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[clinical application of extracts of echinacea purpurea or echinacea pallida. critical evaluation of controlled clinical studies].the phytotherapy should be understood as being integrated into the rational pharmacotherapy. the modern phytotherapy tries hard to proof effects with pharmacological and clinical studies. the task force e of the federal bureau of health of germany has made a statement regarding this problem. this article reviews only controlled clinical trials about the application of extracts of echinacea purpura or echinacea pallida.19968686334
anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activity of echinacea pallida nutt. root extract.among the different species belonging to the echinacea family, largely used in traditional medicine, echinacea pallida, echinacea purpurea and echinacea angustifolia were investigated. these different species, due to their difficult identification, were commonly confused in the past and probably used indifferently for the same therapeutic purposes. in fact, the three species have in common, some pharmacological activities, based on the presence of active compounds that act additively and synergi ...200211801391
deleterious effects of echinacea purpurea and melatonin on myeloid cells in mouse spleen and bone marrow.the neurohormone, melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is a potent immune cell stimulant. phytochemicals contained in root extracts of the plant species echinacea purpurea are also potent as immune cell stimulants. both agents are potent stimulants of t, b, and/or natural killer cells, but little is known of their effect on other hemopoietic cells, specifically granular leukocytes, also participants in a wide variety of disease defense processes. given their current popularity and availabil ...200111493619
effects of oral administration of echinacea purpurea (american herb) on incidence of spontaneous leukemia caused by recombinant leukemia viruses in akr/j mice.four-week-old female akr/j mice were given oral doses of powdered leaves from echinacea purpurea three times weekly for 8 weeks (7.5 mg/mouse/week): controls received phosphate-buffered saline. mean survival age of experimental akr/j mice treated with the e. purpurea preparation was significantly prolonged and enlargement of thymic lymphoma in experimental mice was significantly suppressed compared with controls. in normal 3-week-old female akr/j mice, mortality from thymic lymphoma was delayed ...200111280896
[activity of cytoplasmic proteinases from rat liver in heren's carcinoma during tumor growth and treatment with medicinal herbs].the dynamics of the acid and neutral proteinases general enzymes activity change in the hepatocytes postnuclear fraction in the rats suffering from the heren's carcinoma was investigated. it was determined that in the tumor development of the enzyme activity level of both the acid and neutral proteinases increased 2,6-fold. the natural preparation of the herbs (calendula officinalis l., echinacea purpurea l., scorzonera humilis l., aconitum moldavicum hacq.) normalizes both the activity of the i ...200011200483
[pharmaceutical comparability of different therapeutic echinacea preperations].cichoric acid and dodeca 2e, 4e, 8z, 10e/z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamides 8, 9) are described as immunomodulating active components of echinacea. we quantified both substances in 25 echinacea-containing remedies customary in trade. concerning both active components, we found highly concentrated remedies as well as remedies without any detectable cichoric acid or alkamides. the concentration of both active components varied extremely depending on the type of remedy (homeopathic mother t ...200011155023
light-mediated antifungal activity of echinacea extracts.this study demonstrated that plant extracts containing acetylenic isobutylamides and polyacetylenes, previously reported as occurring in echinacea, have phototoxic antimicrobial activity against fungi, including clinically relevant pathogenic fungi. results show that hexane extracts of echinacea variably inhibit growth of yeast strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida shehata, c. kefyr, c. albicans, c. steatulytica and c. tropicalis under near uv irradiation (phototoxicity) and to a lower ex ...200010821050
echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages.echinacea purpurea, a plant originally used by native americans to treat respiratory infections, was evaluated for its ability to stimulate the production of cytokines by normal human peripheral blood macrophages in vitro. commercial preparations of echinacea fresh pressed juice and dried juice were tested at concentrations ranging from 10 micrograms/ml to 0.012 microgram/ml and compared to endotoxin stimulated and unstimulated controls. cytokine production was measured by elisa after 18 h of in ...19979568541
polysaccharides isolated from plant cell cultures of echinacea purpurea enhance the resistance of immunosuppressed mice against systemic infections with candida albicans and listeria monocytogenes.polysaccharides (ep) isolated from large scale plant cell cultures of echinacea purpurea, have been shown to activate human and murine phagocytes. in this study we investigated the influence of ep on the nonspecific immunity in immunodeficient mice. ep was effective in activating peritoneal macrophages isolated from animals after administration of cyclophosphamide (cp) or cyclosporin a (csa). ep-treated macrophages exhibited increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf) and enhanced ...19938375943
[the effects of plant preparations on cellular functions in body defense].two preparations of echinacea purpurea and a preparation of eleutherococcus senticosus increased the in vitro phagocytosis of candida albicans by granulocytes and monocytes from healthy donors by 30-45%. the chemotactic migration of granulocytes in the boyden chamber was increased by 45% with an echinacea purpurea extract. the two herbal preparations had no effect in either direction on intracellular killing of bacteria or yeasts. echinacea and eleutherococcus preparations did not induce in vitr ...19948192704
macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of echinacea purpurea.in this study, acidic arabinogalactan, a highly purified polysaccharide from plant cell cultures of echinacea purpurea, with a molecular weight of 75,000, was effective in activating macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and micro-organisms (leishmania enriettii). furthermore, this polysaccharide induced macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor (tnf-alpha), interleukin-1 (il-1), and interferon-beta 2. arabinogalactan did not activate b cells and did not induce t cells to produce in ...19892785214
[the effect of echinacea angustifolia on non-specific cellular immunity in the mouse].echinacea belongs to the most usable plants in medical treatment since many years. it is applicable in the fields of homoepathy and allopathy, however, there are many different ways of treatment. two species are listed in the european pharmacopoea: echinacea angustifolia and echinacea purpurea. they differ in morphology and their chemical composition. there have been chemical and biological analyses of echinacea for about 80 years. after exact investigations of these reports, the following resul ...19912043176
application of purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant echinacea purpurea to mice mediates protection against systemic infections with listeria monocytogenes and candida albicans.purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant echinacea purpurea were investigated for their ability to enhance phagocytes' activities regarding nonspecific immunity in vitro and in vivo. macrophages (m phi) from different organ origin could be activated to produce il-1, tnf alpha and il-6, to produce elevated amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates and to inhibit growth of candida albicans in vitro. furthermore, in vivo the substances could induce increased proliferation of phagocyt ...19912026472
toxicity of echinacea purpurea. acute, subacute and genotoxicity studies.single oral or intravenous doses of the expressed juice of echinacea purpurea (ep) proved virtually non-toxic to rats and mice. after 4 weeks of oral administration in doses amounting to many times the human therapeutic dose laboratory tests and necropsy findings gave no evidence of any toxic effects in rats. tests for mutagenicity carried out in microorganisms and mammalian cells in vitro and in mice all gave negative results. in an in vitro carcinogenicity study ep did not produce malignant tr ...19911799389
application of purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant echinacea purpurea to test subjects mediates activation of the phagocyte system.polysaccharides purified from large-scale cell cultures of the plant echinacea purpurea were tested for their ability to activate human phagocytes in vitro and in vivo. these substances enhanced the spontaneous motility of pmn under soft agar and increased the ability of these cells to kill staphylococci. monocytes were activated to secrete tnf-alpha, il-6 and il-1 whereas class ii expression was unaffected. intravenous application of the polysaccharides to test subjects immediately induced a fa ...19911761359
studies on antigen specifity of immunoreactive arabinogalactan proteins extracted from baptisia tinctoria and echinacea purpurea.in a series of experiments the cross-reactivity of antibodies raised against arabinogalactan proteins from baptisia tinctoria and echinacea purpurea was studied in order to prove the antigen specificity of the extracted glycoproteins/polysaccharides. using the antigen-antibody reaction in a competitive elisa it was evident that antibodies against glycoproteins from baptisia tinctoria were specific because none of the other antigens like those from echinacea purpurea, thuja occidentalis, arabinog ...19921382301
simultaneous analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives for the identification of echinacea purpurea, echinacea angustifolia, echinacea pallida and parthenium integrifolium roots.a reversed-phase hplc method was developed using a computer simulation program for the identification of dried roots of echinacea purpurea, e. angustifolia, e. pallida and parthenium integrifolium. hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds were analysed simultaneously leading to a two-fold decrease in analysis time compared to traditional hplc methods.200212094312
fast identification of echinacea purpurea dried roots using near-infrared spectroscopy.near-infrared (nir) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast identification method for echinacea purpurea dried milled roots. method development was carried out using a pls (partial least-squares) algorithm and pretreatment options. the aim of this qualitative analysis was to confirm the identity of e. purpurea and to detect the presence of fraud, i.e., samples adulterated or substituted by echinacea angustifolia, echinacea pallida, or parthenium integrifolium. specificity was demonst ...200212069228
[on the presence of cucumber mosaic virus (marmor cucumeris h.) on echinacea purpurea (l.) moench]. 196414257861
the effect of immunization with killed tumor cells, with/without feeding of echinacea purpurea in an erythroleukemic mouse model.tumor amelioration via vaccination/immunization is a practice for which considerable experimental and clinical support is growing. combination therapies have proven to be more beneficial than treatment with single agents. we hypothesized that immunization of mice with killed erythroleukemia cells prior to the induction of erythroleukemia via injection of viable tumor cells, plus dietary administration of a known immuno-enhancing phytocompound, echinacea purpurea, would be more effective than imm ...200211890433
the effect of herbal remedy on the development of trichinella spiralis infection in mice.the effect of alchinal (a complex preparation consisting of three substances: echinacea purpurea extract, allium sativum extract, cocoa) on the development of trichinella spiralis infection in mice was studied. the preparation was administered to the animals orally, twice a day in 30 microl doses for 10 days after infecting mice with trichinella larvae (500 larvae per mouse). it was demonstrated that after alchinal administration, the number of adult forms (10 dpi--days post infection) and muscu ...200314509349
alkylamides of echinacea purpurea stimulate alveolar macrophage function in normal rats.echinacea plant extract is widely used for the prevention and the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. however, the active components in the herb, their optimal dosages and their in vivo effects are still undefined. using male sprague-dawley rats (425-475 g), an in vivo study was conducted to examine the immunomodulatory effects of various dose levels of three components, isolated and purified from echinacea purpurea. the components were cichoric acid, polysaccharides and alkylamides ...200211811940
[qualitative characteristics of selected species of the genus echinacea moench].the paper examined the effect of production-technological conditions in relation to the ontogenetic stage of plants in three different species of the genus echinacea moench., comparing the species echinacea purpurea, echinacea atrorubens, and echinacea pallida. it also examined the differences in the content of essential oil in different plant organs and evaluated the representation of individual components in the essential oils of the species under study at the stage of the optimal maturity for ...200111797200
absorption of dodeca-2e,4e,8z,10e/z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides after oral application of echinacea purpurea tincture.alkamides are suspected to contribute to the activity of echinacea preparations. in preliminary experiments a quantification method for dodeca-2e,4e,8z,10e/z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides in human blood has been developed by which it was possible to detect dodeca-2e,4e,8z,10e/z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamides in human blood after oral application of echinacea purpurea mother tincture.200111745026
gc-ms analysis of the lipophilic principles of echinacea purpurea and evaluation of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus infection.an analytical gc-ms method based on nonpolar fused silica capillary column was developed to analyze the lipophilic constituents, mainly alkamides, from the root extracts of echinacea purpurea (l.) moench. in particular, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the phytochemical impacts of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (cmv) infection on the plant's lipophilic marker phytochemicals. methanolic (70% v/v) extracts, obtained from root materials by ultrasonic treatments, were subjected to liquid-liq ...200212110390
herbal remedies in the united states: potential adverse interactions with anticancer agents.interest in the use of herbal products has grown dramatically in the western world. recent estimates suggest an overall prevalence for herbal preparation use of 13% to 63% among cancer patients. with the narrow therapeutic range associated with most anticancer drugs, there is an increasing need for understanding possible adverse drug interactions in medical oncology.200415197212
immunological studies of revitonil, a phytopharmaceutical containing echinacea purpurea and glycyrrhiza glabra root extract.a phytopharmaceutical containing an extract of echinacea purpurea and glycyrrhiza glabra root (revitonil tablets) was investigated for its suggested immunostimulating potential, using several in vitro tests and the in vivo carbon-clearance model in mice. in the in vitro phagocytosis test with human granulocytes, revitonil showed a 44-53% stimulating effect at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. whereas in the chemoluminescence test at a concentration of 1.25 microg/ml, revitonil tablets exhibited ...200212222657
flow cytometric testing of immunological effects of a phytomedicinal combination (equimun) and its compounds on bovine leucocytes.one of the major goals of this study was to establish fast, reliable and sensitive assays for the quality control of immunomodulating phytopreparations and to determine whether pharmacological compounds or phytopreparations have effects on bovine immune cells. flow cytometric methods were chosen because they are very sensitive in the detection of even subtle effects on cells. in this study, we addressed the question of whether these methods are useful in monitoring the effects of equimun and its ...200212227471
complementary and alternative interventions in asthma, allergy, and immunology.to review which herbs are most commonly used as complementary and alternative medicine (cam) for treatment of asthma, allergy, and immunologic conditions.200415330011
evaluation of commercial ginkgo and echinacea dietary supplements for colchicine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.in response to concerns that commercial dietary supplements containing ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) and echinacea purpurea, echinacea angustifolia, or echinacea pallida (echinacea) might be contaminated with colchicine, a highly selective and sensitive assay was developed for colchicine that is based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms-ms). the method utilizes reversed-phase hplc separation of compounds in a methanolic extract of the dietary supplement or botanica ...200212230411
ocular side effects from herbal medicines and nutritional supplements.to review the more significant herbal and nutritional agents of clinical importance to ophthalmologists and describe the ocular side effects for each. world health organization (who) classification and guidelines for clinicians are provided.200415488795
in vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome p450 phenotypes: citrus aurantium, echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome p450 (cyp) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of citrus aurantium , echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (serenoa repens) extracts affected cyp1a2, cyp2d6, cyp2e1, or cyp3a4 activity.200415536458
antiviral activity of characterized extracts from echinacea spp. (heliantheae: asteraceae) against herpes simplex virus (hsv-i).extracts of 8 taxa of the genus echinacea were found to have antiviral activity against herpes simplex (hsv) virus type i in vitro when exposed to visible and uv-a light. n-hexane extracts of roots containing alkenes and amides were more active in general than ethyl acetate extracts containing caffeic acids. the most potent inhibitors of hsv were e. pallida var. sanguinea crude (70 % ethanol) inflorescence extract (mic = 0.026 mg/ml), cichoric acid (mic = 0.045 mg/ml) and echinacea purpurea n-he ...200212357386
antiviral activity of viracea against acyclovir susceptible and acyclovir resistant strains of herpes simplex virus.viracea, a topical microbicide, is a blend of benzalkonium chloride and phytochemicals derived from echinacea purpurea and is a proprietary formula from destiny biomedix corp. viracea was tested against 40 strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv): 15 strains (five hsv-1 and ten hsv-2) were resistant to acyclovir (acv-r) and 25 strains (13 hsv-1 and 12 hsv-2) were susceptible to acv (acv-s). the median ed50 of viracea for the five acv-r strains of hsv-1 was a 1:100 dilution of the drug with a range ...19989754950
in-vivo and in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of echinacea purpurea and hypericum perforatum.echinacea purpurea (l.) moench and hypericum perforatum (l.) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. each drug was administered orally to mice at 30 and 100 mg kg(-1), twice daily. only the higher dose significantly inhibited, time dependently, the formation of oedema, evaluated as area under the curve (echinacea p < 0.01; hypericum p < 0.05). western blot analysis showed that in-vivo treatment with these extracts could modulate lipopol ...200212396300
in vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.extracts of echinacea purpurea and panax ginseng were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate cellular immune function by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from normal individuals and patients with either the chronic fatigue syndrome or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. pbmc isolated on a ficoll-hypaque density gradient were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each extract for natural killer (nk) cell activity versus k562 cells and antibody-dependent ce ...19979043936
differentiation between the complement modulating effects of an arabinogalactan-protein from echinacea purpurea and heparin.due to the important physiological role of the complement system, complement modulation, either inhibition or stimulation, is an interesting target for drug development. several plant polysaccharides are known to exhibit complement modulating activities. sometimes these effects are described as complement inhibition, although the basic mechanism is a stimulation of the complement activation. this misinterpretation is due to the observed reduced haemolysis in the widely used haemolytic complement ...200212494341
[effect of supposed radioprotectors on oxidation-reduction of vitamin e in the tissues of irradiated rats].in experiments with mature wistar male rats under irradiation by dose of 5 gy the effect of emoxypine, citomedine and echinacea purpurea on the content of liposoluble vitamin a, carotene, vitamin e and its metabolites (quinone and oxidized tocopherol) in blood plasma, spleen, liver and testes was studied. it was shown the drugs under study mobilized the internal reserves of these vitamins and promoted effective functioning of vitamin e redox system. mechanisms of their action are different. the ...19938293090
medicinal properties of echinacea: a critical review.preparations from echinacea purpurea are among the most widely used herbal medicines. most uses of e. purpurea are based on the reported immunological properties. a series of experiments have demonstrated that e. purpurea extracts do indeed demonstrate significant immunomodulatory activities. among the many pharmacological properties reported, macrophage activation has been demonstrated most convincingly. phagocytotic indices and macrophage-derived cytokine concentrations have been shown to be e ...200312622467
[antiviral activity of components of echinacea purpurea]. 19734358341
[effect of a plant immunostimulant on phagocytosis of erythrocytes by the reticulohistiocytary system of isolated perfused rat liver].by the help of the isolated, perfused rat liver, the influence of an immune stimulant of plant origin (esberitox n; composition: herb. thujae occid. rec., rad. baptisiae tinct., rad. echinaceae ang. et purp.) on the activity of kupffer cells was tested. it was shown that the phagocytosis of erythrocytes was improved significantly by the single extracts and the combination of this. the extract of thuja occidentalis had the most prominent effect on the first phase of phagocytosis, whereas the extr ...19854084345
mechanism of activation of human peripheral blood nk cells at the single cell level by echinacea water soluble extracts: recruitment of lymphocyte-target conjugates and killer cells and activation of programming for lysis.echinacea purpurea, a plant originally used by native americans to treat respiratory infections, has also been shown to exert immunomodulatory activities both in vivo and in vitro. however, the mechanism underlying echinacea-induced immunomodulation remains largely unknown. this study examined in vitro the effects of soluble extracts of e. purpurea on natural killer (nk) cells present in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). flow cytometric methods were used to examine activation, cyt ...200312781698
[history of a plant: the example of echinacea].in comparison with other medicinal plants, the history of use of echinacea is relatively short. the plant originates from north america and was employed by the indigenous indians. the first archaeological evidence dates from the 18th century. included in the name echinacea or purple coneflower are several species of the asteraceae family: echinacea purpurea (l.) moench, echinacea angustifolia dc. and echinacea pallida (nutt.) nutt. information about the use of the plant from traditional healers ...200312808356
dietary supplementation with echinacea and development of immunity to challenge infection with coccidia.an experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.1% and 0.5% ground root preparations of echinacea purpurea (ep; common name: purple cone flower) on the development of immunity following live vaccination and subsequent challenge with multiple coccidia species in an experimental model using a commercial live vaccine preparation. effects of immunization and ep supplementation on weight gains before challenge, and weight gains, lesion scores and plasma levels of ...200312898224
effect of echinacea (echinacea purpurea l. moench) preparations on experimental prostate gland.this work has investigated the effect of echinacea extract on the weight of prostates in rats as well as on alterations of hystological structure and separate blood cells. this preparation was chosen for investigations due to its possible antiandrogenic effect and good immunostimulating features. experiments were carried out with three-month old male wistar rats, divided by six into three different groups. the first group was the control one. the rats of the second group were fed for 30 days wit ...200312960456
[influence of echinacea purpurea extracts on properdin levels in rabbits]. 195813558324
echinacea purpurea stimulates cellular immunity and anti-bacterial defence independently of the strain of mice.one of the major functions of the immune system is anti-bacterial defence mediated among others by non-specific immunity (macrophages, granulocytes). echinacea purpurea extracts are widely used in prophylaxis and therapy of various infections, mainly the respiratory tract, in animals and humans. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic use of echinacea purpurea extract on the development of pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in various strains of mice and on some parameters ...200314509348
enhancement of the humoral immune response by echinacea purpurea in female swiss mice.various preparations of the plant echinacea purpurea have been investigated for their potential to enhance immune function, primarily through activation of innate immune responses. few studies have examined the potential for enhancement of humoral immunity. using female swiss mice we administered a volumetric dose of a glycerine extract of e. purpurea by oral gavage, to evaluate effects on the igm specific antibody forming cell (afc) response. four days of treatment following immunization with s ...200314686797
modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.modulation of cytokine secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. one strategy in the modulation of cytokine expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. a class of herbal medicines, known as immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic regulation of informational molecules such as cytokines. this may offer an explanation of the effects of herbs on the immune system and other tissues. for this informal review, the aut ...200616813462
[applied fundamental research of echinacea species].echinacea is a most famous "immune herb" in western countries, and continues to be the best selling herb for many years. for the last five years, our research group has cooperated with institute of medicinal plants in huairou district of beijing, carrying out studies on echinacea purpurea, which involved botany, cultivation, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacology and toxicology of the species. two other species introduced from canada, echinacea angustifolia and echinacea pa ...200414970897
an approach to the in vitro evaluation of potential for cytochrome p450 enzyme inhibition from herbals and other natural remedies.herbals and other natural remedies could affect the disposition of conventional pharmaceuticals through inhibition of human cytochrome p-450 (cyp) enzymes. we have developed an approach to the problem of determining a critical potential for cyp enzyme inhibition by commercial herbal remedies etcetera using standardised extraction procedures in combination with commercially available human cyp enzyme 3a4, 2d6 and 2c19 inhibition assays. we present a survey of commercially available natural remedi ...200415070158
cytokine production by non-adherent mouse splenocyte cultures to echinacea extracts.echinacea is commonly used in oral dosage as an immune stimulant to increase resistance to viral, bacterial and fungal infections of the upper respiratory tract. it has been suggested that echinacea is able to stimulate innate immune responses, including those regulated by macrophages and natural killer cells. indeed, macrophages respond to purified polysaccharide and alkylamide preparations. however, the mechanisms for stimulation of cells responsible for adaptive immunity have not been fully e ...200415115689
[compensatory reactions of immune system and action of purple coneflower (echinacea purpurea (l.) moench) preparations].the objective of the study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of purple coneflower (echinacea purpurea (l.) moench) preparations on the immune system and to define which part of the plant is the most effective as an immunostimulator.200415252231
antioxidant and immuno-enhancing effects of echinacea purpurea.we studied the protective effects of echinacea purpurea against radiation by evaluating changes in the peripheral blood cell count and peripheral blood antioxidant activity. e. purpurea administration had a suppressive effect on radiation-induced leukopenia, especially on lymphocytes and monocytes, and resulted in a faster recovery of blood cell counts. mouse peripheral blood antioxidant activity was increased by e. purpurea, and a relationship between the suppressive effect on radiation-induced ...200415256730
monoclonal antibodies against an arabinogalactan-protein from pressed juice of echinacea purpurea.pressed juices of the aerial parts of echinacea purpurea are used as non-specific immunostimulants, and arabinogalactan-proteins (agps) have been shown to be part of the active principle. monoclonal antibodies against an agp from pressed juice of echinacea purpurea with complement-stimulating activity have been established by means of hybridoma techniques. to test the specificity of the antibodies, several other arabinogalactan-proteins from suspension cultures of echinacea purpurea, the roots o ...200415386194
the effect of echinacea purpurea extract on sexual glands of male rats.fifty percent of men over the age of fifty are diagnosed benign prostate hyperplasia. it is caused by disorders in the balance of androgens and estrogens, depending on the activity of sexual glands; therefore it is advisable to examine the functioning of these organs and to determine the pathogenetic mechanism of effect of this pathology. the antiandrogenic effect of echinacea preparations was examined in our previous study and hypoplasia of histological structures and the mass reduction of pros ...200415630349
echinacea alkamide disposition and pharmacokinetics in humans after tablet ingestion.echinacea is a widely used herbal remedy for the treatment of colds and other infections. however, almost nothing is known about the disposition and pharmacokinetics of any of its components, particularly the alkamides and caffeic acid conjugates which are thought to be the active phytochemicals. in this investigation, we have examined serial plasma samples from 9 healthy volunteers who ingested echinacea tablets manufactured from ethanolic liquid extracts of echinacea angustifolia and echinacea ...200515919096
immunomodulatory effects of arabinogalactan-proteins from baptisia and echinacea.the influences of different arabinogalactan-proteins (agps) on proliferation and igm-production of mouse lymphocytes as well as nitrite- and il6-production of mouse macrophages were investigated in vitro. agps have been isolated and purified from roots of baptisia tinctoria and echinacea pallida and suspension culture of echinacea purpurea. comparing the agps, there are differences with regard to fine structure as well as to activities. agps from roots of b. tinctoria and e. pallida show high ac ...200617085292
echinacea purpurea supplementation stimulates select groups of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota.the objective of this research was to determine the effects of the dietary supplement echinacea purpurea on aerobic and anaerobic bacteria common to the human gastrointestinal (gi) tract. botanical extracts have shown in vitro antimicrobial effects against certain pathogenic bacteria. it is uncertain if medicinal herbs have any effect against pathogenic bacteria or on the native gi microbiota.200617176365
efficiency of echinacea purpurea on performance and immune status in pigs.the aim of the present investigation was to examine the inclusion of the dried herb echinacea purpurea (l.) moench as feed additive in diets of sows, piglets, and grower/finisher pigs on growth performance, blood picture, plasma enzymes including proliferation of lymphocytes, antibody status, and protein and immune globulin content of colostrum. the control groups were supplemented with alfalfa meal. the sows (total 36) received 0%, 1.2%, or 3.6% echinacea cobs in the diet from day 85 to day 110 ...200515972074
mekc analysis of different echinacea species.the distribution pattern of caffeic acid derivatives in echinacea species is complex, and problems with the identity of each drug have been recognized. micellar electrokinetic chromatography (mekc) has been applied to define the fingerprints of echinacea angustifolia, echinacea pallida, and echinacea purpurea, and their mixtures. the results obtained evidence that mekc is a valuable tool for the characterization of these drugs.199817253306
analysis of the inhibitory potential of ginkgo biloba, echinacea purpurea, and serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome p450 3a4, 2d6, and 2c9.to study the potential of three top-selling herbal products, ginkgo biloba, echinacea purpurea, and serenoa repens to inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of three of the most important drug metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a4, 2d6, and 2c9.200515992226
ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in british columbia, canada.the use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock.200717324258
enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily echinacea root extract from youth.in spite of echinacea-based products being among the best-selling herbs in the world to date, to allay assorted ailments, the debate is still on-going with respect to the efficacy of ingesting the herb intermittently, continuously, or only at the beginning of an affliction. we sought, therefore, to find out if mice, receiving dietary echinacea daily, throughout life, from youth until late middle-age, demonstrated any longevity/survival differences, and/or any differences in their various populat ...200516041619
echinacea species (echinacea angustifolia (dc.) hell., echinacea pallida (nutt.) nutt.,echinacea purpurea (l.) moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.this paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of echinacea species used medicinally. the echinacea species echinacea angustifolia, echinacea pallida and echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention ...200516102249
ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in british columbia, canada.this paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in british columbia, canada. ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. the majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. the following plants were used as anthelmintics: artemisi ...200717628343
effect on prolactin secretion of echinacea purpurea, hypericum perforatum and eleutherococcus senticosus.it has been recently reported that prolactin (prl) plays an important role in immune system regulation. in this study we investigated the activity of three natural drugs with immunomodulatory activity: echinacea purpurea (ep), hypericum perforatum (hp) and eleutherococcus senticosus (es) on prl production. male rats were orally treated with two different doses (30 and 100 mg/kg) of extract of these drugs for 3 or 15 days. a 3-day treatment was not able to modify prl serum levels, whereas a 15-da ...200516194051
dietary echinacea purpurea during murine pregnancy: effect on maternal hemopoiesis and fetal growth.the medicinal benefits of echinacea sp. plants in several disease conditions, including insect bites, respiratory ailments, and even cancer and aids, have been touted for decades. echinacea sp.-based phytoceuticals are among the top selling herbals in the western marketplace today. however, evidence is very scant concerning the effects of using echinacea species herbals during pregnancy. while available data indicates that fetal malformations do not occur during pregnancy in humans consuming thi ...200616210848
human gene expression as a tool to determine horticultural maturity in a bioactive plant (echinacea purpurea l. moench).a phenological study was conducted to determine the impact of harvest maturity on the immune-modulating properties of echinacea purpurea. the aerial parts of this plant were collected during seven stages of development and were assayed for a common botanical marker for this species, cichoric acid. plants of selected development stages were also assayed for total polysaccharides and compared for their immune-modulating effects on the thp-1 monocyte/macrophage cell line by means of a gene expressi ...200516218658
synergistic antioxidative effects of alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharide fractions from echinacea purpurea on in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins.preparations of echinacea are widely used as alternative remedies to prevent the common cold and infections in the upper respiratory tract. after extraction, fractionation, and isolation, the antioxidant activity of three extracts, one alkamide fraction, four polysaccharide-containing fractions, and three caffeic acid derivatives from echinacea purpurea root was evaluated by measuring their inhibition of in vitro cu(ii)-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (ldl). the antioxidant ...200516302756
[composite tincture from the tops of the purple coneflower (echinacea purpurea) and the fruits of the dog rose (rosa canina): technology of production and evaluation of quality].this paper aimed to elaborate the technology of the production of a composite tincture with an immunostimulatory and adaptogenic effect, to select suitable methods of quality evaluation, and perform stability tests. the tops of the purple coneflower (echinaceae herba) and fruits of the dog rose (cynosbati fructus) in a ratio of 1:1 were employed to prepare the tincture. the tincture itself was prepared in a ratio of 1:5. the experiment revealed that ethanol 50% was the most suitable extracting a ...200516383189
echinacea powder: treatment for canine chronic and seasonal upper respiratory tract infections.an open multi-centered veterinary clinical trial, comparing conditions before and after treatment with a herbal preparation, containing the powdered root of echinacea purpurea, was conducted by 6 practicing veterinarians in switzerland. the plant-based immune stimulant was administered to 41 dogs with manifestations of chronic and seasonal upper respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis/tonsillitis, bronchitis and kennel cough. each animal was at an individual stage of the disease, wit ...200312784483
echinacea extracts modulate the pattern of chemokine and cytokine secretion in rhinovirus-infected and uninfected epithelial cells.extracts of echinacea purpurea are among the most widely used herbal medicines throughout europe and north america for the prevention or treatment of common cold, coughs, bronchitis and other upper respiratory infections. popular preparations include expressed juice from the aerial parts of the plant (which contain polysaccharides) and alcoholic tinctures from roots (containing caffeic acid derivatives and alkylamides). since immune modulation has been reported for similar extracts, cytokine ant ...200616444669
effect of dietary echinacea purpurea on viremia and performance in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected nursery pigs.the effect of dietary echinacea purpurea on performance, viremia, and ontogeny of the humoral antibody response against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) infection was evaluated in weaned pigs. in three replicates, 120 weaned pigs (25 +/- 1 d of age; 8.46 +/- 0.48 kg of bw) from a prrsv-naive herd were allotted randomly to one of eight pens (diets) in two separate rooms (four pens/room), with each pen containing five pigs. pigs began one of four dietary treatments (as-f ...200312968687
binding studies of an arabinogalactan-protein from echinacea purpurea to leucocytes.flow cytometric investigations show binding of an isolated arabinogalactan-protein (agp) from pressed juice of the aerial parts of echinacea purpurea to the cell surface of human leucocytes. agp demonstrates binding to lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes of different donors (n=8). competition assays with two antibodies, directed against cd4 and cd8, revealed no interaction of agp with these receptors, leading to the conclusion that binding of agp to leucocytes is mediated via other structure ...200616716912
the effect of echinacea purpurea, astragalus membranaceus and glycyrrhiza glabra on cd69 expression and immune cell activation in humans.the increasing use of medicinal herbs among the general public has piqued the need for scientific-based research to determine the mechanism of action of herbs administered orally in human subjects. the ability of three herbs, echinacea purpurea, astragalus membranaceus and glycyrrhiza glabra, to activate immune cells in human subjects was assessed in this pilot study. the effect of these herbs when ingested for 7 days was measured both when administered singly, and in combination, using flow cyt ...200616807880
a comparison study of effects of echinacea extract and levamisole on phenytoin-induced cleft palate in mice.there are many reports that the teratogenic effects of phenytoin, especially cleft palate can be decreased by stimulation of maternal immune system. also, there is some evidence that echinacea extract and levamisole are immunomodulator drugs. so, in this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of levamisole and echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of phenytoin. this study was performed on 32 pregnant mice that were divided into four groups. the first group (control group) received normal ...200616889880
p-glycoprotein inhibitory activity of lipophilic constituents of echinacea pallida roots in a human proximal tubular cell line.the n-hexane root extracts from echinacea pallida, echinacea angustifolia and echinacea purpurea were evaluated for inhibition of the multidrug transporter p-glycoprotein (pgp) activity, the product of the abcb1 gene, involved in cancer multidrug resistance (mdr) and in herb-drug or drug-drug interactions. the biological assay was performed using the human proximal tubule hk-2 cell line that constitutively expresses abcb1. the n-hexane extracts of all three species reduced the efflux of the pgp ...200818425719
genetic transformation of echinacea purpurea with agrobacterium rhizogenes and bioactive ingredient analysis in transformed cultures.a method of the transformed hairy roots cultures of echinacea purpurea was established by infecting different types of explants with three type strains of agrobacterium rhizogenes (a4, r1601 and r1000) in this paper. we obtained that the transformed percentage of e. purpurea leaves with a4, r1601 and r1000 were 80%, 60%, 40%, respectively and that of e. purpurea leafstalks were 10%, 30%, 45%, respectively. the contents of polysaccharides and phenolic compounds were measured in transformed hairy ...200616982176
echinacea extracts modulate the production of multiple transcription factors in uninfected cells and rhinovirus-infected cells.extracts of echinacea purpurea are widely used for the prevention and treatment of common colds, coughs, bronchitis and other upper respiratory infections, many of which are caused by rhinoviruses (rvs). recent reports have indicated that rhinoviruses can stimulate the release of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from cultured nasal and bronchial human epithelial cells, and several transcription factors (tfs) have been implicated in this process. the effects of echinacea treatmen ...200617009208
modulatory effects of echinacea purpurea extracts on human dendritic cells: a cell- and gene-based study.echinacea spp. are popularly used as an herbal medicine or food supplement for enhancing the immune system. this study shows that plant extracts from root [r] and stem plus leaf [s+l] tissues of e. purpurea exhibit opposite (enhancing vs inhibitory) modulatory effects on the expression of the cd83 marker in human dendritic cells (dcs), which are known as professional antigen-presenting cells. we developed a function-targeted dna microarray system to characterize the effects of phytocompounds on ...200617011161
cytotoxic effects of echinacea root hexanic extracts on human cancer cell lines.echinacea is one of the most widely used alternative medicine in the world. intake of echinacea preparations is common among patients with advanced malignancies enrolled onto phase i chemotherapy trials; however, to our knowledge, no data are available regarding the possible direct effect of echinacea species on human cancer cells. the purpose of the present study was to investigate potential in vitro cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties of hexanic root extract of the three medicinal echinacea ...200717052874
growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in echinacea purpurea and echinacea angustifolia.medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. to address this need, a good manufacturing practice (gmp)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of echinacea purpurea and echinacea angustifolia. within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. the cu ...200617054043
use of heteroduplex mobility assay for identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas in the aster yellows group and the clover proliferation group.abstract this paper describes the identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas by a highly sensitive diagnostic technique, dna heteroduplex mobility assay (hma). closely related phytoplasma isolates of clover proliferation (cp), potato witches'-broom (pwb), and alfalfa witches'-broom (awb) were collected from the field from 1990 to 1999. the entire 16s rrna gene and 16/23s spacer region were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from the field samples and standard cp, pwb, and awb p ...200118943942
liver enzyme-mediated oxidation of echinacea purpurea alkylamides: production of novel metabolites and changes in immunomodulatory activity.the medicinal plant echinacea is widely used to treat upper respiratory infections and is reported to stimulate the human immune system. a major constituent class of echinacea, the alkylamides, has immunomodulatory effects. recent studies show that alkylamides are oxidized by cytochrome p450 enzymes, but the immunomodulatory activity of these products is unknown. the objectives of this study were to characterize the products formed by incubation of an echinacea extract and an isolated alkylamide ...200617054047
caffeic acid derivatives production by hairy root cultures of echinacea purpurea.inoculation of leaf explants of echinacea purpurea (moench) with agrobacterium rhizogenes induced hairy roots with the capacity to produce biologically active caffeic acid derivatives (cads), especially cichoric acid. the kinetics of growth, the uptake of macronutrients, and the accumulation of cads were investigated in heterotrophically cultured hairy roots for a 50 day period. a maximum of 12.2 g l(-1) dry biomass was achieved in ms nutrients supplemented with 30 g l(-1) sucrose on day 40. the ...200617061821
the induction of cyp1a2, cyp2d6 and cyp3a4 by six trade herbal products in cultured primary human hepatocytes.the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro inductive potential of six commonly used trade herbal products on cyp1a2, cyp2d6 and cyp3a4 metabolic activities. herbal components were extracted from the trade products in a way that ensured a composition equal to that present in the original product. primary human hepatocytes and specific cyp substrates were used. classic inducers were used as positive controls and herbal extracts were added in in vivo-relevant concentrations. metabolites wer ...200717214607
the fate of trans-caftaric acid administered into the rat stomach.trans-caftaric acid is the most abundant nonflavonoid phenolic compound in grapes and wines. it occurs in chicory and is one of the bioactive components of echinacea purpurea. in order to fill the gap of knowledge about its bioavailability in mammals, we investigated its absorption, tissue distribution, and metabolism in rats. assuming that the stomach is a relevant site of absorption of dietary polyphenols, a solution of trans-caftaric acid was maintained in the ligated stomach of anaesthetized ...200717300159
assessment of the effect of echinacea purpurea (l.) moench on apoptotic and mitotic activity of liver cells during intoxication by cadmium.cadmium (cd(2+)) is an important industrial pollutant, although its mechanism of toxicity has not been completely clarified. cd(2+) is toxic to a wide range of organs and tissues, however, the primary target organs of cd(2+) toxicity are the liver and kidney. echinacea purpurea stimulating one or another tread of the immune system stimulates the expression of immunoglobulins and interferons. the experiments were performed on white laboratory mice using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections 0.05 ld(5 ...200717404071
influence of echinacea purpurea (l.) moench extract on the toxicity of cadmium.echinacea purpurea (l.) moench (ep) has many beneficial features, especially strengthening the immune system. cadmium (cd) is a ubiquitous metal and cumulative poison that may cause liver and kidney damage and the formation of neoplasia. in this article, the changes in organs and metabolism, the accumulation of various levels of cd in tissues, and the effects of ep liquid extract on cd-induced changes in mice were investigated. experiments were carried out on the white laboratory mice. solution ...200717404072
[effect of echinacea purpurea tincture and its polysaccharide complex on the efficacy of cytostatic therapy of transferred tumors].experiments on c57lb/6 mice with transplanted luis lung carcinoma showed that the officinal echinacea purpurea preparation did not influence the efficacy of cytostatic therapy. this echinacea preparation did not change the development of metastases and even stimulated the tumor growth. in contrast, a hydrophilic polysaccharide complex isolated from echinacea increased the antitumor and antimetastatic activity of cyclophosphamide.200717650630
effects of herbal products and their constituents on human cytochrome p450(2e1) activity.ethanolic extracts from fresh echinacea purpurea and spilanthes acmella and dried hydrastis canadensis were examined with regard to their ability to inhibit cytochrome p450(2e1) mediated oxidation of p-nitrophenol in vitro. in addition, individual constituents of these extracts, including alkylamides from e. purpurea and s. acmella, caffeic acid derivatives from e. purpurea, and several of the major alkaloids from h. canadensis, were tested for inhibition using the same assay. h. canadensis (gol ...200717658211
use of quantitative flow cytometry to measure ex vivo immunostimulant activity of echinacea: the case for polysaccharides.when directly exposed to various echinacea fractions, human leukocytes ex vivo are strongly stimulated to proliferate and to produce immunostimulation and inflammatory cytokines. a comparison of fractions containing lipoidal small molecules and high-molecular-weight water-soluble polysaccharides indicates that the latter are substantially more potent as immunostimulants. echinacea purpurea (l.) moench, e. angustifolia dc, and e. pallida (nutt.), nutt. extracts, and each plant part contain signif ...200717718645
echinacea alkylamides modulate induced immune responses in t-cells.the effects of echinacea and several of its phytochemical components on nfkappab expression by jurkat cells (a human t-cell line) were investigated in vitro. in the absence of stimulation, echinacea and its components exerted no significant effect on basal nfkappab expression levels. in the presence of endotoxin (lps), nfkappab expression was decreased. however, this decrease was significantly reversed by treatment with cichoric acid, an echinacea root extract (prepared from both echinacea angus ...200817855021
variability of the essential oil from three sorts of echinacea moench genus during ontogenesis.variability of the essential oil from three sorts of echinacea moench genus during ontogenesis the content and quality of the essential oil in relation to the main ontogenetic stages of plants were studied in three various sorts of echinacea genus. the comparison included echinacea purpurea, echinacea atrorubens, and echinacea pallida. the differences in the content of the oil in different parts of plants and the abundance of individual oil constituents in oils from the sorts under study at the ...200717867523
anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in ascaris suum inoculated pigs.two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. usually, an infection of a. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. in the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb ...201019954891
[knowledge of perioperative risk associated with use of medicinal plants].to assess physicians' knowledge of perioperative risk for patients who consume medicinal plants. to review interactions between drugs and the main medicinal plants with a view to justifying a plan for preoperative intervention.200919994614
enhancement of innate and adaptive immune functions by multiple echinacea species.echinacea preparations are commonly used as nonspecific immunomodulatory agents. alcohol extracts from three widely used echinacea species, echinacea angustifolia, echinacea pallida, and echinacea purpurea, were investigated for immunomodulating properties. the three echinacea species demonstrated a broad difference in concentrations of individual lipophilic amides and hydrophilic caffeic acid derivatives. mice were gavaged once a day (for 7 days) with one of the echinacea extracts (130 mg/kg) o ...200717887935
the in vitro inhibitory potential of trade herbal products on human cyp2d6-mediated metabolism and the influence of ethanol.the six commonly used trade herbal products, st. john's wort, common valerian, common sage, ginkgo biloba, echinacea purpurea and horse chestnut, and ethanol, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potential of cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6)-mediated metabolism. herbal components were extracted from commercially available products in a way that ensured the same composition of constituents in the extract as in the original trade products. c-dna baculovirus expressed cyp2d6 was used with de ...200717910620
phytotherapeutic effects of echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice.echinacea (e.) purpurea herb is commonly known as the purple coneflower, red sunflower and rudbeckia. in this paper, we report the curative efficacy of an echinacea extract in gamma-irradiated mice. e. purpurea was given to male mice that were divided into five groups (control, treated, irradiated, treated before irradiation & treated after irradiation) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks before and after irradiation with 3 gy of gamma-rays. the results reflected the detrimental reduct ...200717993747
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