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the amphipod gammarus fossarum as a natural true intermediate host of the nematode raphidascaris acus.a single third-stage larva of the fish nematode raphidascaris acus (bloch, 1779) (body length 1.77 mm) was found in 1 of 775 gammarids gammarus fossarum koch examined from the jihlava river, czech republic. this is the first confirmed record of the advanced l, of this species from an invertebrate host, showing that an invertebrate may serve as true intermediate host of this nematode, in addition to lower aquatic vertebrates. until now, invertebrates have generally been considered as paratenic ho ...19968691386
metabolic responses to cold in subterranean crustaceans.changes in polyol, sugar and free amino acid (faa) body contents were investigated in the aquatic, subterranean (i.e. hypogean) crustaceans niphargus rhenorhodanensis and niphargus virei and in a morphologically close aquatic, surface-dwelling (i.e. epigean) crustacean gammarus fossarum acclimated to 12 degrees c, 3 degrees c and -2 degrees c. with decreasing temperature, g. fossarum significantly increased its alanine and glutamine levels, while trehalose body content was found to increase abov ...200516043597
are cryptic host species also cryptic to parasites? host specificity and geographical distribution of acanthocephalan parasites infecting freshwater gammarus.many parasites infect multiple host species. in coevolving host-parasite interactions, theory predicts that parasites should be adapted to locally common hosts, which could lead to regional shifts in host preferences. we studied the interaction between freshwater gammarus (crustacea, amphipoda) and their acanthocephalan parasites using a large-scale field survey and experiments, combined with molecular identification of cryptic host and parasite species. gammarus pulex is a common host for multi ...201121470578
influence of the cestode ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (hsp70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts.it is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms - commonly referred to as biomarkers - to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. however, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. after two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite ligula intestinalis. the same was found for gammarus fo ...201323770459
effects of the acanthocephalan polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed gammarus fossarum.amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. for example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. these effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmen ...201526539331
microplastics affect assimilation efficiency in the freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum.an important issue in assessing microplastics is whether this newly emerging type of pollution affects freshwater invertebrates. this study was designed to examine the interactions between the amphipod gammarus fossarum and two types of microplastics. to determine the ingestion and egestion of polyamide (pa) fibres (500 × 20 μm), amphipods were exposed to four concentrations (100, 540, 2680, 13,380 pa fibres cm(-2) base area of glass beakers) and four exposure times (0.5, 2, 8, 32 h) as well as ...201627614640
active biomonitoring for assessing effects of metal polluted sediment resuspension on gammarid amphipods during fluvial traffic.the resuspension of polluted sediments by boat traffic could release substantial amounts of metals to the water column, affecting at the same time their bioavailability. in order to characterize the impact of sediment resuspensions on biota, caged amphipods have been deployed on three different channelized watercourses in northern france. firstly, the biological responses of transplanted freshwater gammarid amphipods, gammarus fossarum, described by trace metal accumulation, feeding and reproduc ...201627552046
health effects of metoprolol in epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates-a basis to validate future in vitro biotests for effect-based biomonitoring.the aim of this study was to determine the effect data for metoprolol as a model substance for beta-blockers in aquatic invertebrates. the results will be used as a basis for the validation of future mode of action-based in vitro test systems targeting this class of pharmaceuticals. effects of metoprolol were investigated in two autochthonous species with high relevance in stream ecology: the amphipod gammarus fossarum and the oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus. mortality in g. fossarum was not ...201727835069
trophic transfer and effects of gold nanoparticles (aunps) in gammarus fossarum from contaminated periphytic biofilm.this work addressed the trophic transfer and effects of functionalized gold nanoparticles (aunps) from periphytic biofilms to the crustacean gammarus fossarum. biofilms were exposed for 48 h to 10 nm positively charged functionalized aunps at two concentrations, 4.6 and 46 mg/l, and crustaceans g. fossarum grazed on these for 7 days, with daily biofilm renewal. gold bioaccumulation in biofilm and crustacean were measured to estimate the trophic transfer ratio of these aunp, and, for the first ti ...201728091991
high-throughput proteome dynamics for discovery of key proteins in sentinel species: unsuspected vitellogenins diversity in the crustacean gammarus fossarum.in environmental science, omics-based approaches are widely used for the identification of gene products related to stress response. however, when dealing with non-model species, functional prediction of genes is challenging. indeed, functional predictions are often obtained by sequence similarity searches and functional data from phylogenetically distant organisms, which can lead to inaccurate predictions due to quite different evolutionary scenarios. in oviparous females, vitellogenin producti ...201627404005
long-term effects of fungicides on leaf-associated microorganisms and shredder populations-an artificial stream study.leaf litter is a major source of carbon and energy for stream food webs, while both leaf-decomposing microorganisms and macroinvertebrate leaf shredders can be affected by fungicides. despite the potential for season-long fungicide exposure for these organisms, however, such chronic exposures have not yet been considered. using an artificial stream facility, effects of a chronic (lasting up to 8 wk) exposure to a mixture of 5 fungicides (sum concentration 20 μg/l) on leaf-associated microorganis ...201728160498
quantification of emerging micropollutants in an amphipod crustacean by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode.an innovative analytical method has been developed to quantify the bioaccumulation in an amphipod crustacean (gammarus fossarum) of three micropollutants regarded as anthropic-pollution markers: carbamazepine, oxazepam, and testosterone. a liquid-liquid extraction assisted by salts, known as quechers (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) was miniaturised and optimised, so it could be adapted to the low mass samples (approximatively 5mg dry weight). for this same reason and in order t ...201627324621
gammarus fossarum as a sensitive tool to reveal residual toxicity of treated wastewater effluents.wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) are one of the main sources of freshwater pollution eventually resulting in adverse effects in aquatic organisms. treated effluents can contain many micropollutants at concentrations often below the limit of chemical quantification. on a regulatory basis, wwtp effluents have to be non-toxic to the aquatic environment, wherefore not only chemical abatement but also ecotoxicological evaluation through relevant bioassays is required. standardized bioassays curren ...201728174047
impact of cadmium on the ecdysteroids production in gammarus fossarum.gammarus fossarum is an important test organism which is currently used as a bio-indicator as well as in ecotoxicological tests. nevertheless, data on ecdysteroids in endocrine toxicity test are not yet available for these species, despite its crucial role in molting and reproduction. in the present paper, ecdysteroids concentrations were studied during the molt cycle (in females) and embryonic development in g. fossarum (crustacea, amphipoda) in order to propose an ecdysteroids toxicity test. e ...201626980586
use of gammarus fossarum (amphipoda) embryo for toxicity testing: a case study with cadmium.the effects of environmental contaminants on arthropod embryo stages have been poorly investigated in ecotoxicology. moreover, many of these tests used hatching success as the sole metric, although it is possible to detect many more subtle effects. after a detailed description of embryogenesis in gammarus fossarum, the present study reports on the sublethal effects of cadmium (cd) exposure during embryonic development in g. fossarum. embryos were first directly exposed in multiwell plates throug ...201728252216
mothers and not genes determine inherited differences in cadmium sensitivities within unexposed populations of the freshwater crustacean gammarus fossarum.deciphering evolutionary processes occurring within contaminated populations is important for the ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. whereas increased tolerance to contaminants is well documented in aquatic animal populations, whether such phenotypic changes occur through genetic adaptation is still debated. in that sense, several studies with the freshwater crustacean gammarus concluded in a weak potential for genetic adaptation to cadmium (cd), while others reported inheritable inc ...201626834827
antibiotic mixture effects on growth of the leaf-shredding stream detritivore gammarus fossarum.pharmaceuticals contribute greatly to human and animal health. given their specific biological targets, pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk by affecting organisms and ecosystem processes, including leaf-litter decomposition. although litter decomposition is a central process in forest streams, the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals remain poorly known. the present study assessed the impact of antibiotics as an important class of pharmaceuticals on the growth of the lea ...201728285374
ecotoxicoproteomic assessment of the functional alterations caused by chronic metallic exposures in gammarids.very few ecotoxicological studies have been performed on long-term exposure under controlled conditions, hence limiting the assessment of the impact of chronic and diffuse chemical pressures on the health of aquatic organisms. in this study, an ecotoxicoproteomic approach was used to assess the integrated response and possible acclimation mechanisms in gammarus fossarum following chronic exposures to cd, cu or pb, at environmentally realistic concentrations (i.e. 0.25, 1.5 and 5 μg/l respectivel ...201728285888
evaluation of the influence of surfactants in the bioaccumulation kinetics of sulfamethoxazole and oxazepam in benthic invertebrates.the potential ecotoxicological effects of mixtures of contaminants in the aquatic environment are generating a global concern. benthic invertebrates, such as the crustacean gammarus fossarum, are key in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and are frequently used as sentinel species of water quality status. the aim of this work was to study the effects of a mixture of the most frequently detected surfactants in the bioconcentration kinetics of two pharmaceuticals in g. fossarum, evaluating the ...201728342560
additive effects of temperature and infection with an acanthocephalan parasite on the shredding activity of gammarus fossarum (crustacea: amphipoda): the importance of aggregative behavior.climate change can have critical impacts on the ecological role of keystone species, leading to subsequent alterations within ecosystems. the consequences of climate change may be best predicted by understanding its interaction with the cumulative effects of other stressors, although this approach is rarely adopted. however, whether this interaction is additive or interactive can hardly be predicted from studies examining a single factor at a time. in particular, biotic interactions are known to ...201727591398
multidimensionality in host manipulation mimicked by serotonin injection.manipulative parasites often alter the phenotype of their hosts along multiple dimensions. 'multidimensionality' in host manipulation could consist in the simultaneous alteration of several physiological pathways independently of one another, or proceed from the disruption of some key physiological parameter, followed by a cascade of effects. we compared multidimensionality in 'host manipulation' between two closely related amphipods, gammarus fossarum and gammarus pulex, naturally and experimen ...201425339729
identifying a key host in an acanthocephalan-amphipod system.trophically transmitted parasites may use multiple intermediate hosts, some of which may be 'key-hosts', i.e. contributing significantly more to the completion of the parasite life cycle, while others may be 'sink hosts' with a poor contribution to parasite transmission. gammarus fossarum and gammarus roeseli are sympatric crustaceans used as intermediate hosts by the acanthocephalan pomphorhynchus laevis. gammarus roeseli suffers higher field prevalence and is less sensitive to parasite behavio ...201526303006
bioaccumulation of toxoplasma and cryptosporidium by the freshwater crustacean gammarus fossarum: involvement in biomonitoring surveys and trophic transfer.the protozoa toxoplasma gondii and cryptosporidium parvum are public health priorities because their oocysts can persist in recreational, surface, drinking, river, and sea water sources for a long time. to evaluate the capacity of the freshwater crustacean gammarus fossarum to accumulate t. gondii and c. parvum oocysts, gammarids were exposed to 200, 2000 or 20,000 oocysts per gammarid and per day for 21 days followed by 5 days of depuration. c. parvum dna was detected by qpcr in g. fossarum in ...201627454203
bioconcentration, biomagnification and metabolism of 14c-terbutryn and 14c-benzo[a]pyrene in gammarus fossarum and asellus aquaticus.the contribution of bioconcentration and biomagnification of 14c-terbutryn and 14c-benzo[a]pyrene via food and water to the bioaccumulation in gammarus fossarum and asellus aquaticus was investigated in single species-tests. in this investigation the uptake of 14c-terbutryn and 14c-benzo[a]pyrene via food and water by g. fossarum (l.) and a. aquaticus (l.) was examined. bioconcentration factors (bcfs) and biomagnification factors (bmfs) were determined. calculated bcfs were clearly higher than b ...200716997349
freezing or supercooling: how does an aquatic subterranean crustacean survive exposures at subzero temperatures?crystallization temperature (t(c)), resistance to inoculative freezing (if), ice contents, bound water, protein and glycogen body contents were measured in the aquatic subterranean crustacean niphargus rhenorhodanensis and in the morphologically close surface-dwelling aquatic crustacean gammarus fossarum, both acclimated at 12 degrees c, 3 degrees c and -2 degrees c. cold acclimation induced an increase in the t(c) values in both species but no survival was observed after thawing. however, after ...200616916982
ovary and embryo proteogenomic dataset revealing diversity of vitellogenins in the crustacean gammarus fossarum.ovaries and embryos from sexually mature gammarus fossarum were sampled at different stages of the reproductive cycle. the soluble proteome was extracted for five biological replicates and samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. the resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry with a ltq-orbitrap xl instrument. the ms/ms spectra were assigned with a previously described rnaseq-derived g. fossarum database. the proteins highlighted by proteogenomics were monit ...201627547807
widely distributed and regionally isolated! drivers of genetic structure in gammarus fossarum in a human-impacted landscape.the actual connectivity between populations of freshwater organisms is largely determined by species biology, but is also influenced by many area- and site-specific factors, such as water pollution and habitat fragmentation. therefore, the prediction of effective gene flow, even for well-studied organisms, is difficult. the amphipod crustacean gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater ecosystems and contains many cryptic species. one of these species is the broadly distributed g. fos ...201627473498
gammarus fossarum (crustacea, amphipoda) as a model organism to study the effects of silver nanoparticles.amphipods are one of the most important components of freshwater ecosystems. among them, gammarids are the most widespread group in europe and are often used as bioindicators and model organisms in ecotoxicology. however, their use, especially of gammarus fossarum for the study of the environmental impact of nanoparticles, has been rather limited so far. g. fossarum was selected to assess effects of well-characterized chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (agnps 20nm and 200nm) and "green" ...201627328878
investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (gammarus fossarum example).in the present study, gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. the novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. in the sutla river, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in north-western croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was ref ...201627060638
combined effects of drought and the fungicide tebuconazole on aquatic leaf litter decomposition.loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (tbz) on leaf litter decomposition (lld), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. starting out from a worst-case scenario perspe ...201626859779
waterborne toxicity and diet-related effects of fungicides in the key leaf shredder gammarus fossarum (crustacea: amphipoda).animals involved in leaf litter breakdown (i.e., shredders) play a central role in detritus-based stream food webs, while their fitness and functioning can be impaired by anthropogenic stressors. particularly fungicides can affect shredders via both waterborne exposure and their diet, namely due to co-ingestion of adsorbed fungicides and shifts in the leaf-associated fungal community, on which shredders' nutrition heavily relies. to understand the relevance of these effect pathways, we used a fu ...201526520670
metabolic activity and behavior of the invasive amphipod dikerogammarus villosus and two common central european gammarid species (gammarus fossarum, gammarus roeselii): low metabolic rates may favor the invader.the ponto-caspian amphipod dikerogammarus villosus is one of the most successful invaders in central european rivers. contrary to studies on its ecology, ecophysiological studies comparing the species' physiological traits are scarce. in this context, in particular the metabolic activity of the invasive species has rarely been considered and, moreover, the few existing studies on this species report strongly deviating results. the purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic activity and be ...201626478193
effects of stream acidification on fungal biomass in decaying beech leaves and leaf palatability.we examined the effect of surface water acidification on rates of decomposition, ergosterol concentrations (as a measure of fungal biomass), and palatability to shredders of common beech leaves (fagus sylvatica l.) in five mountain streams (ph 4.7-7.1). leaf decomposition was significantly faster in the circumneutral streams (ph 6.4-7.1; k > or = 0.00175 d(-1)), when compared to acidic streams (ph 4.7-4.9; k < or = 0.00100 d(-1)). fungal biomass showed no particular trend along the acidification ...200312688687
invasion history and genetic population structure of riverine macroinvertebrates.macroinvertebrate communities of large rivers have experienced dramatic species turnovers in the last decades, which still go on. the analysis of genetic population structure plays a central role in understanding and predicting these biological invasions. two points of view are considered: the influence of the invasion history on the genetic structuring and the potential implications of genetic structure for future invasibility. expectations about selectively neutral genetic variation in simple ...200116351849
role of cellular compartmentalization in the trophic transfer of mercury species in a freshwater plant-crustacean food chain.mercury (hg) represents an important risk for human health through the food webs contamination. macrophytes bioaccumulate hg and play a role in hg transfer to food webs in shallow aquatic ecosystems. nevertheless, the compartmentalization of hg within macrophytes, notably major accumulation in the cell wall and its impact on trophic transfer to primary consumers are overlooked. the present work focusses on the trophic transfer of inorganic hg (ihg) and monomethyl-hg (mmhg) from the intracellular ...201627585272
proteogenomics of gammarus fossarum to document the reproductive system of amphipods.because of their ecological importance, amphipod crustacea are employed worldwide as test species in environmental risk assessment. although proteomics allows new insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the stress response, such investigations are rare for these organisms because of the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. here, we propose a proteogenomic approach for identifying specific proteins of the freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum, a keystone species in european ...201425293947
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2009-30 september 2009.this article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: adelges tsugae, artemisia tridentata, astroides calycularis, azorella selago, botryllus schlosseri, botrylloides violaceus, cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, campylopterus curvipennis, colocasia esculenta, cynomys ludovicianus, cynomys leucurus, cynomys gunnisoni, ...201021565018
short-term physiological responses to a severe acid stress in three macroinvertebrate species: a comparative study.the present study focuses on the sensitivity among freshwater invertebrate species to acidic stress. three common macroinvertebrate species in the vosges mountains (north-eastern france), gammarus fossarum (amphipoda), hydropsyche pellucidula (trichoptera) and dinocras cephalotes (plecoptera) were exposed for 24, 72 and 120 h to natural acidified water (ph=4.73+/-0.08, [ca2+]=39.1+/-0.6 micromol l(-1), [al(tot)]=28.4+/-1 micromol l(-1)). short-term exposure to acid stress caused significant decr ...200616303164
population structure and dynamics of gammarus fossarum (amphipoda) upstream and downstream from effluents of sewage treatment plants.two streams in germany (körsch and lockwitzbach), each with two sampling sites above and below a sewage treatment plant (stp) discharging effluent, were investigated. sampling sites were characterized, and exposure monitoring for chemicals with known or assumed endocrine disrupting potential was carried out. both the population structure and the population dynamics of gammarus fossarum were examined. the physicochemical parameters measured at the sampling sites of the lockwitzbach and körsch str ...200616222458
haemolymph [na+] and [cl-] loss in gammarus fossarum exposed in situ to a wide range of acidic streams.the acid-sensitive amphipod gammarus fossarum was exposed in situ for 24, 96 and 168 h to 18 streams (9 draining from granite and 9 draining from sandstone bedrock), selected in order to provide a wide range of acidification. after 24 h, exposure to slightly acidic (6.00 < or = ph < or = 5.50) and strongly acidic water (ph < 5.50) led to a severe and significant depletion in haemolymph [na+] and [cl-] compared to organisms exposed in circumneutral water. highly significant linear correlations be ...200415584418
seasonal variability and inter-species comparison of metal bioaccumulation in caged gammarids under urban diffuse contamination gradient: implications for biomonitoring investigations.although caging of gammarus species offers promising lines of inquiry to monitor metal bioavailability in freshwaters, the interspecies responsiveness to metal exposures is still unclear. in addition, abiotic factors inherent to transplantation can hamper the interpretation of field bioaccumulation data. to assess the relevance of using gammarids as biomonitors, we investigated the seasonal influence on metal bioaccumulation in two common species, gammarus pulex and gammarus fossarum. during fou ...201525577736
does the current fungicide risk assessment provide sufficient protection for key drivers in aquatic ecosystem functioning?the level of protection provided by the present environmental risk assessment (era) of fungicides in the european union for fungi is unknown. therefore, we assessed the structural and functional implications of five fungicides with different modes of action (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) individually and in mixture on communities of aquatic hyphomycetes. this is a polyphyletic group of fungi containing key drivers in the breakdown of leaf litter, governing ...201525517729
photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles affect habitat selection of and food quality for a key species in the leaf litter decomposition process.interactions with environmental parameters may alter the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. the present study therefore assessed the (in)direct effects of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-tio(2)) towards gammarus fossarum, considering nano-tio(2)'s photocatalytic properties at ambient uv-intensities. gammarids' habitat selection was investigated using its feeding preference on leaf discs either exposed to or protected from uv-irradiation in presence of nano-tio(2) as proxy (n = 49). uv-irradiat ...201525463723
effects of increased temperatures on gammarus fossarum under the influence of copper sulphate.the specialised fauna of freshwater springs will have to cope with a possible temperature rise owing to global change. it is affected additionally by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. we assessed the combined effects of temperature increase and exposure to toxins in laboratory experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and gammarus fossarum koch, 1835, as the model organism. this amphipod is a common representative of t ...201525424351
proteomic investigation of male gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors.while the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. during evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting ch ...201525363278
multi-residue analysis of emerging pollutants in benthic invertebrates by modified micro-quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe extraction and nanoliquid chromatography-nanospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.aquatic ecosystems are continuously contaminated by agricultural and industrial sources. although the consequences of this pollution are gradually becoming visible, their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems are poorly known, particularly regarding the risk of bioaccumulation in different trophic levels. to establish a causality relationship between bioaccumulation and disease, experiments on biotic matrices must be performed. in this context, a multi-residue method for the analysis of 35 eme ...201425287267
ecological modeling for the extrapolation of ecotoxicological effects measured during in situ assays in gammarus.evaluating the effects of chemical contamination on populations and ecological communities still constitutes a challenging necessity in environmental management. however, the toxic effects of contaminants are commonly measured by means of organism-level responses. linking such effects measures with ecological models is a promising way to determine population-level impacts. in this way, population models are currently increasingly used in predictive risk assessment procedures, but their use in en ...201424805228
data for comparative proteomics of ovaries from five non-model, crustacean amphipods.ovaries were taken from five sexually mature amphipods: gammarus fossarum, gammarus pulex, gammarus roeseli, hyallela azteca and parhyale hawaiensis. the soluble proteome extracted from individual pair of ovaries from five biological replicates was trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. the spectra were assigned with four protein sequence databases with different specificities: a rnaseq-derived g. fossarum database; a rnaseq-derived ...201526380837
proteogenomic insights into the core-proteome of female reproductive tissues from crustacean amphipods.as a result of the poor genome sequence coverage of crustacean amphipods, characterization of their evolutionary biology relies mostly on phenotypic traits. here, we analyzed the proteome of ovaries from five amphipods, all from the senticaudata suborder, with the objective to obtain insights into the core-proteome of female reproductive systems. these amphipods were from either the gammarida infraorder: gammarus fossarum, gammarus pulex, gammarus roeseli, or the talitrida infraorder: parhyale h ...201626170043
in situ feeding assay with gammarus fossarum (crustacea): modelling the influence of confounding factors to improve water quality biomonitoring.in situ feeding assays implemented with transplanted crustacean gammarids have been claimed as promising tools for the diagnostic assessment of water quality. nevertheless the implementation of such methodologies in biomonitoring programs is still limited. this is explained by the necessity to improve the reliability of these bioassays. the present study illustrates how modelling the influence of confounding factors could allow to improve the interpretation of in situ feeding assay with gammarus ...201122014562
influence of molting and starvation on digestive enzyme activities and energy storage in gammarus fossarum.among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. however, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by und ...201424788197
the southwestern carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the gammarus fossarum species complex.gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout europe. due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern carpathian mountains, which comprises two areas that ...201526096651
importance of toxicokinetics for interspecies variation in sensitivity to chemicals.interspecies variation in sensitivity to synthetic chemicals can be orders of magnitude large. species traits causing the variation can be related to toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, biotransformation, elimination) or toxicodynamics (interaction with biological target sites). we present an approach to systematically measure and model the contribution of uptake, biotransformation, internal distribution, and elimination kinetics toward species sensitivity differences. the aim is to express se ...201424758734
vitellogenin-like gene expression in freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum (koch, 1835): functional characterization in females and potential for use as an endocrine disruption biomarker in males.the induction of vitellogenin (vtg) synthesis is widely accepted as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in male and juvenile fish. vtg synthesis has emerged as an interesting endpoint to assess endocrine disruptor (ed) effects in crustaceans. however, studies reporting induction of vtg in male crustaceans are lacking. this study investigated the expression of the vtg gene in a freshwater amphipod, gammarus fossarum, using calibrated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real- ...201121701845
effects of current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the feeding and survival of the key shredder gammarus fossarum.fungicides are frequently applied in agriculture and are subsequently detected in surface waters in total concentrations of up to several tens of micrograms per liter. these concentrations imply potential effects on aquatic communities and fundamental ecosystem functions such as leaf litter breakdown. in this context, the present study investigates sublethal and lethal effects of organic (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) and inorganic (three copper (cu)-based ...201424674876
does the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles reduce copper toxicity? a factorial approach with the benthic amphipod gammarus fossarum.in aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-tio2) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (cu). this interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. the subsequent sedimentation of nano-tio2 agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated cu. this scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod gammarus fossarum as model species and taking advantage of a 2×2- ...201526037100
evolution of cadmium tolerance and associated costs in a gammarus fossarum population inhabiting a low-level contaminated stream.deciphering evolutionary processes occurring within long-term contaminated wild populations is essential for the ecological risk assessment of persistent chemical contaminations. using field populations of gammarus, a commonly-used genus in aquatic ecotoxicology, the present study sought to gain insights into the extent to which long-term exposure to metals in the field could effectively lead to shifts in toxicological sensitivities. for this, we identified a gammarus population inhabiting a str ...201526003835
the relative importance of diet-related and waterborne effects of copper for a leaf-shredding invertebrate.copper (cu) exposure can increase leaf-associated fungal biomass, an important food component for leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. to test if this positive nutritional effect supports the physiological fitness of these animals and to assess its importance compared to waterborne toxicity, we performed a 24-day-bioassay in combination with a 2×2 factorial design using the amphipod shredder gammarus fossarum and a field-relevant cu concentration of 25 μg/l (n = 65). waterborne toxicity was neglig ...201526000755
combined effect of uv-irradiation and tio₂-nanoparticles on the predator-prey interaction of gammarids and mayfly nymphs.although nanoparticle production and application increases continuously, their implications in species interactions, especially in combination with other environmental stressors, are rarely assessed. therefore, the present study investigated the influence of 2 mg/l titanium dioxide nanoparticles (ntio2; <100 nm) on the interaction between the prey ephemerella ignita (ephemeroptera) and the predator gammarus fossarum (amphipoda) over 96 h considering uv-irradiation at field relevant levels (appro ...201424370671
consequences of lower food intake on the digestive enzymes activities, the energy reserves and the reproductive outcome in gammarus fossarum.digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. however, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. to highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower ...201525880985
phosphorus availability modulates the toxic effect of silver on aquatic fungi and leaf litter decomposition.the functioning of forested headwater streams is intimately linked to the decomposition of leaf litter by decomposers, mainly aquatic hyphomycetes, which enables the transfer of allochthonous carbon to higher trophic levels. evaluation of this process is being increasingly used as an indicator of ecosystem health and ecological integrity. yet, even though the individual impacts of contaminants and nutrient availability on decomposition have been well studied, the understanding of their combined ...201324184839
hidden biodiversity in an ecologically important freshwater amphipod: differences in genetic structure between two cryptic species.cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. in order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. the amphipod gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. we examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type ...201323967060
copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments.the specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. we assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and gammarus fossarum koch, 1836, as the model organism. this amphipod is a common representative of the european spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. the experiments ...201525704832
linking feeding inhibition with reproductive impairment in gammarus confirms the ecological relevance of feeding assays in environmental monitoring.the in situ feeding bioassay in gammarus fossarum is recognized as a reliable tool for monitoring the toxicity of freshwater contamination. however, whether recorded feeding inhibitions can potentially provoke population-level adverse outcomes remains an open question. in the present study, the authors present an experimental study in g. fossarum, which contributes to the quantitative description of the links between feeding inhibitions and impacts on female reproductive performance. the authors ...201525639673
behavioural and physiological responses of gammarus fossarum (crustacea amphipoda) exposed to silver.the study aims at investigating the effects of silver (ag), a re-emerging contaminant, on physiological and behavioural responses in gammarus fossarum. in a first experiment, g. fossarum ag lc50s were evaluated during 96 h under semi-static mode of exposure. juveniles appeared to be more sensitive to ag (lc5096h: 1.01 μg l(-1)) than ovigerous females (lc5096h: 1.9 μg l(-1)) and adult males (lc5096h: 2.2 μg l(-1)). in a second experiment, the physiological (osmo-/ionoregulation; antioxidant enzym ...201323962677
cellular and molecular osmoregulatory responses to cadmium exposure in gammarus fossarum (crustacea, amphipoda).osmoregulation represents a reliable indicator of the physiological state of crustaceans. it is mainly effected in gills via na(+)/k(+)-atpase (nka) providing the major driving force for ion transport. in the present study conducted in the freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum, the impact of an exposure to 15 μg cd l(-1) for 3 and 7d was investigated on the haemolymph osmolality (ho), gill structure, nka localization in gills and its relative expression. in cd-exposed g. fossarum, mean ho signif ...201020843535
size-, surface- and crystalline structure composition-related effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles during their aquatic life cycle.nanoparticle toxicity depends amongst others on particle characteristics and nanoparticle behavior during their aquatic life cycle. aquatic organisms may be exposed to nanoparticle agglomerates of varying size, while lager agglomerates after settling rather affect benthic organisms. in this context, the present study systematically examined the role of particle characteristics, i.e. crystalline structure composition (anatase as well as mixture of anatase-rutile), initial particle size (55-, 100- ...201425010941
a comparison of the short-term toxicity of cadmium to indigenous and alien gammarid species.amphipods play an important role in many aquatic ecosystems and are commonly used in ecotoxicology and ecosystem health assessment. several alien gammarids have been introduced in many regions of the world during the last decades. in this study, we investigated if differences in cadmium sensitivity occurred between (1) different species belonging to the family gammaridae and (2) different populations of the same species originating from a polluted or a non-polluted site. the acute cadmium toxici ...201222354564
temporal patterns of digestive enzyme activities and feeding rate in gammarids (gammarus fossarum) exposed to inland polluted waters.the aim of this study was to use digestive enzyme activities in gammarus fossarum as biomarkers during active biomonitoring. standardised gammarids were transplanted for 7 days to five sites in the riou mort watershed contaminated by polymetallic pollution. this experiment was conducted on seven different dates from february 2009 to june 2010. feeding rates were tracked, along with amylase, cellulase and trypsin activities. we found that feeding rate and digestive capacity were reduced in the mo ...201323932430
mass spectrometry assay as an alternative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for biomarker quantitation in ecotoxicology: application to vitellogenin in crustacea (gammarus fossarum).vitellogenin (vg) is a widespread biomarker for measuring exposure to endocrine disruptors. vg quantification is usually done by using the elisa test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). since this test is specific to a target protein, it can rarely be used with other species due to low cross-reactivity across species. therefore alternative analytical methods have to be considered as the development of a specific and sensitive elisa test for each new target is time-consuming and may prove unsucc ...201020591435
effects of peak exposure scenarios on gammarus fossarum using field relevant pesticide mixtures.the present study investigated sublethal effects of a field relevant pesticide mixture (one herbicide, three fungicides, five insecticides) on gammarus fossarum by considering different peak exposure scenarios, which may be generated by the inherent properties of vegetated ditches. additional experiments aimed at the identification of germane exposure pathways (food and water). therefore, g. fossarum were exposed in independent experiments to three scenarios, which differed besides in the peak c ...201323790476
high sensitivity of gammarus sp. juveniles to deltamethrin: outcomes for risk assessment.amphipods from the genus gammarus are among the most frequently used organisms in ecotoxicological testing and in situ bioindication. because of their importance in risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the potential roles of life stage, population source and inter-specific differences on the sensitivity of these organisms to contaminants. in the present study, the acute toxicity of deltamethrin, a commonly used pyrethroid insecticide, has been tested for gammarus fossarum and gammarus ...201020236703
effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in gammarus fossarum.the feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. however, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary ...201323784059
subcellular compartmentalization of cadmium, nickel, and lead in gammarus fossarum: comparison of methods.knowledge of the subcellular behavior of toxicants, mainly metals, in living organisms is fundamental for understanding their toxicological consequences at individual and trans-generation levels and throughout the food web. however, different partitioning methodologies are available in the literature, particularly concerning the cytosolic fraction. different cytosolic compounds, metallothionein-like proteins (mtlps), and non-metallothionein-like proteins (non-mtlps) could be separated by size ex ...201020045171
effects of metals on feeding rate and digestive enzymes in gammarus fossarum: an in situ experiment.the feeding activity and afterward the assimilation of the products resulting of the food digestion, allow organisms to obtain energy useful for growth, maintenance and reproduction. these biological parameters may be studied to assess the impact of contaminants on the energy metabolism of organisms, which could induce potential effects at an individual level. the studied species was an amphipod gammarus fossarum, which has a high ecological relevance since it is widespread in european streams a ...200919846201
effects of municipal wastewater on aquatic ecosystem structure and function in the receiving stream.during recent years, increasing incidences of summer droughts - likely driven by climate change - reduced the dilution potential of low-order streams for secondary treated wastewater also in temperate europe. despite the potential risks to ecosystem integrity, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding the effects of different wastewater dilution potentials on ecosystem functions. the present study investigated the implications of secondary treated wastewater released into a third-order stream (q ...201323562693
isolation and characterization of the first eight microsatellite loci in gammarus fossarum (crustacea, amphipoda) and cross-amplification in gammarus pulex and gammarus orinos.we characterized the first microsatellite markers for gammarus fossarum. eight loci gave satisfactory amplification patterns in two stream populations (southern france) with number of alleles ranging from 2 to 10 and expected heterozygosity from 0.076 to 0.857. we performed cross-amplification in two closely related gammarid species, gammarus pulex and gammarus orinos. among the eight tested microsatellite loci, four correctly amplified in g. pulex and three in g. orinos.200921564925
acetylcholinesterase activity in gammarus fossarum (crustacea amphipoda): linking ache inhibition and behavioural alteration.relations between whole-body acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibition and changes in feeding and locomotor behaviours were investigated in adult male gammarus fossarum during short-term exposure (96h) to the organophosphorous pesticide chlorpyrifos (cpe) and the carbamate pesticide methomyl (mt). ache activity was measured after 24, 48 and 96h of exposure. the feeding rate was assessed after 48 and 96h of exposure and locomotor activity was measured at the end of the experiment. a concentration-de ...200919608286
caged gammarus fossarum (crustacea) as a robust tool for the characterization of bioavailable contamination levels in continental waters: towards the determination of threshold values.we investigated the suitability of an active biomonitoring approach, using the ecologically relevant species gammarus fossarum, to assess trends of bioavailable contamination in continental waters. gammarids were translocated into cages at 27 sites, in the rhône-alpes region (france) during early autumn 2009. study sites were chosen to represent different physico-chemical characteristics and various anthropic pressures. biotic factors such as sex, weight and food availability were controlled in ...201323182666
antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. the aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole ...200918717623
differences in the sensitivity among cryptic lineages of the gammarus fossarum complex.lineages that are at least superficially morphologically identical but genetically distinct are usually misclassified as a single nominal species and, hence, belong to a cryptic species complex, as for example observed for gammarus fossarum. since genetic differentiation between cryptic lineages of the g. fossarum complex is comparable to an interspecific level, deviations in physiological and behavioral characteristics are conceivable. the present study investigates for the first time deviation ...201223063922
sex steroid receptor evolution and signalling in aquatic invertebrates.in vertebrate reproductive endocrinology sex steroids play a pivotal role via binding to receptors. however, information on the origin and relevance of sex steroids in invertebrates is limited. this review highlights current literature on steroid receptors in aquatic invertebrates and reports on some new findings. it has been shown that invertebrates of the deuterostome clade, such as acrania and echinodermata, respond to estrogens and androgens and, at least in branchiostoma, an estrogen recept ...200717219085
vitellogenin-like protein measurement in caged gammarus fossarum males as a biomarker of endocrine disruptor exposure: inconclusive experience.a vitellogenin (vg) mass spectrometry-based assay was recently developed to actively biomonitor and assess the exposure of the amphipod gammarus fossarum to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in freshwater hydrosystems. this paper focuses on the appropriate use of this biomarker, which requires good knowledge of its basal level in males and its natural variability related to intrinsic biotic and environmental abiotic factors. to obtain the lowest biomarker variability, we first studied some of these ...201222710022
the discriminatory power of two biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities in freshwater streams.the relative discriminatory powers of two trace metal biomonitors in european streams (the amphipod crustacean gammarus fossarum and mayfly larvae of the genus baetis-b. rhodani and b. vernus) are compared by discriminant function analysis using data from streams draining a zinc and lead mining area of upper silesia, poland. the mayfly larvae (whether or not distinguished into the two separate species) had the better discriminatory power to distinguish between sites on the basis of local bioavai ...200616620902
bisphenol a in artificial indoor streams: ii. stress response and gonad histology in gammarus fossarum (amphipoda).the effects of the world wide-distributed chemical bisphenol a (bpa) on the endocrine system of vertebrates have been demonstrated in several studies. here, we report on the impact of bpa (0, 5, 50 and 500 microg/l nominally, deduced effective concentrations 0, 0.24, 2.4, and 24.1 microg/l, respectively, all at 15 degrees c) on the 70 kd stress protein family (hsp70), the 90 kd stress protein family (hsp90), and gonad histology of the crustacean gammarus fossarum exposed in artificial indoor str ...200616374667
thiacloprid affects trophic interaction between gammarids and mayflies.neonicotinoid insecticides like thiacloprid enter agricultural surface waters, where they may affect predator-prey-interactions, which are of central importance for ecosystems as well as the functions these systems provide. the effects of field relevant thiacloprid concentrations on the leaf consumption of gammarus fossarum (amphipoda) were assessed over 96 h (n = 13-17) in conjunction with its predation on baetis rhodani (ephemeroptera) nymphs. the predation by gammarus increased significantly ...201222522317
endocrine effects in gammarus fossarum (amphipoda): influence of wastewater effluents, temporal variability, and spatial aspects on natural populations.in a field study, individuals of autochthounous populations of the amphipod gammarus fossarum were examined for their maturity status, oocyte development, and biochemical parameters associated with their reproductive cycle. variability in these parameters was related to abiotic exposure parameters varying in accordance to wastewater discharges, stream identity, and time. patterns of all investigated parameters showed predominantly seasonal rather than spatial influence for both exposure and biol ...200515970997
behavioural, ventilatory and respiratory responses of epigean and hypogean crustaceans to different temperatures.impact of temperature (from -2 to 28 degrees c) on survival, oxygen consumption, locomotory and ventilatory activities was measured in two aquatic subterranean crustaceans (niphargus rhenorhodanensis and niphargus virei) and in a morphologically close surface-dwelling crustacean (gammarus fossarum). the hypogean n. virei presented all characteristics of a stenothermal organism: it showed small thermal plasticity and optimised its performance on a narrow range of temperature. in contrast, the epi ...200515893488
coupling geochemical and biological approaches to assess the availability of cadmium in freshwater sediment.sediments are considered as a sink for metals, and the assessment of metal bioavailability for benthic organisms represents a great challenge. diffusive gradient in thin films (dgt), developed to measure labile metals in aquatic media, have more recently been applied to sediment. nevertheless, few studies have determined the relation between measurements from dgt and bioaccumulation in different benthic organisms. the aim of our work was to determine if labile metal measured by dgt in sediment i ...201222446110
laboratory simulation of a mining accident: acute toxicity, hsc/hsp70 response, and recovery from stress in gammarus fossarum (crustacea, amphipoda) exposed to a pulse of cadmium.the rate of survival and stress protein (hsc/hsp70) response were investigated in the freshwater amphipod, gammarus fossarum koch, 1835, during a 20-day stress and recovery experiment. adult females and males, were separately exposed to 9 different cadmium concentrations for 5 days to simulate a short-term pulse of xenobiotics in an aquatic environment, followed by a recovery period of 15 days. in terms of mortality, females were much more sensitive to cadmium than males; 4.28 +/- 2.45 microg cd ...200312680701
vitellogenin-like proteins in the freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum (koch, 1835): functional characterization throughout reproductive process, potential for use as an indicator of oocyte quality and endocrine disruption biomarker in males.this work focused on the validation of biological specificity of the quantitative lc-ms/ms assay by checking the natural variability of vg levels during the reproductive cycle in gammarus fossarum (i.e., including oogenesis and embryogenesis). laboratory tests were performed for 21 days under controlled conditions to assess vg changes in male and female gammarids after exposure to chemical stress. females were exposed to two crustacean hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (0.01, 1 and 100 μg l⁻¹) and me ...201222387877
hyperventilation and loss of hemolymph na+ and cl- in the freshwater amphipod gammarus fossarum exposed to acid stress: a preliminary study.the effect of acidification on the acid-sensitive species gammarus fossarum was investigated in the laboratory. the results showed that as mortality increased, mean hemolymph chloride and sodium concentrations decreased rapidly. concomitantly, organisms hyperventilated during the first 24 h and then started to hypoventilate. these results demonstrated that exposure to acid stress in the acid-sensitive species g. fossarum led to ion-regulatory and respiratory failure as previously reported in fis ...200111411648
ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/l) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as we ...201121919044
mitochondrial dna variation and the evolutionary history of cryptic gammarus fossarum types.the evolutionary history of the cryptic gammarus fossarum species complex (crustacea, amphipoda) in central europe was approached by investigating the genetic variation in populations of a natural contact zone. nucleotide sequence variation of a 395-bp segment of the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene was compared to that of six nuclear allozyme loci. three major mtdna lineages were found, the eastern clade being consistent with the former allozyme type a. the two western clades (types b and c) were no ...200010837155
spatial distribution of cryptic species diversity in european freshwater amphipods (gammarus fossarum) as revealed by pyrosequencing.in order to understand and protect ecosystems, local gene pools need to be evaluated with respect to their uniqueness. cryptic species present a challenge in this context because their presence, if unrecognized, may lead to serious misjudgement of the distribution of evolutionarily distinct genetic entities. in this study, we describe the current geographical distribution of cryptic species of the ecologically important stream amphipod gammarus fossarum (types a, b and c). we use a novel pyroseq ...201121909373
the activities of enzymes associated with the intermediary and energy metabolism in hypogean and epigean crustaceans.the activities of 18 enzymes involved in the intermediary and energy metabolism were measured in certain widely-spread peracarid crustaceans: 3 hypogean (niphargus virei, niphargus rhenorhodanensis and stenasellus virei) and 2 epigean (gammarus fossarum and asellus aquaticus) ones. the activities of numerous enzymes were correlated with the known metabolic rates of the 5 species. such rates are reduced in hypogean organisms: levels of enzymatic activity in subterranean species were 1.2 to 8.6 ti ...19969091176
effects of nano-tio(2) in combination with ambient uv-irradiation on a leaf shredding amphipod.production and use of engineered nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (ntio(2)), is increasing worldwide, enhancing their probability to enter aquatic environments. however, direct effects of ntio(2) as well as ecotoxicological consequences due to the interactions of ntio(2) with environmental factors like ultraviolet (uv) irradiation on representatives of detrital food webs have not been assessed so far. hence, the present study displayed for the first time adverse sublethal ef ...201121868053
the contribution of fungal enzymes to the digestion of leaves by gammarus fossarum koch (amphipoda).gut extracts of gammarus fossarum liberated reducing substances (at ph values ≤7) and amino acids (ph≥7) from freshly shed oak leaves only after removal of soluble leaf phenols. when carboxymethylcellulose was used at a concentration equal to that of leaf cellulose, release of reducing substances was considerably higher. fungal enzymes extracted from decomposing leaves were active against structural carbohydrates but showed no proteolytic activity. at low ph values, they retained their full acti ...198228310100
ecotoxicological evaluation of three tertiary wastewater treatment techniques via meta-analysis and feeding bioassays using gammarus fossarum.advanced treatment techniques, like ozone, activated carbon and tio(2) in combination with uv, are proposed to improve removal efficiency of micropollutants during wastewater treatment. in a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature, we found significantly reduced overall ecotoxicity of municipal wastewaters treated with either ozone (n=667) or activated carbon (=113), while tio(2) and uv was not yet assessed. as comparative investigations regarding the detoxification potential of these advanced ...201121689882
ozonation of secondary treated wastewater reduces ecotoxicity to gammarus fossarum (crustacea; amphipoda): are loads of (micro)pollutants responsible?ozone application is an effective tool to reduce loads of (micro)pollutants in wastewater, however, its ecotoxicological implications are largely unknown. therefore, the feeding rates of a leaf-shredding invertebrate (gammarus fossarum) exposed to secondary (=non-ozone) or ozone treated wastewater were investigated to assess potential ecotoxicological effects. two repetitive experiments resulted in significantly higher feeding rates for gammarids exposed to ozone compared to non-ozone treated wa ...201121636106
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