryptic and endangered fauna, including many primate taxa, pose challenges for noninvasive collection of biomaterials. as a result, application of noninvasive genotyping to primates has been limited to the use of samples such as feces and hair for the extraction of pcr-amplifiable dna. we present a method for noninvasive collection of saliva from habituated, free-ranging monkeys. the method utilizes a low-cost apparatus that controls for contamination and is usable with individual, free-ranging ...201222890787
[polymorphic analysis of mhc-dpb1 gene exon 2 in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana)].major histocompatibility complex (mhc) molecules play an important role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many diseases. to gain an insight into the mhc background of the tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana), and thereby facilitate their protection and application in biomedical research, the second exon of the mhc-dpb1 genes from 70 tibetan macaques in sichuan province were characterized by pcr, cloning, sequencing, and statistical analysis. a total of 18 mhc-dpb1 alleles were identified ...201223208139
genetic variation between two tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern china based on mitochondrial dna control region sequences.tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to china. population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 tibetan individuals from sichuan (sc), huangshan (hs), and fujian (fj) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial dna control region. four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in fj populations (hd = 0.7661). notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near t ...201323245428
evolutionary analysis of the short-type peptidoglycan-recognition protein gene (pglyrp1) in primates.short-type peptidoglycan (pgn)-recognition protein 1 (pglyrp1), an innate immunity protein that directly breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall pgns, plays an important role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases. to explore the adaptive evolution of the pglyrp1 gene in primates and provide insight into the function of this antibacterial protein, we sequenced the entire pglyrp1 gene from macaca thibetana and rhinopithecus roxellana, identified the correspondin ...201323420370
grooming reciprocity in male tibetan several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. we hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. we used focal animal sampling and co ...201323696343
identification and characterization of the major histocompatibility complex class ii dqb (mhcmath-dqb1) alleles in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana), an endangered primate species endemic to china, have been used as experimental animal model for various human diseases. major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes play a crucial role in the susceptibility and/or resistance to many human diseases, but little is known about tibetan macaques. to gain an insight into the mhc background and to facilitate the experimental use of tibetan macaques, the second exon of mhc-dqb1 gene was sequenced in a cohort of wild t ...201323745600
[male-to-female agonistic support for copulation in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at huangshan, china].biological market theory predicts that animals exchange the same commodities, or interchange different ones, to their mutual benefit. using focal and behavioral sampling methods and continuous recording techniques, we studied tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) in two study groups (ya1 and ya2) at huangshan, china to see whether adults interchanged male-to-female agonistic support for copulation. overall, male-to-female agonistic support was significantly correlated with copulation behaviors whe ...201323775987
aplasia of the maxillary sinus in a tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana) with implications for its evolutionary loss and reacquisition.the skull of an adult female tibetan macaque, macaca thibetana, was found to completely lack the maxillary sinus (ms). this absence was accompanied by a slight lateral concavity where the ostium should have formed in the ms, a slight drop of the orbital floor, posterior and medial displacement of the zygomaxillary suture, an unusual position of the lacrimal canal, malocclusion with severely worn cheek teeth, and abnormalities in the temporomandibular joints. the facial component was disproportio ...201424849191
influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on self-directed behavior in female tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).self-directed behavior (sdb) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. in this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at mt. huangshan, china (september 2012-may 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. our results showed that females engaged in significantl ...201424866492
uneven evolutionary rate of the melatonin-related receptor gene (gpr50) in primates.the melatonin-related receptor gpr50 plays an important role in mammalian adaptive thermogenesis in response to calorie intake. the evolutionary history of the gpr50 gene is poorly understood in primates; however, it has been reported that gpr50 is the mammalian ortholog of mel1c, which has been well characterized. in this study, the complete coding sequences of the gpr50 gene in the sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana) and tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) were sequenced, and ...201525730005
social rank versus affiliation: which is more closely related to leadership of group movements in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana)?research on leadership is a critical step for understanding collective decision making. however, only 4 of the 22 extant macaque species have been examined for the impact of social rank and affiliation on the initiation of collective movement. it is far from clear whether such impact exists and, if so, how it works among other macaques. to answer these questions, we investigated free-ranging, tibetan macaques' (macaca thibetana) group departures from a provisioning area and tested two alternativ ...201626990010
marked variation between winter and spring gut microbiota in free-ranging tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).variation in the availability and distribution of food resources is a strong selective pressure on wild primates. we explored variation in tibetan macaque gut microbiota composition during winter and spring seasons. our results showed that gut microbial composition and diversity varied by season. in winter, the genus succinivibrio, which promotes the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose, was significantly increased. in spring, the abundance of the genus prevotella, which is associated with d ...201627180722
the vocal repertoire of tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana): a quantitative classification.vocal repertoires are basic and essential components for describing vocal communication in animals. studying the entire suite of vocal signals aids investigations on the variation of acoustic structure across social contexts, comparisons on the complexity of communication systems across taxa, and in exploration of the evolutionary origins of species-specific vocalizations. here, we describe the vocal repertoire of the largest species in the macaque genus, macaca thibetana. we extracted thirty ac ...201627243451
ten novel mhc-dpb1 alleles identified in tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana).ten novel mhc-dpb1 alleles of tibetan macaque, were identified by cloning and sequencing.201728102033
intergroup interactions in tibetan macaques at mt. emei, on intergroup-interactions (i-i) were collected in 5 seasonally provisioned groups (a, b, d, d1, and e) of tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at mt. emei in three 70-day periods between 1991 april-june (p1), september-november (p2), december-1992 february (p3). the i-i were categorized as forewarning made by high-ranking males (including branch shaking and/or loud calls), long-distance interactions in space (specified by changes in their foraging movements), and close encounters (with affi ...19979453696
characterization of intraocular pressure responses of the tibetan monkey (macaca thibetana).to characterize the effects of circadian rhythm, feeding time, age, general anesthesia, and ocular hypotensive compounds on intraocular pressure (iop) of the tibetan monkey (macaca thibetana).201121654897
genetic diversity analysis of macaca thibetana based on mitochondrial dna control region sequences.macaca thibetana is a threatened primate species endemic to china. genetic diversities based on a 476-bp fragment at the 5'-end of the mitochondrial dna control region hvsi were assessed. haplotype diversity is high (0.8521), but nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes is only 0.0574. no haplotype was shared between sichuan (sc) and huangshan mountain (hs) populations. phylogenetic trees, analysis of molecular variance and network analysis consistently indicated that the sc and hs populations ...200819489138
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 from tibetan macaque (macaca thibetana).the cloning and sequence analysis of tibetan macaque ifn-(gamma) and the il-6 cdnas are described. the tibetan macaque ifn-gamma and il-6 cdnas were found to be 498 and 639 bp in length, with open reading frames encoding 165 and 212 amino acids, respectively. homology analyses indicated that the identity levels of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of ifn-gamma among primates ranged from 93.4 to 99.2%, and 87.3 to 99.4%, respectively, and that of il-6 ranged from 92.6 to 99.8%, and 85.4 ...200617011638
social development of infants of macaca thibetana at mount emei, china.the development of infant macaca thibetana was studied at mount emei, china, and compared to that of other macaque species. it was found that there are many common features in the process of infant socialization in species of the genus macaca: mothers play an important and active role, other group members influence the infants' development to a greater or lesser extent and play is a major activity in the life of infants. some differences were found to exist, however, between macaque species. the ...19938335291
natural foods and their ecological implications for macaca thibetana at mount emei, china.natural food plants of partly provisioned groups of macaca thibetana included about 196 species belonging to 135 genera and 72 families. the macaques consumed mainly bamboo shoots and fruits for about 2 months in autumn, whereas they relied on active or passive provisions from visitors, a variety of structural parts of plants and a small amount of invertebrates in late spring and summer and ate mainly mature leaves and bark for the rest of the year. about half of the species eaten came from the ...19911743603
the stumptail macaques of china.the stumptail macaque species macaca thibetana and macaca arctoides replace one another from north to south in subtropical and tropical china. these species differ in external and cranial characters. neonatal pelage color is pale grayish-brown in m. thibetana and whitish in m. arctoides. in adults, ventral pelage is whitish in m. thibetana and brown in m. arctoides. the forehead and cheeks are thickly furred in adult m. thibetana and bald in m. arctoides. facial skin color typically is sexually ...198531986825
effects of aging on gene expression in blood of captive tibetan macaques ( macaca thibetana) and comparisons with expression in humans.changes in gene expression occur as animals, including primates, age. macaques have long been used as a model species for primate evolution and biomedical studies. here, to study gene expression in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana, tms) and its differences to humans, we applied rna-seq to obtain the blood transcriptomes of 24 tms. in total, 2 523 age-associated differentially expressed genes (degs) were identified. several pathways and processes that regulate aging, including the foxo signalin ...202032746507
season, age, and sex affect the fecal mycobiota of free-ranging tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).recent studies highlight that the gut mycobiota play essential roles in mammalian metabolic and immune systems, but to date we lack information on the forces that naturally shape the gut mycobiota of wild primates. to investigate the contributions of host and environmental factors in the taxonomic variation of the gut mycobiota, we examined the effects of age, sex, and season on the fecal mycobiota in wild-living tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana). using next generation sequencing and a longitu ...201829893498
characterization of 17 full-length mhc-dqb1 alleles in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).seventeen full-length math-dqb1 alleles were characterized in tibetan macaques.202032583601
identification of mhc-dma and -dmb alleles in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).fifteen math-dma and 16 math-dmb novel alleles of tibetan macaques were identified.201931347300
grooming networks reveal intra- and intersexual social relationships in macaca thibetana.the analysis of grooming networks is a powerful tool to examine individual social and sexual relationships and how these relationships change over time. in this study, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of intra- and intersexual social relationships in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) based on grooming interactions. similar to other female philopatric and male dispersal primates, female tibetan macaques form the core of the social group with higher values of centralities, compared to the m ...201930600420
bridging may help young female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana learn to be a mother.attraction to infants is a common feature of non-human primates. frequent affiliative male-infant interactions have been observed in many multimale, multifemale groups of macaques, including a behaviour termed 'bridging' in which two male macaques simultaneously lift an infant. this behaviour has been suggested to serve as a positive affiliative interaction between the adult or subadult males. female macaques display bridging in the same manner as males, but the function of this behaviour to fem ...201830389970
social connectivity among female tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) increases the speed of collective network analysis provides insights into patterns of group movements in primates, but fewer studies to date have focused on the dynamics of how such movements occur. in this study, we proposed and tested two hypotheses about the influence of sex on social connectivity and group movement in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana): (1) adult females are socially more connected than are adult males and (2) social connectivity facilitates the speed of collective decision-making. we collected data ...201930293183
interchange between grooming and infant handling in female tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).in some nonhuman primates, infants function as a social tool that can bridge relationships among group members. infants are a desired commodity for group members, and mothers control access to them. the biological market theory suggests that grooming is widespread and represents a commodity that can be exchanged for infant handling. as a limited resource, however, the extent to which infants are interchanged between mothers (females with an infant) and non-mothers (potential handlers, females wi ...201929955029
identification of eight new mhc-dpb1 alleles in the tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).we report here the identification of eight new math-dpb1 alleles in the tibetan macaques.201829790301
playing it cool: characterizing social play, bout termination, and candidate play signals of juvenile and infant tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).play behaviors and signals during playful interactions with juvenile conspecifics are important for both the social and cognitive development of young animals. the social organization of a species can also influence juvenile social play. we examined the relationships among play behaviors, candidate play signals, and play bout termination in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) during juvenile and infant social play to characterize the species play style. as tibetan macaques are despotic and live ...201829766979
identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.the tibetan macaque, which is endemic to china, is currently listed as a near endangered primate species by the international union for conservation of nature (iucn). short tandem repeats (strs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. they are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. to clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide strs and understand their variation among tibetan macaques, we conducted a ge ...201829643326
recognition of social relationships in bridging behavior among tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana).bridging behavior among male tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) was studied in a free-ranging group at mt. huangshan, china. this behavior was defined as a type of affiliative behavior in which two individuals simultaneously lifted up one infant. bridging behavior occurred after an adult male carried an infant to another male or approached another male who was holding an infant. each male frequently held and groomed a particular infant in the group, which was named an "affiliated" infant of the ...199531924076
seasonal changes in body weight of macaca thibetana at mt. emei, china.this 1991-1992 study was designed to expand previous research on body weight (bw) in tibetan macaques (macaca thibetana) at mt. emei. data on bw were collected in late autumn (la) and late winter (lw) in groups ranging above 1,200 m. over the winter, the bw fell significantly from a mean of 16.8 to 11.4 kg in females and from 19.5 to 17.0 kg in males. the previously reported bw means of 12.8 kg for females and 18.3 kg for males, measured in late spring, are near the center of the annual bw range ...199431936920
macaca thibetana at mt. emei, china: i. a cross-sectional study of growth and development.six free-ranging groups of macaca thibetana were studied at mt. emei, in southwest china. patterns of growth and development observed during the study are described for this species for the first time. data were collected mainly during the birth season of 1986. food handouts made possible the measurement of body weight and sitting height. changes in fur color and growth of forehead hair were noted. dark hair appeared on the broad white forehead of infants at the end of the third month. a triangu ...198831968866
macaca thibetana at mt. emei, china: ii. birth seasonality.birth censuses were conducted every 2 or 3 days for each of six groups of macaca thibetana along trails at mt. emei in southwest china from march 7 to june 15, 1986. based on direct observations and the timetable of forehead hair growth and behavior, each of 32 infants could be placed in one of sixteen 14-day periods of the 1986 birth season. the mean estimated birth date was march 27 (sd = 39 days); the median estimated birth date was march 14. sex ratios in newborns and yearlings did not devia ...198831968864
macaca thibetana at mt. emei, china: iii. group on group composition at the end of the 1986 birth season were collected from six groups of macaca thibetana. all adult males, the members of group a, and some conspicuous animals were recognized individually. fourhundred survey sessions were completed. the mean group size was 38.3 (sd = 13.8, range: 28-65); the number of adult females was the best correlate of total group size. the mean adult sex ratio (f:m) across groups was 3:1 (sd = 1.9, range: 1.5-6.5:1), which significantly deviated fr ...198831968862
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