preliminary investigation of the habitats of presbytis françoisi and presbytis leucocephalus, with notes on the activity pattern of presbytis this paper the habitat structure and ecology of presbytis françoisi and presbytis leucocephalus are compared. observations were made of the two langur species in areas of southwest guangxi province in which the langurs occur but are not sympatric. the results showed that the habitat of p. leucocephalus differs from that of p. françoisi and that the habitat in western areas was different from that in eastern areas in terms of vegetation and other criteria. p. françoisi was limited in its distr ...19938335298
phylogenetic relationships among two species of golden monkey and three species of leaf monkey inferred from rdna variation.restriction maps of rdna repeats of five species of colobinae and three outgroup taxa, hylobates leucogenys, macaca mulatta, and macaca irus, were constructed using 15 restriction endonucleases and cloned 18s and 28s rrna gene probes. the site variation between rhinopithecus roxellana and rhinopithecus bieti is comparable to that between presbytis françoisi and preshytis phayrei, implying that r. bieti is a valid species rather than a subspecies of r. roxellana. phylogenetic analysis on the 47 i ...19958792613
sequence evolution of the ccr5 chemokine receptor gene in primates.the chemokine receptor ccr5 can serve as a coreceptor for m-tropic hiv-1 infection and both m-tropic and t-tropic siv infection. we sequenced the entire ccr5 gene from 10 nonhuman primates: pongo pygmaeus, hylobates leucogenys, trachypithecus francoisi, trachypithecus phayrei, pygathrix nemaeus, rhinopithecus roxellanae, rhinopithecus bieti, rhinopithecus avunculus, macaca assamensis, and macaca arctoides. when compared with ccr5 sequences from humans and other primates, our results demonstrate ...199910486970
screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among old world primates and identification of four new divergent viruses.simian foamy viruses (sfvs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (nhps) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to nhps. current serologic detection of sfv infection requires separate western blot (wb) testing by using two different sfv antigens [sfv(agm) (african green monkey) and sfv(cpz) (chimpanzee)]. however, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small n ...200312758172
comparative analysis of muscle architecture in primate arm and forearm.a comparative study of myological morphology, i.e. muscle mass (mm), muscle fascicle length and muscle physiological cross-sectional area (an indicator of the force capacity of muscles), was conducted in nine primate species: human (homo sapiens), chimpanzee (pan troglodytes), gibbon (hylobates spp.), papio (papio hamadryas), lutong (trachypithecus francoisi), green monkey (chlorocebus aethiops), macaque monkey (macaca spp.), capuchin monkey (cebus albifrons) and squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureu ...201019958344
the body center of mass in primates: is it more caudal than in other quadrupedal mammals?whole body center of mass (bcom) position values are lacking for a comparative sample of primates. therefore, it still remains unknown whether the bcom in primates is more posteriorly located than in other mammals. the aim of the present report is to provide data for a large sample of primate species and to compare the position of the bcom in primates to non-primate mammals.201930839107
diet versus phylogeny: a comparison of gut microbiota in captive colobine monkey species.both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. in this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (n = 64 individuals). colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (gi) problems. this study included eight asian colobines (rhinopithecus brelichi, rhinopithecus ...201728735426
[habitat selection and use of francois's langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) in guangxi province, fusui area].to explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the francois's langur (trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of francois's langurs living in an isolated hill in the fusui rare animal nature reserve, guangxi province, from march to december 2001. to identify the effect of human activities on vegetation, 10 vegetation quadrats were sampled in the habitat, including 5 on the slopes with more human disturbance, and 5 on the hill-tops with less ...201020740705
chemical analysis and consistency of faeces produced by captive monkeys (françois langurs, trachypithecus francoisi) fed supplemental fibre.the effect of additional dietary fibre on the consistency of faeces was studied in a group of four françois langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) kept in rotterdam zoo. to increase fibre intake, a diet pellet rich in fibre was offered instead of the usual, commercial primate pellet. this dietary change raised the amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose that were consumed at the expense of non-structural carbohydrates. the experiment had an a1-b-a2 design. stool quality improved when the high-fibre p ...200111361103
[influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in nonggang national nature reserve, guangxi, china].surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. from march, 2006 to june, 2007 and from october, 2010 to may, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in nonggang national nature reserve, guangxi, china, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. in total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two state key protection class i species, the françois' langur (tr ...201323775988
per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) in the blood of two colobine monkey species from china: occurrence and exposure pathways.per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (pfass), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, have been identified as global and ubiquitous pollutants. despite this, limited data are available regarding the impacts of pfas exposure and intake in non-human primates. here, we report for the first time on the occurrence of pfass in the blood and dietary sources of two rare and endangered primate species, namely, the golden snub-nosed monkey (rhinopithecus roxellana) and francois' leaf monke ...201931022542
comparison of activity budgets, diet, and habitat utilization between provisioned and wild groups of the françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in mayanghe national nature reserve, china.the endangered françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) is only found from southern china to northeastern vietnam. this study evaluates behavioral differences between provisioned (ts, 7 individuals) and wild (tn, 13 individuals) family groups in mayanghe national nature reserve, china. scan sampling every 5 min for 12 h daily between the months of march 2013 and february 2014 was used to record behaviors in seven categories. tn exhibited three main feeding periods daily, whereas ts showed mor ...202031466057
positional behaviours of françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in the limestone forest of nonggang, guangxi, south-west china.primates' positional behaviours provide information for understanding relationships among morphology, ecology and behavioural flexibility. from september 2005 to august 2006, we collected data via instantaneous scan sampling on positional behaviours in françois' langurs at nonggang nature reserve, south-west china. we predicted that these langurs would use (1) leaping as the predominant locomotor mode and (2) bipedal standing more frequently in the rainy season than in the dry season. our result ...202031645031
genomic mechanisms of physiological and morphological adaptations of limestone langurs to karst habitats.knowledge of the physiological and morphological evolution and adaptation of nonhuman primates is critical to understand hominin origins, physiological ecology, morphological evolution, and applications in biomedicine. particularly, limestone langurs represent a direct example of adaptations to the challenges of exploiting a high calcium and harsh environment. here, we report a de novo genome assembly (tfra_2.0) of a male françois's langur (trachypithecus francoisi) with contig n50 of 16.3 mb an ...202031846031
behavioral adjustments and support use of françois' langur in limestone habitat in fusui, china: implications for behavioral thermoregulation.climatic factors such as temperature and humidity vary seasonally in primate habitats; thus, behavioral adjustments and microhabitat selection by primate species have been interpreted as behavioral adaptations. françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi), a native species to southwest china and northern vietnam, inhabits a limestone habitat with extreme climatic conditions. to understand the potential effects of climatic seasonality on this species, we collected data on the individual behavioral ...202032551073
variations in diet composition of sympatric trachypithecus francoisi and macaca assamensis in the limestone habitats of nonggang, china.comparative studies of sympatric species are essential for understanding behavioral and ecological adaptation as well as the mechanisms that can reduce resource competition to allow coexistence. françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) and assamese macaques (macaca assamensis) are sympatric primate species found in the limestone seasonal rainforests of nonggang nature reserve, southwestern guangxi, china. to explore their different adaptation strategies, we collected data on diet using scan ...201829616679
taxus sp. intoxication in three francois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi).three francois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) were found dead, without previous clinical signs, over a 48-hour period at a zoological institution after transfer to a new exhibit. a hybrid yew shrub (taxus baccata x t. cuspidata) was found in close proximity to the exhibit perimeter fence. despite clinical suspicion of yew intoxication, thin-layer chromatography performed on gastric contents was negative. however, microscopic examination of gastric contents revealed multiple yew fragments, a ...200717402624
implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in china.most of china's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. we used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in china (rhinopithecus roxellana, r. bieti, r. brelichi, trachypithecus francoisi, and t. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. all 5 species were s ...201526372167
variation in gaze-following between two asian colobine monkeys.gaze-following is a basic cognitive ability found in numerous primate and nonprimate species. however, little is known about this ability and its variation in colobine monkeys. we compared gaze-following of two asian colobines-françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) and golden snub-nosed monkeys (rhinopithecus roxellana). although both species live in small polygynous family units, units of the latter form multilevel societies with up to hundreds of individuals. françois' langurs (n = 15) w ...201728540427
ranging behavior of the françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in the fusui nature reserve, on activity budgets and ranging patterns were collected from march to december 2001 for one group of françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) inhabiting a forested part of the fusui nature reserve, guangxi province, china. our results indicate that the total size of the home range of the study group during the study period was 19 ha. the majority of their activities (52%) occurred within a small area, 22%, of their home range, and was concentrated in or near quadrats containing their sl ...200717171396
sleeping site selection of francois's langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in two habitats in mayanghe national nature reserve, guizhou, china.sleeping site selection is an important aspect of the behavioral biology of primates. comparison of different habitats for the same species in this context enhances understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. we collected data on sleep-related behaviors for 6 groups of francois's langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in two habitats, in mayanghe national nature reserve, guizhou, china. regardless of habitat, all sleeping sites were located in areas of steep terrain of ≥60°. in undistu ...201120852927
ranging behavior of the françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in limestone habitats of nonggang, china.ranging behavior is an important aspect of animal behavior that researchers use to investigate ecological influences on individual behavior. we collected data on the ranging behavior of one group of françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) between august 2003 and july 2004 in a limestone habitat within nonggang nature reserve, china. we evaluated the influences of food availability, water resources and sleeping sites on ranging behavior. during the study period, the total home range size for ...201121645280
dietary breadth and resource use of françois' langur in a seasonal and disturbed habitat.previous studies of trachypithecus species indicated that they were selective feeders that concentrated on relatively few food species/items. from january to december 2005, i quantified potential food availability and the food species/items eaten by five groups of françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in the mayanghe nature reserve (mnr), people's republic of china. these langurs fed on 164 species, of which the top ten accounted for 51% of all feeding records. langurs consumed more specie ...201121948331
introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies.this research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. this is the first study to investigate weaning in primates using fecal stable isotope ratios. diets of a single françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) mother-infant pair at the toledo zoo are ...201222729669
attacks on adult females with infants by non-resident males in the françois langur.infanticide by males is a common phenomenon in mammals, especially primates, as lactation lasts much longer than gestation in many species. usually, infanticidal episodes occur soon after group takeovers, and are traditionally considered a male reproductive strategy (i.e., support the sexual selection hypothesis, hrdy, 1974). to verify the validity of this conception, we observed one group of francois' langurs in the nonggang nature reserve, china, between august 2003 and july 2004. during the s ...201323389985
relatively recent evolution of pelage coloration in colobinae: phylogeny and phylogeography of three closely related langur understand the evolutionary processes leading to the diversity of asian colobines, we report here on a phylogenetic, phylogeographical and population genetic analysis of three closely related langurs, trachypithecus francoisi, t. poliocephalus and t. leucocephalus, which are all characterized by different pelage coloration predominantly on the head and shoulders. therefore, we sequenced a 395 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial control region from 178 t. francoisi, 54 t. leucocephalus and 1 ...201323613895
habitat association and conservation implications of endangered francois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi).francois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) is an endangered primate and endemic to the limestone forests of the tropical and subtropical zone of northern vietnam and south-west china with a population of about 2,000 individuals. conservation efforts are hampered by limited knowledge of habitat preference in its main distribution area. we surveyed the distribution of francois' langur and modeled the relationship between the probability of use and habitat features in mayanghe national nature rese ...201324130730
habitat use and locomotion of the françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) in limestone habitats of nonggang, china.we collected data on habitat use and locomotion of the françois' langur (trachypithecus francoisi) between august 2003 and july 2004 at nonggang nature reserve, china. a total of 739 h of behavioral data were collected during this study. we tested 2 predictions: (1) that the langurs may have special patterns of habitat use and locomotion adaptive to the limestone habitat, and (2) the langurs may exhibit different patterns of habitat use and locomotion among different zones of limestone hill. our ...201324344958
complete mitochondrial genome of the trachypithecus the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of trachypithecus francoisi was determined using pcr reactions. the mitochondrial genome is 16,544 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes, 22 transfer rna genes and a control region. the structural organization and gene order of t. francoisi were equivalent to that of most other vertebrates. the t. francoisi mtdna could provide useful data for further studies on phylogenetics and conservation genetics of ...201624865918
retrospective analysis of adult-onset cardiac disease in françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) housed in u.s. zoos.cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in françois' langurs ( trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the species survival plan studbook. to determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the u.s. studbook population (n = 216). after exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a ...201627691958
oronasal squamous cell carcinomas in françois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi).squamous cell carcinomas (sccs) are common oronasal tumors in nonhuman primates. in this study, 11 cases of oronasal scc in françois' langurs ( trachypithecus francoisi ) are described. five initial cases were discovered on review of the north american françois' langur studbook, with a potential familial pattern observed. the studbook was used to identify related individuals, and records were requested for review. six additional cases were documented, and samples from all cases were submitted fo ...201728749282
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