phylogenetic analysis of the genera alteromonas, shewanella, and moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rrna sequences and division of the genus alteromonas into two genera, alteromonas (emended) and pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations.small-subunit ribosomal dna sequences were determined for 17 strains belonging to the genera alteromonas, shewanella, vibrio, and pseudomonas, and these sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic methods. the resulting data confirmed the existence of the genera shewanella and moritella, but suggested that the genus alteromonas should be split into two genera. we propose that a new genus, the genus pseudoalteromonas, should be created to accommodate 11 species that were previously alteromonas specie ...19957547295
the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis has a complex genome structure composed of two separate genetic units.the genome size of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, a ubiquitous and easily cultured marine bacterium, was measured as a step toward estimating the genome complexity of marine bacterioplankton. to determine total genome size, we digested p. haloplanktis dna with the restriction endonucleases notl and sfil, separated the fragments using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and summed the sizes of the fragments. the p. haloplanktis genome was 3512 +/- 112 kb by notl digestion and 3468 +/- 54.1 ...19968973910
pseudoalteromonas antarctica sp. nov., isolated from an antarctic coastal environment.the taxonomic characteristics of five bacterial strains which were isolated from antarctic coastal marine environments were studied. these bacteria were psychrotrophic, aerobic, and gram negative with polar flagella. the g + c contents of the dnas of these strains were 41 to 42 mol%. the antarctic strains were phenotypically distinct from the previously described pseudoalteromonas type species. dna-dna hybridization experiments revealed that the new strains were closely related to each other but ...19979103620
use of a promoterless lacz gene insertion to investigate chitinase gene expression in the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. strain s9.sequence data for genes encoding 16s rrna indicated that the marine strain previously named pseudomonas sp. strain s9 would be better identified as a pseudoalteromonas sp. by use of transposon mutagenesis, a chitinase-negative mutant of s9 with a lacz reporter gene insertion was isolated. part of the interrupted gene was cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence had homology to sequences of bacterial chitinases. expression of the chitinase gene promoter was quantified by measuring th ...19979251187
diversity and association of psychrophilic bacteria in antarctic sea ice.the bacterial populations associated with sea ice sampled from antarctic coastal areas were investigated by use of a phenotypic approach and a phylogenetic approach based on genes encoding 16s rrna (16s rdna). the diversity of bacteria associated with sea ice was also compared with the bacterial diversity of seawater underlying sea ice. psychrophilic (optimal growth temperature, < or = 15 degrees c; no growth occurring at 20 degrees c) bacterial diversity was found to be significantly enriched i ...19979251193
a possible immunosuppressant, cycloprodigiosin hydrochloride, obtained from pseudoalteromonas denitrificans.cycloprodigiosin hydrochloride (cprg.hcl), a member of the prodigiosin family, is a red pigment obtained from the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas denitrificans. cprg.hcl markedly suppressed 3h-thymidine incorporation by concanavalin a stimulated murine splenocytes but had little effect on lipopolysaccharide dependent 3h-thymidine incorporation, indicating that cprg.hcl acts as a selective inhibitor of t cell proliferation in the same way as other members of the prodigiosin family. cprg.hcl in ...19979299400
assembly properties of a glycoprotein produced by pseudoalteromonas antarctica, nf3the self-assembly properties of an extracellular material of glycoprotein character produced by a new gram-negative species, nf3, pseudoalteromonas antarctica, isolated from muddy soil samples of antarctica have been investigated. the aggregation behavior of this exopolymer was studied directly by transmission electron microscopy (tem) and analysis of digitalized tem images of its aqueous dispersions before and after sonication. increasing amounts of glycoprotein (gp) in water led to an abrupt d ...19979367550
phenotypic diversity of pseudoalteromonas citrea from different marine habitats and emendation of the description.four strains of marine, aerobic, agar-decomposing bacteria with one polar flagellum and with dna g + c contents of 38.9-40.2 mol% were isolated from the far-eastern mussels crenomytilus grayanus and patinopecten yessoensis. these four strains were identified as pseudoalteromonas; however, they were phenotypically different from species described previously according to carbon compound utilization tests and the biolog identification system. high agar-decomposing activity was found in two strains, ...19989542094
characterization of the c-terminal propeptide involved in bacterial wall spanning of alpha-amylase from the psychrophile alteromonas haloplanctis.the antarctic psychrophile alteromonas haloplanctis secretes a ca2+- and cl--dependent alpha-amylase. the nucleotide sequence of the amy gene and the amino acid sequences of the gene products indicate that the alpha-amylase precursor is a preproenzyme composed by the signal peptide (24 residues), the mature alpha-amylase (453 residues, 49 kda), and a long c-terminal propeptide or secretion helper (192 residues, 21 kda). in cultures of the wild-type strain, the 70-kda precursor is secreted at the ...19989575155
korormicin, a novel antibiotic specifically active against marine gram-negative bacteria, produced by a marine bacterium.a novel antibiotic named korormicin was isolated from the marine bacterium, pseudoalteromonas sp. f-420. this strain was isolated from the surface of a macro alga halimeda sp. collected from palau (the republic of belau). the planar structure of korormicin was determined by the result of 2d nmr studies and mass spectral data. korormicin had specific inhibitory activity against marine gram-negative bacteria, but was inactive against terrestrial microorganisms.19979592569
carbon dioxide as a regulator of gene expression in microorganisms.co2 regulates gene expression across a diverse group of microorganisms including fungi, and both photosynthetic and non photosynthetic bacteria. the processes that co2 regulates are diverse. several co2-responsive random promoter lacz fusions of unknown function have been isolated from a marine synechococcus and a pseudoalteromonas sp., highlighting the wide effect of co2 control in these organisms. regulatory proteins have been described that mediate the co2 response at transcription level in b ...19989602281
use of green fluorescent protein to tag and investigate gene expression in marine bacteria.two broad-host-range vectors previously constructed for use in soil bacteria (a. g. matthysse, s. stretton, c. dandie, n. c. mcclure, and a. e. goodman, fems microbiol. lett. 145:87-94, 1996) were assessed by epifluorescence microscopy for use in tagging three marine bacterial species. expression of gfp could be visualized in vibrio sp. strain s141 cells at uniform levels of intensity from either the lac or the npt-2 promoter, whereas expression of gfp could be visualized in psychrobacter sp. st ...19989647829
structure of a highly acidic o-specific polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis kmm 223 (44-1) containing l-iduronic acid and acidic o-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide isolated by phenol-water extraction of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain kmm 223 (44-1). l-iduronic acid (idoa) was found to be a component of the polysaccharide and identified by nmr spectroscopy and after carboxyl-reduction followed by acid hydrolysis and acetylation, by glc-ms as 2,3,4-tri-o-acetyl-1,6-anhydroidose. on the basis of 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopic studies, including 1d noe, 2d ...19989675369
algicidal effects of a novel marine pseudoalteromonas isolate (class proteobacteria, gamma subdivision) on harmful algal bloom species of the genera chattonella, gymnodinium, and heterosigma.during a bacterial survey of the huon estuary in southern tasmania, australia, we isolated a yellow-pigmented pseudoalteromonas strain (class proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. this organism was identified by 16s rrna sequencing as a strain with close affinities to pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. this bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and death (within 3 h) of gymnodinoids (including gymnodinium catenatum) and ...19989687434
genetic diversity of the biofilm covering montacuta ferruginosa (mollusca, bivalvia) as evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of pcr-amplified gene fragments coding for 16s rrna.the shell of the bivalve montacuta ferruginosa, a symbiont living in the burrow of an echinoid, is covered with a rust-colored biofilm. this biofilm includes different morphotypes of bacteria that are encrusted with a mineral rich in ferric ion and phosphate. the aim of this research was to determine the genetic diversity and phylogenetic affiliation of the biofilm bacteria. also, the possible roles of the microorganisms in the processes of mineral deposition within the biofilm, as well as their ...19989726898
pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of laminaria aerobic, polarly flagellated marine bacterium that produces a prodigiosin-like pigment was isolated from the red-spotted culture beds of laminaria japonica. five isolates had unique bacteriolytic activity for both gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which had never been observed among alteromonas or related species. the isolates were identified as the causative agent of red spot disease of l. japonica seeds. the phenotypic features of the isolates were similar to these of pseudoalteromonas ...19989734030
pseudoalteromonas prydzensis sp. nov., a psychrotrophic, halotolerant bacterium form antarctic sea ice.species of the genus pseudoalteromonas are frequently isolated from marine ecosystems and appear to be particularly abundant in antarctic coastal waters. most pseudoalteromonas strains isolated form sea ice and underlying seawater samples are phenotypically similar to the species pseudoalteromonas antarctica and pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens. however, a minority of isolates were recognized by phenotypic, dna-dna hybridization and 16s rrna-based phylogenetic studies to represent a distinct genos ...19989734061
bacteriophage diversity in the north recent years interest in bacteriophages in aquatic environments has increased. electron microscopy studies have revealed high numbers of phage particles (10(4) to 10(7) particles per ml) in the marine environment. however, the ecological role of these bacteriophages is still unknown, and the role of the phages in the control of bacterioplankton by lysis and the potential for gene transfer are disputed. even the basic questions of the genetic relationships of the phages and the diversity of ph ...19989797256
identification of a marine agarolytic pseudoalteromonas isolate and characterization of its extracellular agarasethe phenotypic and agarolytic features of an unidentified marine bacteria that was isolated from the southern pacific coast was investigated. the strain was gram negative, obligately aerobic, and polarly flagellated. on the basis of several phenotypic characters and a phylogenetic analysis of the genes coding for the 16s rrna, this strain was identified as pseudoalteromonas antarctica strain n-1. in solid agar, this isolate produced a diffusible agarase that caused agar softening around the colo ...19989797294
pseudoalteromonas tunicata sp. nov., a bacterium that produces antifouling agents.a dark-green-pigmented marine bacterium, previously designated d2, which produces components that are inhibitory to common marine fouling organisms has been characterized and assessed for taxonomic assignment. based on direct double-stranded sequencing of the 16s rrna gene, d2t was found to show the highest similarity (93%) to members of the genus pseudoalteromonas. the g + c content of d2t is 42 mol%, and it is a facultatively anaerobic rod and oxidase-positive. d2t is motile by a sheathed pola ...19989828422
structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from pseudoalteromonas elyakovii sp. nov. cmm 162.the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from lipopolysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas elyakovii sp. nov. cmm 162 on the basis of nmr data, smith degradation and methylation study was elucidated as follows:-->2)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->4)-beta-d-galpnac-(1--> 3)-alpha-d-galp-(1-->3)-beta-d-galp-nac-(1-->6)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->.19989861701
structure of sulfated o-specific polysaccharide of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas marinoglutinosa kmm 232.a sulfated o-specific polysaccharide containing d-mannose, l-rhamnose, and the sulfate group was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide (s-form) of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas marinoglutinosa kmm 232. based on analysis of methylation and 13c-nmr spectroscopy of native and desulfated polysaccharides, the following structure of disaccharide repeat unit in the o-specific polysaccharide has been established: [scheme]. this is the first report of a sulfated o-specific polys ...19989864455
alpha-galactosidase of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm alpha-galactosidase that inactivates the group specificity of b erythrocytes (group iii) of human blood and does not affect a erythrocytes (group ii) was isolated from the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm 701. the enzyme preparation did not contain lectin, hemolytic, sialidase, endoglycanase, or glycosidase activities. the enzyme is stable at 20 degreesc for 24 h, has ph optimum for catalysis within the range of 6.7-7.7, and is stable to high concentrations of nacl. it is 4-fold mor ...19989864457
[structure of glycerophosphate-containing o-specific polysaccharide from pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm 639].on the basis of acid hydrolysis, dephosphorylation, methylation, and 13c nmr spectroscopy data, the o-specific polysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm 639 was shown to be a glycerophosphate-containing polymer built of repeating disaccharide units of the following structure: [formula: see text]199810079941
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of the kappa-carrageenase from pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora.a recombinant form of his-tagged kappa-carrageenase from pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora has been expressed, purified and crystallized. crystals have been obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol (mr = 4000) as a precipitant. these crystals belong to the space group p212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.2, b = 62.8, c = 77.9 a, and diffract to 2.2 a resolution on a rotating-anode x-ray source.199910089334
multiple genes involved in chitin degradation from the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. strain s91.a cluster of three closely linked chitinase genes organized in the order chia, chib and chic, with the same transcriptional direction, and two unlinked genes, chip and chiq, involved in chitin degradation in pseudoalteromnas sp. strain s91 were cloned, sequenced and characterized. the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that chia, chib and chic exhibited similarities to chitinases belonging to family 18 of the glycosyl hydrolases while chip and chiq belonged to family 20. chip and chiq showed ...199910220172
ability of the exopolymer excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3, to coat liposomes and to protect these structures against octyl glucoside.the ability of an exopolymer of glycoproteic character (gp) excreted by a new gram-negative specie pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3, to coat phosphatidylcholine (pc) liposomes and to protect these bilayers against the action of the nonionic surfactant octyl glucoside (og) has been investigated. tem micrographs of freeze-fractured liposome/gp aggregates reveal that the addition of gp to liposomes led to the formation of a covering structure (polymer adsorbed onto the bilayers) that tightly coated ...199910357266
cycloprodigiosin hydrochloride obtained from pseudoalteromonas denitrificans is a potent antimalarial agent.cycloprodigiosin hydrochloride (cprg*hcl) is a stable fluorescent red pigment obtained from the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas denitrificans. it was found that the compound was incorporated into plasmodium falciparum cells upon incubation and exhibited a potent antimalarial activity with the concentration required for 50% of the activity being 11 nm, which is stronger than that of chloroquine, a well-known antimalarial agent. the compound did not affect growth rate of mammalian cells. antima ...199910375177
determination of total protein content of bacterial cells by sypro staining and flow assay has been developed for measuring protein biomass of marine planktonic bacteria by flow cytometry. the method was calibrated by using five species of bacteria (an arcobacter sp., a cytophaga sp., an oceanospirillum sp., a pseudoalteromonas sp., and a vibrio sp.) recently isolated from seawater samples and grown in culture at different temperatures. the intensity of sypro-protein fluorescence of these bacteria strongly correlated with their total protein content, measured by the bicinchon ...199910388732
structural determination of the exopolysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas strain hyd 721 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.the structure of the exopolysaccharide produced by pseudoalteromonas reference strain hyd 721 recovered from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent has been investigated. by means of methylation and beta-elimination analysis, selective degradation of the uronic acids, partial depolymerization and nmr studies, the repeating unit of the polymer was deduced to be a branched octasaccharide with the structure shown. [formula: see text]199910399301
excision of is492 requires flanking target sequences and results in circle formation in pseudoalteromonas atlantica.the gram-negative marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas atlantica produces extracellular polysaccharide (eps) that is important in biofilm formation by this bacterium. insertion and precise excision of is492 at a locus essential for extracellular polysaccharide production (eps) controls phase variation of eps production in p. atlantica. examination of is492 transposition in p. atlantica by using a pcr-based assay revealed a circular form of is492 that may be an intermediate in transposition or a te ...199910438765
the complete genome sequence of pm2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated.bacteriophage pm2 was isolated from the pacific ocean off the coast of chile in the late 1960s. it was a new virus type, later classified as corticoviridae, and also the first bacterial virus for which it was demonstrated that lipids are part of the virion structure. here we report the determination and analysis of the 10, 079-bp circular dsdna genome sequence. noteworthy discoveries are the replication initiation system, which is related to the rolling circle mechanism described for phages such ...199910502514
purification and protein composition of pm2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated.the marine, icosahedral bacteriophage pm2 was isolated in the late 1960s. it was the first phage for which lipids were firmly demonstrated to be part of the virion structure and it has been classified as the type organism of the corticoviridae family. the host, pseudoalteromonas espejiana bal-31, belongs to a common group of marine bacteria. we developed a purification method producing virions with specific infectivity approximately as high as that of the lipid-containing phages prd1 and &phi;6. ...199910502515
biopolymer excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf(3), as a coating and protective agent of liposomes against dodecyl maltosidethe ability of an exopolymer of glycoproteic character (gp) excreted by a new gram-negative species pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf(3), to coat phosphatidylcholine (pc) liposomes and to protect these bilayers against the action of the nonionic surfactant dodecyl maltoside was investigated. transmission electron microscopy (tem) micrographs of freeze fractured liposome/gp aggregates reveal that the addition of the glycoprotein to liposomes led to the formation of a film (polymer adsorbed onto the ...199910508960
inhibitor studies of a new antibiotic, korormicin, 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide and ag+ toward the na+-translocating nadh-quinone reductase from the marine vibrio alginolyticus.a new antibiotic, korormicin, isolated from a marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. f-420, was found to strongly inhibit the respiratory chain-linked na+-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from the marine vibrio alginolyticus. similar to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide (hqno), korormicin specifically inhibited the na+-dependent reaction in the nqr complex that is directly coupled to the extrusion of na+ from the cells. both korormicin and hqno acted as purely noncompetitive inhibi ...199910549856
marine pseudoalteromonas species are associated with higher organisms and produce biologically active extracellular agents.the newly established genus pseudoalteromonas contains numerous marine species which synthesize biologically active molecules. the production of a range of compounds which are active against a variety of target organisms appears to be a unique characteristic for this genus and may greatly benefit pseudoalteromonas cells in their competition for nutrients and colonization of surfaces. species of pseudoalteromonas are generally found in association with marine eukaryotes and display anti-bacterial ...199910568837
preparation of neoglycoprotein from carp myofibrillar protein and alginate oligosaccharide: improved solubility in low ionic strength medium.alginate oligosaccharide (ao) was conjugated with carp myofibrillar protein (mf) by using the controlled maillard reaction, and the change in the solubility of mf in low ionic strength media as affected by the glycosylation was investigated. ao was prepared by degrading sodium alginate using alginate lyase, which was purified from the culture supernatant of pseudoalteromonas elyakovii. when a lyophilized mf and ao mixture was incubated at 40 degrees c and 65% relative humidity, the conjugation o ...200010637043
pseudoalteromonas peptidolytica sp. nov., a novel marine mussel-thread-degrading bacterium isolated from the sea of japan.a new bacterial species belonging to the genus pseudoalteromonas is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization, and sequence analysis of its 16s rrna-coding and gyrase b (gyrb) genes. ten strains, isolated from sea water of yamato island, sea of japan, were gram-negative, yellow, motile, polarly flagellated, aerobic, rod-shaped eubacteria and had a g + c content of 42 mol%. analysis of the 16s rdna sequence revealed a clear affiliation between these strains and members of the gamma-pr ...200010758862
idiomarina gen. nov., comprising novel indigenous deep-sea bacteria from the pacific ocean, including descriptions of two species, idiomarina abyssalis sp. nov. and idiomarina zobellii sp. nov.two bacterial strains, kmm 227t and 231t, were isolated from seawater samples collected from the north-western pacific ocean at a depth of 4000-5000 m and were characterized using polyphasic taxonomy. both were gram-negative, psychrotolerant, heterotrophic, aerobic and required nacl for growth (0.6-15.0%). the temperature for growth was 4-30 degrees c. both strains were rod-shaped, with a single flagellum. however, strain kmm 231t revealed a single long fimbrium. cellular fatty acids detected in ...200010758902
the alpha-amylase gene amyh of the moderate halophile halomonas meridiana: cloning and molecular characterization.two types of tn1732-induced mutants defective in extracellular amylase activity were isolated from the moderate halophile halomonas meridiana dsm 5425. type i mutants displayed amylase activity in the periplasm, and were unable to use any of the carbon sources tested, including starch and its hydrolysis product maltose. the type ii mutant was affected in the gene responsible for the synthesis of the extracellular alpha-amylase. this gene (amyh) was isolated by functional complementation of mutan ...200010784044
aspartate aminotransferase from the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125. cloning, expression, properties, and molecular modelling.the gene encoding aspartate aminotransferase from the psychrophilic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125 was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed in escherichia coli. the recombinant protein (phaspat) was characterized both at the structural and functional level in comparison with the e. coli enzyme (ecaspat), which is the most closely related (52% sequence identity) bacterial counterpart. phaspat is rapidly inactivated at 50 degrees c (half-life = 6.8 min), whereas at this temperatur ...200010785402
polyphasic classification of 0.2 microm filterable bacteria from the western mediterranean seathe 0.2 microm filtration of sea water samples from the mediterranean sea (bay of calvi, corsica), collected from 10 m and 35 m depth led to the isolation of several gram-negative bacterial strains able to grow on full-strength media as well as on diluted media. the analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequences and estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of these facultative oligotrophic bacteria indicated that they grouped into two phylogenetic branches. the strains re10f/2, re10f/5 (10 m depth ...199910794152
reclassification of alteromonas distincta romanenko et al. 1995 as pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov.the 16s rrna gene of alteromonas distincta kmm 638t was amplified, cloned and sequenced. the nucleotide sequence was aligned with sequences of representative strains of alteromonas, moritella, pseudoalteromonas and shewanella. results of phylogenetic analysis, using neighbour-joining and fitch-margoliash methods, clearly indicated that this species should be assigned to the genus pseudoalteromonas. on the basis of polyphasic data obtained from previous work and this study, it is proposed that th ...200010826797
assignment of alteromonas elyakovii kmm 162t and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of laminaria japonica to pseudoalteromonas elyakovii comb. nov. and the extended description of the species.a marine bacterium, alteromonas elyakovii kmm 162t, which was described recently, and five strains isolated from spot-wounded fronds of laminaria japonica have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and geno- and phenotypic characterization. the phenotypic features of pseudoalteromonas elyakovii strains were closely related to that of pseudoalteromonas espejiana iam 12640t, but utilization of three carbon compounds (d-mannose, l-tyrosine and trehalose) distinguished both species. the g+c conte ...200010826813
a dna ligase from the psychrophile pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis gives insights into the adaptation of proteins to low temperatures.the cloning, overexpression and characterization of a cold-adapted dna ligase from the antarctic sea water bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis are described. protein sequence analysis revealed that the cold-adapted ph dna ligase shows a significant level of sequence similarity to other nad+-dependent dna ligases and contains several previously described sequence motifs. also, a decreased level of arginine and proline residues in ph dna ligase could be involved in the cold-adaptation strateg ...200010848966
culturability and in situ abundance of pelagic bacteria from the north sea.the culturability of abundant members of the domain bacteria in north sea bacterioplankton was investigated by a combination of various cultivation strategies and cultivation-independent 16s rrna-based techniques. we retrieved 16s rrna gene (rdna) clones from environmental dnas and determined the in situ abundance of different groups and genera by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish). a culture collection of 145 strains was established by plating on oligotrophic medium. isolates were screen ...200010877804
diversity of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria from marine sediments and hydrothermal vents.species diversity, phylogenetic affiliations, and environmental occurrence patterns of thiosulfate-oxidizing marine bacteria were investigated by using new isolates from serially diluted continental slope and deep-sea abyssal plain sediments collected off the coast of new england and strains cultured previously from galapagos hydrothermal vent samples. the most frequently obtained new isolates, mostly from 10(3)- and 10(4)-fold dilutions of the continental slope sediment, oxidized thiosulfate to ...200010919760
differentiation of chitinase-active and non-chitinase-active subpopulations of a marine bacterium during chitin degradation.the ability of marine bacteria to adhere to detrital particulate organic matter and rapidly switch on metabolic genes in an effort to reproduce is an important response for bacterial survival in the pelagic marine environment. the goal of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between chitinolytic gene expression and extracellular chitinase activity in individual cells of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. strain s91 attached to solid chitin. a green fluorescent protein repo ...200010919822
[screening of marine bacteria for fucoidan hydrolases].twenty-five strains of epiphytic marine bacteria isolated from the brown algae fucus evanescens and chorda filum and fifty-three bacteria isolated from the sea cucumber apostichopus japonicus were screened for fucoidanases using fucoidans prepared from the brown algae f. evanescens, laminaria cichorioides, and l. japonica. eighteen bacterial epiphytes and thirty-eight bacterial isolates from the sea cucumber were found to contain fucoidanases, which were able to hydrolyze either all of the fucoi ...200010920807
numerical taxonomy of heavy metal-tolerant nonhalophilic bacteria isolated from hypersaline environments.a total of 232 metal-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from water and sediment samples collected in different hypersaline environments located in cádiz, huelva and morón de la frontera (spain). they were isolated on a medium containing mercury, chromium, cadmium, copper or zinc. these halotolerant isolates were analyzed by numerical taxonomy techniques by using the simple matching (ssm) and jaccard (sj) coefficients; clustering was achieved using the unweighted pair group method with aver ...199810943340
[features of phospholipid composition of marine proteobacteria of pseudoalteromonas species].the study of the phospholipid composition of 14 type strains of marine proteobacteria of the genus pseudoalteromonas showed that phospholipids are the main polar lipid constituents of membranes in these proteobacteria. the phospholipid patterns of the strains studied were found to be similar and involved five phospholipids typical of gram-negative bacteria, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bisphosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid. the major ...200011008687
involvement of an extracellular protease in algicidal activity of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. strain a28.the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. strain a28 was able to kill the diatom skeletonema costatum strain nies-324. the culture supernatant of strain a28 showed potent algicidal activity when it was applied to a paper disk placed on a lawn of s. costatum nies-324. the condensed supernatant, which was prepared by subjecting the a28 culture supernatant to ultrafiltration with a 10,000-m(w)-cutoff membrane, showed algicidal activity, suggesting that strain a28 produced extracellular substances ...200011010878
evaluation of phospholipid and fatty acid compositions as chemotaxonomic markers of alteromonas-like proteobacteria.the cellular phospholipids (pls) and fatty acids (fas) were investigated in type and environmental strains of pseudoalteromonas, alteromonas macleodii, a. infernus, and in three type strains of marinomonas, m. communis, m. vaga, m. mediterranea. a total of 40 strains (19 strains in this study and 21 reported in previous papers), including idiomarina abyssalis, i. zobellii, and glaciecola punicea, g. pallidula, aerobic alteromonas-like proteobacteria showed genus-characteristic patterns of phosph ...200011014871
protective effect caused by the exopolymer excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf(3) on liposomes against the action of octyl glucoside.the capacity of the glycoprotein (gp) excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf(3), to protect phosphatidylcholine (pc) liposomes against the action of octyl glucoside (og) was studied in detail. increasing amounts of gp assembled with liposomes resulted for the same interaction step in a linear increase in the effective surfactant to pc molar ratios (re) and in a linear fall in the surfactant partitioning between bilayer and the aqueous phase (partition coefficients k). thus, the higher the p ...200011036228
structure of an acidic o-specific polysaccharide of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm acidic o-specific polysaccharide containing d-glucuronic acid (d-glca), 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucuronic acid (d-glcnac3naca), 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronoyl-l-alanine (d-mannac3naca6ala), and 2-acetamido-2,4, 6-trideoxy-4-[(s)-3-hydroxybutyramido]-d-glucose (d-quinac4nacyl) was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. kmm 634 followed by gel-permeation chromatography. the polysaccharide was cleaved selectively with ...200011042499
artificial neural network based identification of environmental bacteria by gas-chromatographic and electrophoretic data.chemotaxonomic identification techniques are powerful tools for environmental micro-organisms, for which poor diagnostic schemes are available. whole cellular fatty acid methyl esters (fame) content is a stable bacterial profile, the analysis method is rapid, cheap, simple to perform and highly automated. whole-cell protein is an even more powerful tool because it yields information at or below the species level. the description of new species and genera and subsequent continuous rearrangement p ...200011084227
phylogenetic relationship and antifouling activity of bacterial epiphytes from the marine alga ulva is widely accepted that bacterial epiphytes can inhibit the colonization of surfaces by common fouling organisms. however, little information is available regarding the diversity and properties of these antifouling bacteria. this study assessed the antifouling traits of five epiphytes of the common green alga, ulva lactuca. all isolates were capable of preventing the settlement of invertebrate larvae and germination of algal spores. three of the isolates also inhibited the growth of a variety ...200011200436
structure of an acidic polysaccharide from a marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas distincta kmm 638 containing 5-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-7-formamido-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acidic polysaccharide was obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas distincta strain kmm 638, isolated from a marine sponge, and found to contain d-glca, d-galnac, 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-quinac) and two unusual acidic amino sugars: 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonic acid (d-galnaca) and 5-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-7-formamido-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid (pse5ac7fo, a derivative of pseudaminic acid). oligosaccharides were derived from the polysaccharide ...200111217976
inhibition of algal spore germination by the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas tunicata.a collection of 56 bacteria isolated from different surfaces in the marine environment were assayed for their effects on the germination of spores from the common green alga ulva lactuca. thirteen bacterial isolates were shown to inhibit spore germination. of these bacteria, pseudoalteromonas tunicata displayed the most pronounced effects against algal spores. further characterisation of the anti-algal activity of p. tunicata was performed and it was found that this bacterium produces an extrace ...200111248391
phylogenetic analysis of the succession of bacterial communities in the great south bay (long island).bacterial community composition and succession were examined over the course of the summer season in the great south bay, long island, ny, usa, using a 16s rdna clone library approach. there was a progression of changes in dominant species in the libraries during the summer of 1997. the july library had several groups dominant, the sar407 relatives of the alpha-proteobacteria (24%) and the sar86 (18%), sulfur-oxidizing symbiont relatives (8%) of the gamma-proteobacteria, and unidentified cytopha ...200111248393
cold-adapted beta-galactosidase from the antarctic psychrophile pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis.the beta-galactosidase from the antarctic gram-negative bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tae 79 was purified to homogeneity. the nucleotide sequence and the nh(2)-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme indicate that the beta-galactosidase subunit is composed of 1,038 amino acids with a calculated m(r) of 118,068. this beta-galactosidase shares structural properties with escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (comparable subunit mass, 51% amino sequence identity, conservation of ...200111282601
cloning of two pectate lyase genes from the marine antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain ant/505 and characterization of the enzymes.a marine antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium (strain ant/505), isolated from sea ice-covered surface water from the southern ocean, showed pectinolytic activity on citrus pectin agar. the sequencing of the 16s rrna of isolate ant/505 indicates a taxonomic affiliation to pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. the supernatant of this strain showed three different pectinolytic activities after growth on citrus pectin. by activity screening of a genomic dna library of isolate ant/505 in escherichia coli, t ...200111302501
isolation and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the mediterranean sponges aplysina aerophoba and aplysina cavernicola.the aim of this study was to isolate bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the marine sponges aplysina aerophoba and aplysina cavernicola. the obtained 27 isolates could be subdivided into eight phylogenetically different clusters based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16s rdna genes. the sponge isolates were affiliated with the low (bacillus) and high g+c gram-positive bacteria (arthobacter, micrococcus), as well as the alpha-proteobacteria (unknown isolate) and gamma-proteobacte ...200111311441
phylogenetic characterization of epibiotic bacteria in the accessory nidamental gland and egg capsules of the squid loligo pealei (cephalopoda:loliginidae).sexually mature female squid loligo pealei harbour dense bacterial communities in their accessory nidamental glands (angs) and in their egg capsules (ecs). this study describes a molecular approach using the 16s rrna gene (rdna) to identify bacterial populations within the ang and the ecs of the north atlantic squid species l. pealei. fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) and 16s rdna analysis showed that predominantly alpha- and, to a lesser extent, gamma-proteobacteria were the predominant ...200111321532
[a new family of alteromonadaceae fam. nov., including the marine proteobacteria species alteromonas, pseudoalteromonas, idiomarina i colwellia].the taxonomic position of the marine genera alteromonas, pseudoalteromonas, idiomarina, and colwellia within the gamma subclass of the class proteobacteria were specified on the basis of their phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics. gram-negative aerobic bacteria of the genera alteromonas, pseudoalteromonas, and idiomarina and facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the genus colwellia were found to form a phylogenetic cluster with a 16s rrna sequence homology of 90% or higher. the ...200111338830
toxicity to bivalve hemocytes of pathogenic vibrio cytoplasmic extract.using a chemiluminescence (cl) test, it had been previously demonstrated that vibrio pectenicida, which is pathogenic to pecten maximus larvae, was able to inhibit completely the cl activity of p. maximus hemocytes and partially inhibit those of crassostrea gigas. conversely, a vibrio sp. strain, s322, pathogenic to c. gigas larvae was more active in reducing the cl activity of oyster hemocytes than of scallop hemocytes. using this same cl biotest, v. pectenicida and s322 cytoplasmic extracts we ...200111356051
[tolerance of marine proteobacteria pseudoalteromonas and alteromonas to heavy metals compounds]. 200111386064
partitioning of sds in liposomes coated by the exopolymer excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3 as a measure of vesicle protection against this surfactant.the capacity of glycoprotein (gp) excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3, to protect phosphatidylcholine (pc) liposomes against the action of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) was studied in detail. to this end, changes in the surfactant partitioning between the lipid bilayer and the aqueous phase (partition coefficients, k) and in the effective surfactant to pc molar ratios (re) were determined as a function of the amount of gp assembled with liposomes. the permeability ...200111403240
characterization of facultative oligotrophic bacteria from polar seas by analysis of their fatty acids and 16s rdna hundred and seventy three bacterial strains, isolated previously after enrichment under oligotrophic, psychrophylic conditions from arctic (98 strains) and antarctic seawater (75 strains), were characterized by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of their fatty acid compositions. by numerical analysis, 8 clusters, containing 2 to 59 strains, could be delineated, and 8 strains formed separate branches. five clusters contained strains from both poles, two minor clusters were confined to arctic ...200111403404
retrieval of the species alteromonas tetraodonis simidu et al. 1990 as pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. nov. and emendation of description.a polyphasic taxonomy study was undertaken of three strains of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis subsp. tetraodonis (simidu et al. 1990) gauthier et al. 1995. dna was prepared from each of the strains and genomic relatedness was measured by dna-dna hybridization. strains kmm 458t and iam 14160t shared 99% genetic relatedness, but were only 48-49% related to the type strain of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis subsp. haloplanktis, iam 12915t. the third strain, p. haloplanktis subsp. tetraodonis a-m, sh ...200111411675
structure of a colitose-containing o-specific polysaccharide of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis iam 14160(t).o-specific polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis type strain iam 14160(t) and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, tocsy, 1h,(13)c hmqc and hmbc experiments. the polysaccharide was found to consist of hexasaccharide repeating units containing one residue each of d-gal, d-glca, d-galnac and d-glcnac and two residues of 3,6-dideoxy-l-xylo-hexose (colitose, col) ...200111423109
the kappa-carrageenase of p. carrageenovora features a tunnel-shaped active site: a novel insight in the evolution of clan-b glycoside hydrolases.kappa-carrageenans are gel-forming, sulfated 1,3-alpha-1,4-beta-galactans from the cell walls of marine red algae. the kappa-carrageenase from the marine, gram-negative bacterium pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora degrades kappa-carrageenan both in solution and in solid state by an endoprocessive mechanism. this beta-galactanase belongs to the clan-b of glycoside hydrolases.200111435116
assembly properties and applications of a new exopolymeric compound excreted by pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3.the self assembly properties and applications of an exopolymeric compound (ec) of a glycoprotein character excreted by a new gram-negative species, pseudoalteromonas antarctica nf3, have been reviewed. this compound exhibited surface-active properties in water, with a concentration of 0.20 mg ml(-1) being the key value associated with its physicochemical properties. unsonicated ec aqueous dispersions showed the coexistence of concentric multilamellar and small unilamellar aggregates by transmiss ...200111436977
pseudoalteromonas ulvae sp. nov., a bacterium with antifouling activities isolated from the surface of a marine alga.a dark-purple marine bacterium that inhibits the germination of marine algal spores and the settlement of invertebrate larvae has been characterized and assessed for taxonomic assignment. two strains, designated ul12t and ul13, were isolated from the surface of the common marine alga ulva lactuca. based on 16s rdna sequencing, ul12t and ul13 were found to show the highest similarity (97%) to members of the genus pseudoalteromonas. dna-dna hybridization studies demonstrated less than 28% genomic ...200111491351
endogenous isolation of replicon probes for assessing plasmid ecology of marine sediment microbial communities.six functional replication origins (repga14, repga33, repga70, repsd41, repsd164 and repsd172), obtained from endogenously isolated, broad-host-range (bhr) marine plasmids ranging in size from 5 to 60 kb, were used to determine plasmid occurrence in three coastal marine sediment sites (in california, georgia and south carolina, usa). the plasmid-specific replicons were isolated from plasmid-bearing marine sediment bacteria belonging to the alpha and gamma subclasses of the proteobacteria. the pl ...200111495987
a novel replication element from an antarctic plasmid as a tool for the expression of proteins at low temperature.genetic manipulation of antarctic bacteria has been very limited so far. this article reports the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel plasmid, pmtbl, from the antarctic gram-negative bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125. this genetic element, 4,081 bp long, appeared to be a multicopy cryptic replicon with no detectable transcriptional activity. by an in vivo assay, the pmtbl autonomous replication sequence was functionally limited to an alui plasmid fragment of about ...200111523895
growth patterns of two marine isolates: adaptations to substrate patchiness?during bottle incubations of heterotrophic marine picoplankton, some bacterial groups are conspicuously favored. in an earlier investigation bacteria of the genus pseudoalteromonas rapidly multiplied in substrate-amended north sea water, whereas the densities of oceanospirillum changed little (h. eilers, j. pernthaler, and r. amann, appl. environ. microbiol. 66:4634-4640, 2000). we therefore studied the growth patterns of two isolates affiliating with pseudoalteromonas and oceanospirillum in bat ...200111526008
cloning, sequence analysis and expression of pseudoalteromonas elyakovii iam 14594 gene (alypeec) encoding the extracellular alginate lyase.a gene (alypeec) encoding an alginate lyase of pseudoalteromonas elyakovii iam 14594 was cloned using the plasmid vector puc118 and expressed in escherichia coli. sequencing of a 3.0kb fragment revealed a 1,197bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acid residues. the calculated molecular mass and isoelectric point of the alypeec gene product are 43.2 kda and pi 5.29. a region g(165) to v(194) in the alypeec internal sequence is identical to the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the previously ...200111553350
structural investigation on the lipooligosaccharide fraction of psychrophilic pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125 bacterium.the core structure of the cell-wall lipooligosaccharide (los) fraction of an antarctic gram-negative bacterium, pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125 strain, was determined to be deacetylated alditols. these were obtained from native los fraction by o-deacylation, dephosphorylation, reduction and finally n-deacylation. two novel structures were detected, the more highly represented molecule consisting of the following hexasaccharide chain: alpha-d-manpnh(2)-(1-->3)-beta-d-galp-(1-->4)-alpha-l-g ...200111589700
the meroperon of a mercury-resistant pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain isolated from minamata bay, japan.a mer operon of mercury-resistant pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis strain m1, isolated from sea water of minamata bay, was cloned and analyzed. the mer genes were located in the chromosome and organized as merr-mert-merp-merc-mera-merd, the same order as that in tn21. however, the orientation of the merr gene is the same as that of other mer genes (opposite direction to tn21), and merr was cotranscribed with other mer genes, a pattern that has not been previously seen with mer determinants from ot ...200111601623
cycloprodigiosin hydrocloride suppresses tumor necrosis factor (tnf) alpha-induced transcriptional activation by nf-kappab.cycloprodigiosin hydrochloride (cprg.hcl) obtained from a marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas denitrificans induces apoptotic cell death in various cancerous cell lines. cprg.hcl alone caused a little cytotoxicity in hela cells, but it enhanced the apoptotic process progressively when co-administered with tumor necrosis factor (tnf)alpha. here we studied the effect of cprg.hcl on tnfalpha-induced activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab). luciferase gene reporter as ...200111682062
[gram-negative eubacteria isolated from the water, molluscs and algae of the black sea].microorganisms strains (384) have been isolated from water, algae and molluscs collected in the karadag reserve and the village of katsiveli (black sea shore of the crimea); 81 of the above strains are gram-negative oxidase-positive rods which require sodium ions for their growth. a group of nonfermenting mobile bacteria deprived of arginine dihydrolase have been distinguished among the latter; as to their physiological and biochemical properties and sensitivity to some antibiotics these bacteri ...200111692675
chemical characterization of lipid a from some marine proteobacteria.lipids a from type and wild strains of marine proteobacteria belonging to alteromonadaceae (alteromonas (1 species), idiomarina (1 species), and pseudoalteromonas (8 species) genera) and vibrionaceae (shewanella (1 species) and vibrio (1 species) genera) families and marinomonas genus (1 species) were isolated by hydrolysis of their respective lipopolysaccharides with 1% acetic acid. based on thin-layer chromatography data, the lipids a studied had low heterogeneity and generated family-specific ...200111703190
[diversity in the monosaccharide composition of antigenic polysaccharides from proteobacteria pseudoalteromonas and marinomonas genera].the sugar analysis of the glycans of the type strains of marine proteobacteria of the genera pseudoalteromonas and marinomonas--pseudoalteromonas atlantica iam12927t, p. aurantia ncimb 2033t, p. citrea atcc 29719t, p. elyakovii kmm 162t, p. espejiana atcc 29659t, p. piscicida ncimb 645t, p. tetraodonis iam 14160t, marinomonas communis atcc 27118t, and m. vaga atcc 27119t--showed that they contain glucose, galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, rhamnose, mannose, heptose, 2-keto-3-deoxyoc ...200111763785
identification and characterization of a putative transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of fouling inhibitors in pseudoalteromonas tunicata.the dark green pigmented marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas tunicata colonizes living surfaces and produces a range of extracellular compounds that inhibit common fouling organisms, including marine invertebrate larvae, algae, bacteria, and fungi. we have observed a positive correlation between the antifouling activity of p. tunicata strain d2 and the expression of pigmentation. to address the hypothesis that pigmentation and antifouling may be jointly regulated in this organism and to begin to ...200211772647
pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii sp. nov., a bacterium that degrades the thallus of the brown alga fucus evanescens.eleven non-pigmented strains of gram-negative, aerobic, marine bacteria with polar flagella were isolated from the thallus of the brown alga fucus evanescens collected in the kraternaya bight of the kurile islands in the pacific ocean. these organisms were conspecific and exhibited high levels of genetic relatedness (up to 91%). the g+c contents of the dnas of these strains were 42.9-43.3 mol%. these halophilic bacteria had bacteriolytic, proteolytic and haemolytic activities and degraded algal ...200211837307
pseudoalteromonas ruthenica sp. nov., isolated from marine invertebrates.on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and analysis of 165 rrna sequences, a novel species belonging to the genus pseudoalteromonas is described. two pale-orange-pigmented strains, kmm 300t and kmm 290, isolated respectively from a mussel, crenomytilus grayanus, and a scallop, patinopecten yessoensis, are marine, gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that produce a number of antimicrobial compounds. the strains are able to degrade gelatin, elastin, starch, dna and tween 8 ...200211837308
pseudoalteromonas maricaloris sp. nov., isolated from an australian sponge, and reclassification of [pseudoalteromonas aurantia] ncimb 2033 as pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra sp. nov.a marine, gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that produced cytotoxic, lemon-yellow, chromopeptide pigments that inhibited the development of sea urchin eggs has been isolated from the australian sponge fascaplysinopsis reticulata hentschel. the cells of the organism were rod-shaped with a single polar flagellum and they required nacl for growth (0.5-10%) with optimum growth at 1-3% nacl. the temperature for growth was 10-37 degrees c, with optimum growth at 25-30 degrees c. growth occurred at ph v ...200211837311
microbial diversity of cultivatable bacteria associated with the north sea bryozoan flustra foliacea.the microbial diversity of cultivatable bacteria associated with the bryozoan species flustra foliacea from the north sea was investigated by a molecular approach. amplified ribosomal rna restriction analyses (ardra) and 16s rdna partial sequence analysis revealed differences in the composition of cultivatable bacteria populations from single bryozoan colonies collected from two different sampling sites in the north sea as well from one site taken at different points in time. whereas gamma-prote ...200111876370
[degradation of fucoidan by the marine proteobacterium pseudoalteromonas citrea].it was found that pseudoalteromonas citrea strains kmm 3296 and kmm 3298 isolated from the brown algae fucus evanescens and chorda filum, respectively, and strain 3297 isolated from the sea cucumber apostichopus japonicus are able to degrade fucoidans. the fucoidanases of these strains efficiently degraded the fucoidan of brown algae at ph 6.5-7.0 and remained active at 40-50 degrees c. the endo-type hydrolysis of fucoidan resulted in the formation of sulfated alpha-l-fucooligosaccharides. the o ...200211910806
crystallographic evidence of a transglycosylation reaction: ternary complexes of a psychrophilic alpha-amylase.the psychrophilic pseudoalteromonas haloplanctis alpha-amylase is shown to form ternary complexes with two alpha-amylase inhibitors present in the active site region, namely, a molecule of tris and a trisaccharide inhibitor or heptasaccharide inhibitor, respectively. the crystal structures of these complexes have been determined by x-ray crystallography to 1.80 and 1.74 a resolution, respectively. in both cases, the prebound inhibitor tris is expelled from the active site by the incoming oligosa ...200211914073
tolerance to cadmium of free-living and associated with marine animals and eelgrass marine gamma-proteobacteria.the tolerance to cd2+ and possible mechanisms of cd2+ detoxification by 178 free-living bacteria isolated from sea water, associated with marine animals (a mussel crenomytilus grayanus, a scallop patinopecten yessoensis), and eelgrass zostera marina collected in the sea of japan and the sea of okhotsk have been studied. the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg cd2+/l were highly toxic and inhibited the growth from 54% to 78% of the total bacteria studied. the free-living bacteria isolated from seawate ...200211927987
beta-galactosidase from a cold-adapted bacterium: purification, characterization and application for lactose hydrolysis.the enzyme beta-galactosidase was purified from a cold-adapted organism isolated from antarctica. the organism was identified as a psychotrophic pseudoalteromonas sp. the enzyme was purified with high yields by a rapid purification scheme involving extraction in an aqueous two-phase system followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ultrafiltration. the beta-galactosidase was optimally active at ph 9 and at 26 degrees c when assayed with o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside as subst ...200211935182
sensory, chemical and bacteriological changes during storage of iced squid (todaropsis eblanae).to relate sensory shelf-life of iced whole and gutted squid to bacterial growth and chemical changes.200211972700
structural basis of alpha-amylase activation by further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 a degrees, as well as the structure of the mutants lys300gln (2.5 a degrees ) and lys300arg (2.25 a degrees ). nitrate binds strongly to alpha-amylase but is a weak activator. mutation of the critical chloride ligand lys300 into ...200212021442
two species of culturable bacteria associated with degradation of brown algae fucus evanescens.the heterotrophic microbial enrichment community established during degradation of brown algae fucus evanescens was characterized. a two-species bacterial community of marine culturable gamma-proteobacteria consisted of pseudoalteromonas and halomonas. the first member of the community, pseudoalteromonas sp., was highly metabolically active, had bacteriolytic and hemolytic activities, produced proteinases (gelatinase and caseinase), lipases, dnases, and fucoidanhydrolases, laminaranases, alginas ...200212023731
impact of pulsed nd:yag laser on the marine biofilm-forming bacteria pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora: significance of physiological status.the impact of pulsed nd:yag (neodymium-doped yttrium/aluminium garnet) laser irradiation on the marine biofilm-forming bacteria pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora during two growth stages (log phase and stationary phase) and under two stresses (reduced temperature and nutrient limitation) was investigated. bacteria were exposed to a laser fluence of 0.1 j x cm(-2) for 5, 10, and 15 min with a peak power of 20 mw x cm(-2), a pulse width of 5 ns, and an average power of 1 w x cm(-2) with a repetitio ...200212030705
impact of irradiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spiking on microbial populations in marine sediment for future aging and biodegradability studies.experiments were carried out to develop methods to generate well-characterized, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-spiked, aged but minimally altered sediments for fate, biodegradation, and bioavailability experiments. changes in indigenous bacterial populations were monitored in mesocosms constructed of relatively clean san diego bay sediments, with and without exposure to gamma radiation, and then spiked with five different pahs and hexadecane. while phenanthrene and chrysene degraders were ...200212039743
a novel family 8 xylanase, functional and physicochemical characterization.xylanases are generally classified into glycosyl hydrolase families 10 and 11 and are found to frequently have an inverse relationship between their pi and molecular mass values. however, we have isolated a psychrophilic xylanase that belongs to family 8 and which has both a high pi and high molecular mass. this novel xylanase, isolated from the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, is not homologous to family 10 or 11 enzymes but has 20-30% identity with family 8 members. nmr anal ...200212089151
lipid a structure of pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125: use of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of fatty acid distribution.the use of electrospray ionization (esi) tandem mass spectrometry (ms/ms) for the structural determination of the lipid a components of the psychrophilic bacterium pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis tac 125 is reported. the lipid a contains the classical bisphosphorylated beta-(1' --> 6)-linked d-glucosamine disaccharide with 3-hydroxydodecanoyl residues (12 : 0 (3-oh)) linked both as esters and amides to 2', 3' (distal glucosamine) and 2, 3 positions (proximal glucosamine) of the sugar backbone. th ...200212112753
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