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intestinal colonization potential of turbot (scophthalmus maximus)- and dab (limanda limanda)-associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against vibrio anguillarum.of more than 400 bacteria isolated from turbot (scophthalmus maximus), 89 have previously been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum. the aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of seven of these strains, as well as of intestinal isolates (four strains) from a closely related fish, dab (limanda limanda), for colonizing farmed turbot as a means of protecting the host from infection by v. anguillarum. in addition, the inhibitory effect of th ...19921610180
heterogeneity in the genome rnas and polypeptides of five members of a novel group of rotavirus-like viruses isolated from aquatic animals.biochemical characteristics of five rotavirus-like viruses isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis), turbot (scophthalmus maximus), smelt (osmerus mordax) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in north america and europe were compared. the genome of each isolate was composed of 11 segments of dsrna and each isolate had a unique electropherotype in polyacrylamide gels. agarose gel electrophoresis showed similar rna profiles for all four isolates from north america, whereas the rna profile of the ...19911846647
relationships between plasmids and phenotypes of presumptive strains of vibrio anguillarum isolated from different fish species.on the basis of plasmid composition as well as serological and biochemical properties, 26 strains identified as vibrio anguillarum isolated from diseased fish could be assigned to two different groups. except for three reference strains, these++ strains were isolated from norwegian fish. the four strains isolated from rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), the only strain isolated from char (salvelinus alpinus), and three of six strains isolated from atlantic salmon (salmo salar) harbored a plasmid of ...19892729984
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in flatfish from the southern baltic, 1983.hexachlorobenzene (hcb), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (bhc; hch), p,p'-dde, o,p'-ddd, o,p'-ddt, p,p'-ddd and p,p'-ddt (espilon ddt) and polychlorinated biphenlys (pcbs) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 37 turbots psetta maxima, 27 plaices pleuronectes platessa and 106 flounders platichthys flesus netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the baltic sea. the mean levels found for flatfish muscle tissue related to wet weight were: 0.7, ...19853934867
trace metals in flatfish from the southern baltic, 1983.the cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and nickel concentrations have been determined in muscle tissue of 35 turbot psetta maxima, 27 plaice pleuronectes platessa and 103 flounders platichthys flesus netted in 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the baltic sea. the method of measurement was atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. the mean values obtained for turbot, plaice and flounder were 0.012, 0.009 and 0.013 for cadmium, 0.16, 0.17 and 0.12 for lead, 0.15, 0.14 and 0 ...19854050125
[the bothriocephalus scorpii complex (mueller, 1776). differentiation of species of parasites of the turbot (psetta maxima) and the brill (scophthalmus rhombus). study of protein fractions and antigen complexes].previous electrophoretic studies (renaud et al., 1983) carried out on the cestode bothriocephalus scorpii (mueller, 1776) showed that the populations parasiting the turbot and the brill on the mediterranean coast, are two distinct species: bothriocephalus (supra sp. scorpii) gregarius and bothricephalus (supra sp. scorpii) barbatus respectively. this work has been done with the purpose of identifying these two species by using biochemical tests. the study of whole body proteins by electrophoresi ...19846721374
a sandwich immunoassay to quantify low levels of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) immunoglobulins.we have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) immunoglobulin (ig). the capture antibody is a rabbit polyclonal antiserum to turbot ig, and the detector antibody a monoclonal antibody (ur3) to the turbot ig heavy chain. both antibodies bind nearly 100% of turbot ig. the assay allows detection of turbot ig in serum at concentrations as low as 0.16 micrograms ml-1 and takes less than 4 h. precision is satisfactory, with intra-assay co ...19957604533
characterization of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum.more than 400 isolates from the intestine and the external surface of farmed turbot, as well as from fish food and hatchery water were screened for inhibitory effects against the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum hi 11345 and seven other fish pathogens. the bacteria with inhibitory effects were then characterized with regards to their sites of colonization, especially the intestinal regions and sites within each region. no correlations between the different biochemical phena, site of colonization ...19947866724
role of iron in the pathogenicity of vibrio damsela for fish and mammals.the ability to obtain iron of 14 isolates of vibrio damsela with different degrees of virulence for mice and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) has been evaluated in artificial and natural iron-restricted environments. all strains were capable of utilizing haemoglobin (hb) and ferric ammonium citrate (fac) as the sole iron sources in vitro. however, only virulent v. damsela strains were able to resist the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of human and turbot sera, their growth being enhanced by ...19947926669
monoclonal antibodies to turbot (scophthalmus maximus) immunoglobulins: characterization and applicability in immunoassays.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to immunoglobulins (igs) of the turbot scophthalmus maximus were produced and characterized. all the mabs (denominated ur1, ur3, ur4, ur6 and ur7) are of isotype igg1/kappa and show good anti-turbot ig reactivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoblotting. results of competitive elisa and immunoblotting analysis indicate that these five mabs react with at least three different epitopes on the turbot ig h chain. except in the case of ur1, rea ...19947941313
flavobacterium scophthalmum sp. nov., a pathogen of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).fifty orange-pigmented, gram-negative, rod-shaped isolates were recovered from healthy and diseased turbot and from coastal waters (collected in scotland). on the basis of the results of an examination of 125 phenotypic characteristics and the results of dna-dna and dna-rrna hybridization experiments, we concluded that these isolates are members of a new species in the genus flavobacterium, for which the name flavobacterium scophthalmum is proposed. the type strain is ccm 4109 (= lmg 13028).19948068540
purification and characterization of igm-like immunoglobulin from turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).a total of 40 turbot (scophthalmus maximus) were immunized 3 times during a 3 months period using dnp-hsa whereafter serum samples were collected and pooled. specific immunoglobulins (ig) were affinity purified on an agarose column with immobilized dnp-bsa and further purified by gel filtration whereafter monospecific rabbit anti ig serum was generated. size exclusion chromatography and non-reduced sds-page indicated a mw of 8-900 kda of the dominant antigen binding proteins from turbot serum. r ...19948209813
the humoral immune response of turbot to recently isolated pathogenic enterococcus strains. cross-reactivity with other gram-positive bacteria.an enterococcus sp. causing severe mortalities among farmed turbot (scophthalmus maximus) has recently been detected in northwest spain. we found that specific turbot serum antibodies raised against isolate ra-99.1 of the new pathogen by intraperitoneal immunization, did not cross react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with other enterococcal or non-enterococcal gram-positive bacteria. in immunoblotting, antibodies raised against strain ra-99.1 recognized the same components in the h ...19968701575
atypical aeromonas salmonicida isolated from diseased turbot (scophtalmus maximus l.).atypical aeromonas salmonicida were isolated from 3 outbreaks of disease among farmed turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) in 3 different farms, 1 from norway (n1) and 2 from denmark (dk1 and dk2). in all 3 cases, the incidence of disease and mortality was high and the main characteristic pathological finding was skin ulcers and septicaemia. the isolated bacteria were subjected to a thorough phenotypic and genotypic examination and comparison in the laboratory. all 3 isolates belonged to a. salmonic ...19968767692
amoebic gill infection of turbot, scophthalmus maximus.amoebae were found to cause severe gill tissue damage in turbot, scophthalmus maximus l, from a grow-out facility in northwestern galicia (spain). the nature and extent of lesions along with negative results of bacteriological and virological examination made this agent responsible for mortalities in four turbot stocks supplied with water from a single source. we present our findings, although we failed to isolate amoebae, since there was a clear evidence of their primary role in the development ...19958774765
production of eicosanoids derived from 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in primary cultures of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) brain astrocytes in response to platelet activating factor, substance p and interleukin-1 beta.primary cultures of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) brain astroglial cells established in medium containing fetal bovine serum contain increased proportions of 18:1(n-9), total (n-9) and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa) and greatly reduced (n-3) pufa in comparison with turbot brain. supplementation with a mixture of 5 microm eicosapentaenoic [20:5(n-3)] and 25 microm docosahexaenoic [22:6(n-3)] acids for 4 days significantly increased the percentages of these acids in total cellular lipid ...19968939002
vibrio scophthalmi sp. nov., a new species from turbot (scophthalmus maximus).six strains isolated from the intestines of juvenile turbot in a fish hatchery in the north of spain were found to be phenotypically members of the genus vibrio. however, the phenotypic traits of these organisms did not place them in any of the currently known vibrio species. these isolates formed an homogeneous group in which the dna-dna similarity values (the differences between the thermal denaturation midpoints of the homologous and heterologous duplexes) with reference strain a089t (t = typ ...19978995802
the humoral immune response of turbot, scophthalmus maximus l., to spore-surface antigens of microsporidian parasites.experiments based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) revealed considerable antigenic homology in turbot between two species of microsporidian, tetramicra brevifilum (a parasite of the turbot, scophthalmus maximus) and glugea caulleryi (a parasite of the lesser sand-eel, ammodytes tobianus). we next investigated whether g. caulleryi is able to suppress the turbot immune response. intraperitoneal inoculation of turbot with g. caulleryi spores (whether heat-killed or viable) did not suppr ...19969014320
lead and cadmium content of two cestodes, monobothrium wageneri and bothriocephalus scorpii, and their fish hosts.the adult cestodes monobothrium wageneri and bothriocephalus scorpii from the intestines of their respective final hosts, tench (tinca tinca) caught in the river ruhr, germany, and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) collected from two sampling sites on the coast of gdansk, poland, were analyzed for lead and cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometry. both cestode species contained significantly higher cadmium contents than did the muscle, liver, and intestine of their fish hosts. whereas m. wageneri a ...19979211516
edwardsiellosis in wild striped bass from the chesapeake bay.the first epizootic of edwardsiellosis, caused by edwardsiella tarda, is described. the epizootic occurred in the chesapeake bay, maryland (usa) during the summer and autumn of 1994, and affected wild adult striped bass (morone saxatilis). clinical signs included numerous irregular coalescing hemorrhagic ulcers on the body and fins that were distinctly malodorous. internally, the body cavity was filled with abundant yellowish or sanguinous mucoid fluid, and the visceral organs had multiple tiny ...19979249698
tetramicra brevifilum (matthews & matthews, 1980) (microsporida: tetramicriidae) in a new fish host, lophius budegassa (spinola, 1807) in spain.tetramicra brevifilum, a microsporidian parasite of scophthalmus maximus, was found in lophius budegassa for the first time. this parasite was detected in 5 of 199 hosts captured in the coastal waters of barcelona (northwest mediterranean), which enlarges the geographic distribution of this microsporidian. affected fish did not show any external sign of disease, and cysts of t. brevifilum were found associated with the body musculature but were easily differentiated from those of spraguea lophii ...19989521010
colonization of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae in early developing turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) larvae.polyclonal antisera made in rabbits against whole washed cells of vibrio pelagius and aeromonas caviae were used for detection of these bacterial species in the rearing water and gastrointestinal tract of healthy turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae exposed to v. pelagius and/or aer. caviae. the results demonstrated that this method is suitable for detection of v. pelagius and aer. caviae in water samples and larvae at population levels higher than 10(3) ml-1 and 10(3) larva-1. populations of ae ...19989633637
in vitro interaction of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and leukocytes from trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus).viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv), a well known salmonids pathogen, has also been reported to be pathogenic for turbot (scophthalmus maximus). in the present work, the replication of vhsv was studied in vitro in turbot head kidney macrophages and blood leukocytes. vhsv was able to infect both primary cultures and viral titer increased with time, either inside the cells or in the supernatant. however, no cytopathic effect was observed during the experiments and the titers were always lo ...19989646440
influence of the sequence of administration of beta-glucans and a vibrio damsela vaccine on the immune response of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).yeast (saccharomyces cerevisae) beta-1,3 glucans were used as adjuvant in a vibrio damsela vaccine for turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.). turbot were injected with the adjuvant prior, at the same time and after the vaccine. several immune parameters (index and rate of phagocytosis, passive haemolytic plaque numbers, and agglutinating antibody titers) were determined at different times postinoculation. the highest activity of all the immune parameters was obtained when glucans were injected after ...19989656431
pharmacokinetics of a discontinuous absorption process of oxolinic acid in turbot, scophthalmus maximus, after a single oral administration.1. the pharmacokinetics of oxolinic acid have been studied in 500 g turbot (scophthalmus maximus). the fish were kept in seawater at 16 degrees c with a 15 h/9 h photoperiod. oxolinic acid was administered orally via a stomach tube at a single dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. serum concentrations of oxolinic acid were determined by a (hplc) using liquid phase extraction with an internal standard and a fluorescence detection. 2. the pharmacokinetic process was not significantly sex-influenced. th ...19989879638
successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.the authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. the paper is divided into four parts. the first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) virus in north america in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (o. kisutch) returning for spawning. the fish disease control policies at both state and federal levels in the unit ...199910190216
characterization by numerical taxonomy and ribotyping of vibrio splendidus biovar i and vibrio scophthalmi strains associated with turbot cultures.twelve vibrio strains were examined phenotypically in 91 biochemical characters and genotypically by ribotyping. ten were isolated from sea water and two from diseased turbot (scophthalmus maximus). all isolates originated from one experimental system located in ría de vigo (galicia, north-west spain). different type strains were used for comparative purposes. the taxonomic position was analysed with the ntsyst-pc and similarities among strains were calculated by the simple matching coefficient ...199910347874
single-dose pharmacokinetics of flumequine in halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus).flumequine was administered to halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose of 10 mg/ kg bodyweight, and as a bath-treatment at a dose of 10 mg/l water for 2 h, using identical experimental designs. the study was performed in seawater with a salinity of 3% and a temperature of 10.3+/-0.4 degrees c (halibut) and 18.0+/-0.3 degrees c (turbot). pharmacokinetic modelling of the data showed that flumequine had quite similar pha ...199910372596
dna probes for detection of the fish microsporidians microgemma caulleryi and tetramicra brevifilum.dna probes were developed for the detection and identification of 2 microsporidian parasites of marine fishes, microgemma caulleryi (infecting the liver of the greater sand-eel, hyperoplus lanceolatus) and tetramicra brevifilum (infecting muscle, intestine and liver of the turbot, scophthalmus maximus, a commercially important species). the probe-development procedure used is fast and straightforward, and readily applicable to the development of probes for other microsporidian species. first, ge ...199910503252
adaptation and validation of a radioimmunoassay kit for measuring plasma cortisol in turbot.levels of cortisol in fish blood provide quantitative information on the degree of stress induced by a variety of stressors. it is also useful in describing the social status of individual fish within groups. the commercial production of radioimmunoassay (ria) kits, such as the dpc coat-a-count radioimmunoassay kit, has considerably reduced the effort required for cortisol measurement. these kits employ human plasma based cortisol standards which are not compatible for use with non mammalian spe ...199910579645
pathogenicity of vibrio splendidus strains associated with turbot larvae, scophthalmus maximusturbot larvae were challenged with eight strains of vibrio splendidus isolated from diseased larvae, plus a ninth strain pathogenic to scallop larvae (a515; nicolas et al. 1996). six strains caused heavy mortality but the scallop pathogen and the other two strains did not. all the strains shared a large number of phenotypic traits, and an attempt was made to relate virulence to genotype and phenotype. five of the six pathogenic strains were very similar, as shown by rapd fingerprinting and pheno ...199910594718
role of nitric oxide on the replication of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv), a fish rhabdovirus.in the present work, we have studied the role of nitric oxide (no) on the replication of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv), a virus which produces high mortalities in fish aquaculture worldwide and that is known to replicate in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) head kidney macrophages. viral infection of turbot kidney macrophages in vitro induced an up-regulation of no production and we have tested whether this endogenous no production induced by vhsv on macrophages had an antiviral effect ...199910628670
insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in an evoluted fish, the turbot: cdna cloning and mrna expression.the insulin receptor (ir) and the structurally related insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (igf-1r) belong to the tyrosine kinase (tk) receptor family. in this study, we have carried out the molecular characterization of both receptors from turbot (psetta maxima), an evoluted teleost flatfish. the cdna encoding the precursors of igf-1r and the nearly entire ir (only the first 16 amino acids of the alpha subunit are missing when compared to the published human sequence) were cloned from an ...199910630417
experimental susceptibility of turbot scophthalmus maximus to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from cultivated turbot.juvenile pathogen-free turbot were infected with a viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) isolate recovered from turbot cultivated on the island of gigha, west scotland. mortality of 100% was recorded in fish infected via the intra-peritoneal (i.p.) route. horizontal transmission of vhsv in sea water was demonstrated by cohabitation of naive fish with i.p. infected fish at a ratio of 1:1. the total cumulative average mortality in cohabiting fish was 60% by 60 d post-infection. turbot infect ...199910686667
numerical taxonomy of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from skin of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and surrounding water.a numerical taxonomic study of 473 gram negative heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from skin of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and its culture water was performed. the study included 53 type and reference strains belonging to the genera vibrio, aeromonas and listonella. the strains were characterized using 90 tests and data were examined by simple matching coefficient (s(sm)) and jaccard coefficient (s(j)). upgma (unweighted pair group method, arithmetic average) defined 66 ph ...199910794149
requirements for nitric oxide production by turbot (scophthalmus maximus) head kidney macrophages.the effect of different cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps) on turbot (scophthalmus maximus) macrophage nitric oxide (no) production has been studied. we have found two different responses concerning no production in response to lps. we have studied 43 turbot and only macrophage cultures derived from 30.2% of these turbot were significantly stimulated by lps. the macrophage populations that did not respond to lps, showed a constitutive production that was significantly reversed by n ...200010831796
immunocytochemical detection of ig-positive cells in blood, lymphoid organs and the gut associated lymphoid tissue of the turbot (scophthalmus maximus).the present study was designed to search for the sites of the b-cell lineage in the different lymphoid organs of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) by immunoperoxidase staining with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against deglycosylated turbot igm (tudg-6). a turbot immunoglobulin (ig) fraction, isolated by protein a, was checked for purity by gel filtration and sds-page under reducing conditions. the turbot igm was deglycosylated and used to raise an antiserum. the antiserum titre was evaluated in eli ...200010938733
three forms of gnrh in the brain and pituitary of the turbot, scophthalmus maximus: immunological characterization and seasonal variation.three forms of gnrh, chicken (c) gnrh-ii, salmon (s) and seabream (sb) gnrh, were immunologically characterized in the brain and pituitary of turbot by elisa. cgnrh-ii and sgnrh were detected in the brain, while sbgnrh and sgnrh (but not cgnrh-ii) were detected in the pituitary. in females, the levels of cgnrh-ii in the turbot brain extracts increased from may to july, concomitant with an increase in oocyte diameter. in the pituitary, sbgnrh was found to be the dominant form, with levels 100-600 ...200111399491
immune response to a recombinant capsid protein of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (sjnnv) in turbot scophthalmus maximus and atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus, and evaluation of a vaccine against sjnnv.immunisation by intraperitoneal injection of an oil-emulgated recombinant partial capsid protein (rt2) from striped jack nervous necrosis virus (sjnnv) was performed on adult turbot scophthalmus maximus and atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus. a specific humoral immune response was recorded in both species, and the levels of rt2-specific antibodies increased markedly in all groups during the 20 wk experiment. a challenge model for sjnnv was established by intramuscular injection of juveni ...200111411642
effect of tetramicra brevifilum (microspora) infection on respiratory-burst responses of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) phagocytes.in vitro assays were performed to investigate microsporidian-induced intracellular and extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ros) by peritoneal-exudate adherent (pea) cells from turbot. ros production was quantified using the fluorescent reagents oxyburst green h2hff bsa (extracellular) and oxyburst green h2dcfda succinimidyl ester (intracellular). five days before assay, the cells had been elicited in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of sodium thioglycollate or spores of tetrami ...200111592590
philasterides dicentrarchi (ciliophora, scuticociliatida) as the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus in galicia (nw spain).two outbreaks of scuticociliatosis affecting farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus in galicia are described. moribund fish showed cutaneous ulcers, darkened skin, swimming behaviour alterations, exophthalmos, and/or abdominal distension as a result of accumulation of ascitic fluid in the body cavity. ciliates were detected in fresh mounts of practically all organs and tissues, including the blood and ascitic fluid. histopathological studies revealed severe encephalitis and meningitis (associated wi ...200111592702
pituitary growth hormone secretion in the turbot, a phylogenetically recent teleost, is regulated by a species-specific pattern of neuropeptides.in mammals, growth hormone (gh) is under a dual hypothalamic control exerted by growth hormone-releasing hormone (ghrh) and somatostatin (srih). we investigated gh release in a pleuronectiform teleost, the turbot (psetta maxima), using a serum-free primary culture of dispersed pituitary cells. cells released gh for up to 12 days in culture, indicating that turbot somatotropes do not require releasing hormone for their regulation. srih dose-dependently inhibited gh release up to a maximal inhibit ...200111752894
possible role of ltb4 in the antiviral activity of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) leukocyte-derived supernatants against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv).turbot (scophthalmus maximus) blood leukocyte-derived supernatants were tested for antiviral activity against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv). the assays were performed by quantifying the effect of the supernatants on the replication of vhsv in the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) cell line, rtg-2. supernatants were obtained by incubating the leukocytes for 17 h at 18 degrees c in l-15 medium supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (fcs). testing of leukocyte supernatants indicated th ...200211755677
respiratory burst of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) macrophages in response to experimental infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv). 200111759042
viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus alters turbot scophthalmus maximus macrophage nitric oxide production.the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) in vitro infection on the nitric oxide (no) production by turbot scophthalmus maximus kidney macrophages has been addressed in the past. previously, we had determined that only a small fraction of turbot possess head kidney macrophages that respond to a single exposure of lipopolysaccharide (lps) with no production (lps-responsive macrophages), whereas macrophage cultures from other individuals were not activated by lps alone and needed a c ...200111775791
non-isotopic detection of tetramicra brevifilum (microspora) dna in turbot tissues.a non-isotopic in situ hybridization (ish) method was developed for detection of tetramicra brevifilum, a commercially important parasite in farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus. the probe relies on sequences from the small-subunit rrna gene (ssurdna) of tetramicra brevifilum and was obtained by polymerase chain reaction then labeled with digoxigenin. the results obtained demonstrate that the probe hybridizes well with genomic dna of the spores; thus, it is an effective method for detecting multio ...200111780847
disposition of 14c-flumequine in eel anguilla anguilla, turbot scophthalmus maximus and halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus after oral and intravenous administration.the absorption, distribution and elimination of 14c-labelled flumequine were studied using whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. flumequine was administered to eel anguilla anguilla, turbot scophthalmus maximus and halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus intravenously and orally as a single dose of 5 mg kg(-1), corresponding to 0.1 mci kg(-1). the turbot and halibut studies were performed in salt water (salinity of 32%) at temperatures of 16 +/- 1 degrees c (turbot) and 9.5 +/- ...200111804417
pcr detection of tetramicra brevifilum (microspora) infection in turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) musculature.this study investigated the spatial distribution of tetramicra brevifilum spores in the musculature of infected turbot scophthalmus maximus, with the aim of identifying the most appropriate body locations for diagnostic assays. a pcr protocol optimized for the detection of t. brevifilum spores in turbot muscle is also described. in fish showing low- and moderate-intensity infection, the spatial distribution of spores was best fitted by a negative binomial distribution, indicating a clumped spati ...200211860032
description of enteromyxum scophthalmi gen. nov., sp. nov. (myxozoa), an intestinal parasite of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) using morphological and ribosomal rna sequence data.a new myxozoa species causing enteritis and death in cultured turbot, scophthalmus maximus, is described at light and electron microscope levels. in addition, small subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences (ssu rdna) from the new species and from similar myxozoans were obtained and used for phylogenetic inference, as complementary criteria to resolve its taxonomic classification. the new parasite is closely related to myxidium leei, another enteric histozoic species from marine fish. however, the as ...200212003061
molecular identification of nine commercial flaffish species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a segment of the cytochrome b region.commercial refrigerated or frozen flatfish fillets are sometimes mislabeled, and identification of these mislabeled products is necessary to prevent fraudulent substitution. identification of nine commercial flatfish species (order pleuronectiformes), hippoglossus hippoglossus (halibut), lepidorhombus boscii (four-spotted scaldfish), lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (megrin), platichthys flesus (flounder), pleuronectes platessa (european plaice), reinhardtius hippoglossoides (greenland halibut), scoph ...200212092715
subclinical herpesvirus infection in farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus.subclinical infections with a herpesvirus were detected by light and electron microscopic examination of juvenile turbot collected during a national surveillance programme. virions detected in the epidermis of skin and in the epithelium of gills had a morphology consistent with those of herpesvirus scophthalmi described from turbot in the united kingdom and denmark. this is the first report of herpesvirus infection in turbot in norway.200212093038
cloning, characterization, and comparative activity of turbot igf-i and igf-ii.igf peptides belong to a complex system that is known to play a major role in the control of growth and development in mammals. even if studies performed in nonmammalian species tend to demonstrate an important function of these molecules, use of heterologous ligands, especially in fish, partly limit our knowledge of the physiological role(s) of igfs. we report in this study the cloning, production, and characterization in an evolved fish, the turbot psetta maxima, of mature igf-i and igf-ii. th ...200212093114
experimental transmission of enteromyxum scophthalmi (myxozoa), an enteric parasite of turbot scophthalmus maximus.several experiments were designed to elucidate the modes of transmission of the myxozoan parasite enteromyxum scophthalmi to turbot scophthalmus maximus. direct transmission of the infections was achieved by cohabitation of infected and test fish, through waterborne contamination from the effluent of a tank containing infected fish, and via the oral route using parasite-infected intestines. the transmission of the turbot enteromyxosis was successful in all the fish exposed to the parasite by the ...200212099415
antiprotozoals effective in vitro against the scuticociliate fish pathogen philasterides dicentrarchi.the histophagous ciliate philasterides dicentrarchi causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus and sea bass dicentrarchus labrax. the present study screened 52 candidate antiprotozoals for activity against this pathogen in vitro. of these compounds, 14 were effective (i.e. killed all ciliates within a 24 h assay period). in descending order of efficacy (minimum lethal concentration 100 to 0.8 ppm), these were niclosamide, oxyclozanide, bithionol sulfoxide, toltrazuril, ...200212113305
assessment of genetic variability and relatedness among atypical aeromonas salmonicida from marine fishes, using aflp-fingerprinting.atypical strains of aeromonas salmonicida are the causal agent of atypical furunculosis or ulcer disease in various fish species, including spotted wolffish anarhichas minor, which is a promising species in the norwegian fish-farming industry. isolates of atypical a. salmonicida comprise a very heterogenous group showing large variety in biochemical, molecular and virulence characteristics. the genetic variability among atypical isolates from wolffish was characterised using amplified fragment l ...200212180702
correlative changes in metabolism and dna damage in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.juvenile turbot (scophthalmus maximus) were injected intraperitoneally with either corn oil or 5 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (bap) dissolved in corn oil and sampled i and 3 days after injection. after 1 day, no elevation of 7-ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (erod) activity was observed, however bile metabolites (bap-7,8 dihydrodiol representing 70% of the total metabolites) and a single hepatic dna adduct spot (0.47 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) identified by 32p-postlabelling were formed. no bap metabolites ...200212408610
evaluation of immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria in turbot (scophthalmus maximus).in the present work, the effects of several lactic acid bacteria on the immune response of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) macrophages have been studied both in vitro and in vivo. out of six lactic acid bacterial strains tested, only heat-killed lactococcus lactis significantly increased the turbot head kidney macrophage chemiluminescent (cl) response after 24 h of incubation. nitric oxide (no) was also significantly enhanced by this bacterium after 72 h of incubation with either viable (10(3) and ...200212414767
enterovibrio norvegicus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae: a new member of the family vibrionaceae.twenty-two isolates originating from the gut of healthy cultured turbot larvae in norway were investigated using a polyphasic approach. amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting analysis showed that the isolates have typical patterns and form two main groups. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belong to the gamma-proteobacteria, with vibrio hollisae as their closest neighbour. dna-dna hybridization, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses further proved that these isolat ...200212508862
mycobacterial infection in farmed turbot scophthalmus maximus.mycobacteriosis (piscine tuberculosis) has been reported to affect a wide range of freshwater and marine fish species; however, this is the first report describing mycobacterial infections in turbot scophthalmus maximus. high numbers of granulomas were initially observed in the organs of moribund farmed turbot. bacteriological analysis of organs with granulomas led to the isolation of mycobacterium marinum. further analysis, to determine the prevalence of the infection in the farm and to identif ...200212517009
immunomodulatory effects of nisin in turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).in the present work, the effect of nisin on the non-specific immune response of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) leukocytes has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. the head kidney macrophage chemiluminescent (cl) response was significantly increased with intermediate doses of nisin (2.5 and 0.025 micro g ml(-1)) whilst the higher dose (25 micro g ml(-1)) significantly decreased the response after 24h incubation. when the incubation time was extended to 72 h, significant differences between d ...200312526879
pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of metomidate in turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus).metomidate was administered to halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) intravenously at a dose of 3 mg/kg bodyweight, as a bath treatment at a dose of 9 mg/l water for 5 min to study the disposition of metomidate, and as bath treatment (9 mg/l) for 10 min to study the absorption and effect of metomidate on respiration and balance/motor control. additionally, turbot were given metomidate orally at a dose of 7 mg/kg. the studies were performed in seawater at a tempera ...200312667178
isolation and characterization of fsh and lh from pituitary glands of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.).two gonadotropins (gth), follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) and luteinizing hormone (lh), were isolated and characterized from pituitary glands of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus l.). glycoproteins were extracted in 40% ethanol followed by precipitation in 85% ethanol. subsequently, glycoproteins were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on a whatman de-52 column using a stepwise gradient of ammonium bicarbonate (50-1000 mm). intact fsh and lh were finally purified on rphplc u ...200312679086
ultrastructural studies on the development of enteromyxum scophthalmi (myxozoa), an enteric parasite of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).the ultrastructure of the developmental stages of enteromyxum scophthalmi is described. scarce intracellular, early uninucleated stages appeared within intestinal epithelial cells whereas proliferative stages were abundant both intraepithelially and in the intestinal lumen. in the proliferative stages, food reserves were abundant in the cytoplasm of p cells and consisted mostly of carbohydrates in the intraepithelial stages and lipid inclusions in the luminal stages. sporogenesis could occur in ...200312783307
existence of two o-serotypes in the fish pathogen pseudomonas anguilliseptica.the serological characteristics of a group of 32 pseudomonas anguilliseptica strains isolated in spain from seabream (sparus aurata) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus) were compared with a total of 18 collection strains of this bacterial species with different geographical and host origin. the employment of different techniques, including slide agglutination, microagglutination and dot blot, allowed us to establish two serological groups, one comprising practically all the eel isolates, and the o ...200312829386
non-specific immune response of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), experimentally infected with a pathogenic vibrio pelagius.the effect of a pathogenic vibrio pelagius, isolated during a mass mortality of turbot larvae, on the non-specific immune response of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), macrophages was studied both in vitro and in vivo. the in vitro treatment of head kidney (hk) macrophages with viable v. pelagius caused a significant inhibition of the chemiluminescence (cl) response in comparison with untreated macrophages, while incubation with heat-killed bacteria did not affect this response. in vivo, the in ...200312899407
development of a pcr-based method for the detection of listonella anguillarum in fish tissues and blood samples.a pcr assay for detection and identification of the fish pathogen listonella anguillarum was developed. primers amplifying a 519 bp internal fragment of the l. anguillarum rpon gene, which codes for the factor sigma54, were utilized. the detection limit of the pcr using l. anguillarum pure cultures was approximately 1 to 10 bacterial cells per reaction. for tissue or blood samples of infected turbot scophthalmus maximus, the detection limit was 10 to 100 l. anguillarum cells per reaction, which ...200312911058
in vitro studies on viability and proliferation of enteromyxum scophthalmi (myxozoa), an enteric parasite of cultured turbot scophthalmus maximus.in vitro cultivation of the myxozoan enteromyxum scophthalmi was attempted using different culture media and conditions. the progress of the cultures was monitored using dye-exclusion viability counts, tetrazolium-based cell-proliferation assays, measuring the incorporation of brdu during dna synthesis, and by morphological studies using light and electron microscopes. in preliminary experiments, the persistence of viable stages for a few days was ascertained in both medium 199 (m199) and in sea ...200312911061
a study of the susceptibility of atlantic halibut, hippoglossus hippoglossus (l.), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).the susceptibility of atlantic halibut, hippoglossus hippoglossus (l.), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) was tested. juvenile halibut of approximately 5 g weight were subjected to challenge by intraperitoneal injection, cohabitation and immersion to a vhsv isolate from an outbreak of the disease in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.). the intraperitoneal injection gave the highest mortality rate of 28% after 50 days. the cohabitee group suffered 19% mortality rate and the immersion g ...200312962229
isolation of a highly pathogenic vibrio pelagius strain associated with mass mortalities of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), larvae.a bacterial strain, characterized as vibrio pelagius (hq 222), was isolated from a turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), larvae mass mortality in a commercial fish farm in spain. turbot larvae, post-larvae (0.2 g) and juveniles (5 and 15 g) were experimentally infected. the bacterium appeared to be very virulent for larvae and post-larvae, ld50 being < 5 bacteria ml(-1) for larvae 1 week post-infection and 3.9 x 10(5) bacteria ml(-1) in post-larvae at day 12 post-infection. the bacterial strain was ...200312962238
characterization of vibrio strains isolated from turbot (scophthalmus maximus) culture by phenotypic analysis, ribotyping and 16s rrna gene sequence comparison.the aim of the present study was to clarify the taxonomic status of vibrio strains isolated from an aquaculture system and to compare the results of the identifications made by phenotypic and molecular methods.200312969281
composition of biomineral organic matrices with special emphasis on turbot (psetta maxima) otolith and endolymph.the soluble organic matrix (om) of various biominerals (red coral skeleton, oyster shell, sea urchin test, turbot otolith, chicken eggshell) was extracted after demineralization with acetic acid. the protein content of the om varies strongly from 0.02 to 1.6 microg/mg biomineral whereas proteoglycans present less variations (from 0.7 to 1.4 microg/mg biomineral). electrophoresis of biominerals om shows differences in their protein pattern although several bands are present in all matrices. om of ...200314563001
gynogenesis assessment using microsatellite genetic markers in turbot ( scophthalmus maximus).gynogenesis was assessed by different methods in 2 families of gynogenetic offspring in turbot ( scophthalmus maximus). karyotype analysis in embryos and larvae demonstrated high accuracy in estimation of ploidy level, but performance was uneven given the low quality and number of plates obtained. the use of silver staining to estimate the number of nucleoli per nucleus resulted in a straightforward and easy method to evaluate the ploidy of the samples studied. however, the existence of a nucleo ...200314564535
bacterial influences on atlantic halibut hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk-sac larval survival and start-feed response.a bacteria-free halibut larval rearing system was used to test 20 bacterial isolates, from british halibut hatcheries, for their toxicity towards halibut yolk-sac larvae under microbially controlled conditions. the isolates tested spanned a range of genera and species (pseudoalteromonas, halomonas marina, vibrio salmonicida-like, photobacterium phosphoreum and v. splendidus species). a pathogen of turbot, scophthalmus maximus, v. anguillarum 91079, and 2 isolates from adult halibut were also inc ...200314598986
determination of vibrio scophthalmi and its phenotypic diversity in turbot larvae.the association of vibrio scophthalmi with turbot larvae was assessed, by molecular methods with a species-specific probe, in the rearing stages of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) larvae using a routine batch of production at a fish farm. the phenotypic diversity of this bacterial species was also studied to identify predominant phenotypes at successive stages of larval development. vibrio scophthalmi was detected in all turbot larvae samples except in the sample from day 0 after hatching. the per ...200414871205
intraspecific diversity of the marine fish pathogen tenacibaculum maritimum as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic dna-pcr.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the intraspecific genetic variability within tenacibaculum maritimum strains isolated from different species of marine fish.200415012827
effects of the histiophagous ciliate philasterides dicentrarchi on turbot phagocyte responses.philasterides dicentrarchi is an opportunistic histiophagous ciliate parasite causing systemic scuticociliatosis in cultured turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.). this study investigated the effects of inoculation with live or killed trophozoites of this ciliate (plus 3% thioglycollate) on the in vitro phagocytic activity and respiratory-burst responses of inflammatory peritoneal leucocytes obtained from the fish thus treated. the phagocytic activity of leucocytes from fish inoculated with killed p. ...200415145415
selection and identification of autochthonous potential probiotic bacteria from turbot larvae (scophthalmus maximus) rearing units.the purpose of this study was to select, identify and characterise bacteria as a disease control measure in the rearing of marine fish larvae (turbot, scophthalmus maximus). thirty-four out of 400 marine bacterial strains exhibited in vitro anti-bacterial activity against three fish larval pathogens. two strains originated from culture collections and thirty two strains were isolated directly from turbot larvae rearing units using a pre-selection procedure to facilitate detection of antagonists. ...200415214642
development of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of circulating antibodies against enteromyxum scophthalmi (myxozoa) in turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.).immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for the detection of specific antibodies against the myxosporean parasite enteromyxum scophthalmi in turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.). fish which had survived a previous epizootic were exposed to the parasite by cohabitation with infected animals, and 83 days later the plasma was tested for the presence of antibodies. plasma of non-exposed fish was used as negative control. immunohistochemistry (ihc) using rabbit anti-tur ...200415312660
histophagous scuticociliatids (ciliophora) parasitizing turbot scophthalmus maximus: morphology, in vitro culture and virulence.systemic ciliatosis caused by histophagous ciliates constitutes a serious disease of cultured turbot. six ciliate isolates were obtained from parasitized turbot during six epizootics at four different farms located in spain, france and portugal. axenic cultures of the six isolates were obtained by periodical subculturing in atcc 1651ma or supplemented l-15 media. in basal media or seawater, the parasites could survive starving for long periods with no apparent proliferation. in adequate media, g ...200415357395
studies on transmission and life cycle of enteromyxum scophthalmi (myxozoa), an enteric parasite of turbot scophthalmus maximus.in order to elucidate the transmission and dispersion routes used by the myxozoan parasite enteromyxum scophthalmi palenzuela, redondo et alvarez-pellitero, 2002 within its host (scophihalmus maximus l.), a detailed study of the course of natural and experimental infections was carried out. purified stages obtained from infected fish were also used in in vitro assays with explants of uninfected intestinal epithelium. the parasites can contact and penetrate loci in the intestinal epithelium very ...200415357396
protection against atlantic halibut nodavirus in turbot is induced by recombinant capsid protein vaccination but not following dna vaccination.fish nodaviruses (betanodaviruses) are small, non-enveloped icosahedral single-stranded positive-sense rna viruses that can cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (ver) in a number of cultured marine teleost species, including atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus). a recombinant protein vaccine and a dna vaccine were produced, based on the same capsid-encoding region of the atlantic halibut nodavirus (ahnv) genome, and tested for protection in juvenile turbot (scophthalmus maximus). v ...200515450965
characterization of nodavirus and viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in farmed turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).an outbreak of nodavirus infection in turbot larvae is described with respect to histopathology, immunohistochemistry, cell culture cultivation, rt-pcr amplification and sequence analysis of the capsid protein gene rna2. affected turbot developed classical signs of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (ver) with abnormal swimming behaviour and high mortality levels. in the acute stage of infection, light microscopy revealed vacuolation of the central nervous system (cns), with positive immunohis ...200415482424
experimental infection of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), by moritella viscosa, vaccination effort and vaccine-induced side-effects.moritella viscosa is the causative agent of winter ulcers in farmed salmonids and atlantic cod in countries around the north atlantic. the bacterium has also been isolated from various marine fish species. bacterial diseases have been a limiting factor in farming of turbot, but m. viscosa has not so far been isolated. in this study, turbot was shown to be sensitive to m. viscosa infection in experimental challenges. pathological changes in infected turbot were comparable with those previously de ...200415509259
seasonal incidence of autochthonous antagonistic roseobacter spp. and vibrionaceae strains in a turbot larva (scophthalmus maximus) rearing system.bacteria inhibitory to fish larval pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two turbot larva rearing farms over a 1-year period. samples were taken from the rearing site, e.g., tank walls, water, and feed for larvae, and bacteria with antagonistic activity against vibrio anguillarum were isolated using a replica plating assay. approximately 19,000 colonies were replica plated from marine agar plates, and 341 strains were isolated from colonies causing clearing zones in a layer of v. anguillarum. w ...200415574928
cryptosporidium scophthalmi n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) from cultured turbot scophthalmus maximus. light and electron microscope description and histopathological study.cryptosporidium scophthalmi n. sp. is described from the turbot scophthalmus maximus l., sampled from different farms on the coast of nw spain. the parasite was found mainly in the intestinal epithelium and very seldom in the stomach. oocysts were almost spherical, with 4 naked sporozoites and a residuum, and measured 3.7-5.03 x 3.03-4.69 microm (mean 4.44 x 3.91) (shape index 1.05-1.34, mean 1.14). sporulation was endogenous, as fully sporulated oocysts were found within the intestinal epitheli ...200415648840
sequential pathology after experimental infection with marine viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates of low and high virulence in turbot (scophthalmus maximus l).three marine viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates were used to bath challenge turbot with the purpose of studying mortality and the pathology and antigen distribution over time. two high-virulence isolates, 860/94, 4p168 and a low-virulence isolate 1p3 from a baltic sea herring were used. organ samples were collected sequentially at 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 45 days postinfection. specimens were processed for virology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. organs during the early s ...200515657267
occurrence of scuticociliatosis in olive flounder paralichthys olivaceus by phiasterides dicentrarchi (ciliophora: scuticociliatida).in the course of identifying scuticociliates recently obtained from systemically infected olive flounder paralichthys olivaceus in korea, we found a scuticociliate species whose small subunit ribosomal rna (ss rrna) gene was not amplified by species-specific primers previously designed for uronema marinum and pseudocohnilembus persalinus. by studying morphological characteristics of wet-mounted and stained specimens, we identified the species as philasterides dicentrarchi, which has been reporte ...200415672879
efficacy of furunculosis vaccines in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.): evaluation of immersion, oral and injection delivery.the commercial furunculosis vaccine aquavac furovac 5 and an autogenous vaccine, based on the challenge strain, induced immune protection in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), as shown in challenge tests 120 days post-immunization by injection (relative percentage of survival, rps = 72-99%). this protective effect lasted for at least 6 months post-immunization at appreciable levels (rps = 50-52%). neither the autogenous vaccine nor the commercial vaccine was able to induce significant levels of ...200515752277
experimental infection of turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and evaluation of cross protection induced by a furunculosis vaccine.turbot was shown to be sensitive to injection challenges by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes (asa). a systemic disease was induced and the bacterium was isolated from various internal organs. histopathological changes involved haemorrhages, necrosis and degeneration in skin and muscle, haemorrhages and necrosis in kidney, degeneration in the heart muscle, and fusion of the secondary gill lamellae. a polyvalent commercial salmon vaccine, containing a. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as on ...200515752279
characterization of an iridovirus detected from cultured turbot scophthalmus maximus in korea.juvenile turbot scophthalmus maximus that became sick during an outbreak of disease at mariculture facilities at go-chang, korea, in 2003, were examined to identify the cause of the disease. the fish had pale body color, an enlarged abdomen, protruding eyes, an enlarged spleen and kidney, and pale gills and/or liver. histopathogical examination revealed basophilic enlarged cells in the kidney, spleen, gills, heart, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas and skin. hexagonal viral particles with a di ...200515918481
bacterial vaccines for fish--an update of the current situation worldwide.during the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. according to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like atlantic salmon (salmo salar), rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (sparus aurata), barramundi (lates calcarifer), tilapia (tilapia spp), ...200515962470
vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for spanish aquaculture.in recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in spanish aquaculture. these are lactococcosis caused by lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) and turbot (scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (solea spp). to obtain useful inf ...200515962472
vibrio splendidus biotype 1 as a cause of mortalities in hatchery-reared larval turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).to characterize bacteria associated with turbot larvae feeding on artemia and identify pathogens causing mortalities in larvae.200516033454
molecular cloning and expression analysis of interferon regulatory factor-1 (irf-1) of turbot and sea bream.the interferon regulatory factor (irf) family comprises transcription factors that regulate the expression of interferon and interferon-related cytokines. using the race technique, we have determined the complete cdna sequence of turbot (scophthalmus maximus) and sea bream (sparus aurata) irfs. these sequences shared characteristics with other irfs of fish, mammals and birds, and showed high similarity with irf-1. indeed, they were included in the irf-1 cluster of the phylogenetic tree construct ...200616112733
isolation in cell culture and detection by pcr-based technology of ipnv-like virus from leucocytes of carrier turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).a non-destructive procedure was utilized to determine the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) status of an apparently healthy turbot broodstock. blood samples were used to detect ipnv by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), southern blot hybridization and nested pcr. in addition, viral isolation from turbot leucocytes was performed. around 22% of the fish were ipnv positive by rt-pcr, and this increased to close to 60% when nested pcr was performed. the present repor ...200516336472
experimental susceptibility of atlantic cod, gadus morhua (l.), and atlantic halibut, hippoglossus hippoglossus (l.), to different genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) is a well-characterized disease of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, which has also caused economic losses in marine turbot farms in the british isles. we have previously demonstrated that turbot, scophthalmus maximus, are susceptible to isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv) that are endemic in the marine environment, highlighting a potential risk to marine aquaculture. given the increasing interest in the intensive rearing of additional a ...200516336475
[identification and phylogenetic study of pathogenic bacteria causing ulcer disease of cultured turbot (scophthalmus maximus)].an outbreak of ulcer disease of the cultured turbot scophthalmus maximus l. occurred in an indoor farm in haiyang, shandong province in the sweltering august of 2004 and caused significant mortality. at the beginning, infected turbots displayed sluggish swimming and anorexia. several days later, the turbot eyes swelled, the fins and tail turned red, and the back gradually ulcerated. dissection of the moribund fish showed that the ulcerative gills paled, the liver becamed bloodshot, the kidney an ...200516342752
production of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) by vibrio pelagius isolated from turbot (scophthalmus maximus (l.)) larvae.fourteen bacterial strains isolated from turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), larvae were screened for eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) (epa) production. gas chromatography analysis revealed that one bacterial species, vibrio pelagius, contained a high proportion of epa in cellular lipid. this finding was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. a higher concentration of epa was detected when the bacterium was cultured at 4 degrees c.199216348815
comparative susceptibility of turbot scophthalmus maximus to different genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) disease has exerted a significant impact on the development of turbot aquaculture in the british isles. the source of such outbreaks is believed to be naturally occurring marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv), which are endemic in the marine environment of northern europe. genetic studies have classified these marine vhsv isolates into genotypes based on their geographic rather than host-species origin. this study set out to explore t ...200516385805
pathology of edwardsiella tarda infection in turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).macroscopic and histopathological changes in cultured turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.), in spain caused by infection with edwardsiella tarda are described. eye tumefaction, inflammation, haemorrhages, ascites and the presence of a purulent fluid were the main macroscopic lesions observed. histopathological lesions were found in the kidney, spleen and liver. in the kidney and spleen these were characterized by a severe apostematous inflammatory reaction, with a large number of abscesses. the liv ...200616436119
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