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heterothallism in pichia kudriavzevii and pichia terricola.pichia kudriavzevii and p. terricola were found to be heterothallic, but not interfertile with one another; nor did they mate with p. membranaefaciens, p. scutulata, candida lambica, c. diversa, c. ingens, c. silvae, c. valida, c. vini, c. norvegensis, or torulopsis inconspicua. limited conjugation occurred between mating types of p. kudriavzevii and c. krusei and conjugation and sporulation occurred in mixtures with c. sorbosa. the data indicate c. krusei and c. sorbosa to be the same species a ...19761086649
species differentiation by internally transcribed spacer pcr and hhai digestion of fluconazole-resistant candida krusei, candida inconspicua, and candida norvegensis strains.pcr amplification of the regions containing the internally transcribed spacers and 5.8s rrna gene of candida krusei, c. inconspicua, and c. norvegensis yielded fragments of 510, 460, and 500 bp, respectively. hhai digestion of these fragments yielded species-specific bands. random amplification of polymorphic dna with primer r108 showed interspecific discriminatory band patterns. susceptibilities to fluconazole and amphotericin b were determined.19979157129
fluconazole susceptibility testing of candida inconspicua clinical isolates: comparison of four methods. 200515649997
caspofungin susceptibility testing of candida inconspicua: correlation of different methods with the minimal fungicidal concentration.minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of caspofungin were determined for 48 candida inconspicua isolates. by using clsi (formerly nccls) methodology with the partial inhibition endpoint criterion, caspofungin exhibited a good fungicidal effect against c. inconspicua (the mic(90) was 0.25 microg/ml and the minimum fungicidal concentration [mfc] was 0.5 microg/ml after 24 h). total inhibition yielded falsely elevated mics, exceeding even the respective mfcs.200516048965
[identification and susceptibility against fluconazole and albaconazole of 100 yeasts' strains isolated from vaginal discharge].vulvovaginal candidiasis is a condition that affects a great number of fertile women. it is considered the second cause of genital infection after vaginosis due to gam complex. candida albicans is the most frequent isolated species from vaginal discharge. however, sometimes more than one yeast species could be found in the same clinical sample that are more resistant to antifungal drugs. nowadays, it is necessary to identify properly up to species level the isolated microorganism and to determin ...200718095765
synthesis and structure-activity relationship study of monotesone-a, an antifungal component of monotes engleri.the synthesis of (+/-)-monotesone-a, an antifungal component of monotes engleri, as well as its four structural analogues were accomplished starting from the corresponding mom-protected phloracetophenone and benzaldehyde derivatives. antifungal activities of the five flavanone derivatives were studied against candida albicans (14053 and atcc 10231), candida inconspicua, candida dubliniensis and candida krusei.200818404558
correlation of posaconazole minimum fungicidal concentration and time kill test against nine candida species.we evaluated the in vitro activity of posaconazole against nine candida species using minimum fungicidal concentration (mfc) measurements and time-kill methods.200717875607
[synthesis and antifungal activity of naturally occurring o- and c-prenylated flavanones].flavonoids is one of the most important groups of naturally occurring o-heterocycles possessing a wide range of biological activity. o- and c-prenylated flavanones as members of flavonoids also show remarkable biological activity such as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, antifungal, anti-hiv and enzyme inhibition activity. o- and c-prenylated flavanones possessing remarkable biological activity are representatives of this family of natural products. in this paper efficient synthetic methods ...200717518107
efficacy of amphotericin b and flucytosine against fluconazole-resistant candida inconspicua clinical isolates. 200515911550
fluconazole-resistant pathogens candida inconspicua and c. norvegensis: dna sequence diversity of the rrna intergenic spacer region, antifungal drug susceptibility, and extracellular enzyme production.the opportunistic fungal pathogens candida inconspicua and c. norvegensis are very rarely isolated from patients and are resistant to fluconazole. we collected 38 strains of the two microorganisms isolated from europe and japan, and compared the polymorphism of the rrna intergenic spacer (igs) and internal transcribed spacer (its) regions, antifungal drug susceptibility, and extracellular enzyme production as a potential virulence factor. while the igs sequences of c. norvegensis were not very d ...200415502409
restriction enzyme analysis of ribosomal dna shows that candida inconspicua clinical isolates can be misidentified as candida norvegensis with traditional diagnostic procedures.we identified 29 yeast isolates from 22 patients using the api id32c panel. twenty-eight of these isolates were candida norvegensis and one was c. inconspicua. although c. norvegensis is considered a pseudohypha-producing species, only one isolate produced pseudohyphae. restriction enzyme analysis of pcr-amplified ribosomal dna with four different enzymes proved that all isolates were c. inconspicua.200314605175
lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir grains and kefir made from them.in an investigation of the changes in the microflora along the pathway: kefir grains (a)-->kefir made from kefir grains (b)-->kefir made from kefir as inoculum (c), the following species of lactic acid bacteria (83-90%) of the microbial count in the grains) were identified: lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, streptococcus thermophilus, lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, lactobacillus helveticus, lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum and lactobacillus brevis. yeasts (10-17%) identif ...200211938463
survey on mycoflora of cow and buffalo dairy products from southern italy.economic losses of dairy products due to spoilage by yeasts have been increasing in european companies because of the reduced use of preservatives, packaging in modified atmospheres, or new formulations that do not strictly control the growth of these organisms. this study reports the results of a survey of yeast species and populations in 145 samples of cow and buffalo dairy products collected in some regions of southern italy. yeasts were isolated from 74% and 57% of cow and buffalo products, ...200111589553
in-vitro activity of five antifungal agents against uncommon clinical isolates of candida spp.a broth microdilution method and an agar dilution method were used for testing fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin b against 98 clinical isolates belonging to seven species of candida. the approximate rank order of fluconazole mics was candida lusitaniae approximately candida kefyr < candida famata approximately candida guilliermondii < candida pelliculosa approximately c. lipolytica approximately candida inconspicua. candida lypolitica and c. pelliculosa were t ...199911252339
identification of rare candida species and other yeasts by polymerase chain reaction and slot blot hybridization.invasive candidiasis has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. here we describe a fast and reliable dna extraction and pcr amplification method in combination with a slot blot hybridization assay. a genus-specific probe was designed that allowed to detect dna from a broad range of candida species and 3 other yeasts. in addition, species-specific oligonucleotides for emerging candida and other yeast species allowed to identify dna extracted from candida lusit ...200011146245
[evaluation of a new method for antifungal drugs susceptibility testing to yeasts].we compared the etest with a broth microdilution method (fp panel), performed according to the national committee for modified clinical laboratory standards (nccls) document m27-p guidelines, for determining the mics of 81 clinical isolates of yeasts (7 candida albicans, 8 candida glabrata, 10 candida parapsilosis, 6 pichia anomala, 10 candida tropicalis, 4 candida guilliermondii, 4 candida krusei, 6 trichosporon cutaneum, 5 candida ciferrii, 3 candida famata, 4 candida norvegensis, 2 rhodotorul ...200010783576
yeasts associated with manteca.manteca is a traditional milk product of southern italy produced from whey deriving from caciocavallo podolico cheese-making. this study was undertaken to obtain more information about the microbiological properties of this product and particularly about the presence, metabolic activities, and technological significance of the different yeast species naturally occurring in manteca. high numbers of yeasts were counted after 7 days ripening (10(4)-10(5) cfu g(-1)) and then decreased to 10(2) at th ...200312702448
development and evaluation of the nuclisens basic kit nasba for the detection of rna from candida species frequently resistant to antifungal drugs.we describe a nucleic acid sequence based amplification (nasba) protocol to detect 6 different candida species (candida krusei, candida glabrata, candida inconspicua, candida dubliniensis, candida norvegensis, candida lusitaniae) and compare it to a pcr assay. nasba showed a sensitivity of 1 colony forming unit and detected rna from all 6 candida species within 1 working day. all 5 patients with documented candidiasis showed identical results by both methods. this assay offers a sensitive, speci ...200312663165
species-specific identification of candida krusei by hybridization with the ckf1,2 dna probe.the species specificity of the candida krusei dna fingerprinting probe ckf1,2 has been investigated. a total of 149 pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal and bacterial dnas were screened with ckf1,2. the probe was cold labeled with peroxidase, and its specificity was assessed by using southern blot, dot blot, and colony blot hybridization. its sensitivity was determined by dot blot hybridization. the ckf1,2 probe proved to be species specific. it hybridized with dna for the 112 c. krusei strains s ...19968784578
in vitro activity of d0870 compared with those of other azoles against fluconazole-resistant candida spp.we compared the in vitro activity of a new triazole, d0870, with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 41 clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant candida belonging to nine different species. the 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) were determined by a microdilution method with morpholinopropanesulfonic acid (mops)-buffered rpmi medium and an inoculum of approximately 10(4) yeasts per ml. after incubation for 48 h at 37 degrees c the optical density at 550 nm was measu ...19957785986
auxacolor, a new commercial system for yeast identification: evaluation of 182 strains comparatively with id 32c.the incidence of deep candidiasis, particularly in immunocompromised patients, and the emergence of less sensitive yeast species to new antifungal agents explain the interest of their rapid identification. a new identification system, auxacolor (sanofi diagnostics pasteur), has been evaluated, comparatively to id 32c strip taken in reference (biomérieux sa). these systems include respectively 13 and 29 carbohydrate assimilation tests. one hundred and sixty-nine strains belonging to 17 common yea ...19957574109
osteomyelitis due to torulopsis inconspicua. report of a case. 19734807960
in vitro activity of fluconazole and amphotericin b against candida inconspicua clinical isolates as determined by the time-kill method.candida inconspicua is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients possessing inherently decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. we determined the mics and killing activity of fluconazole and amphotericin b against c. inconspicua clinical isolates as well as reference strain c. inconspicua atcc 16783 for comparison. mics were determined using the standard broth microdilution method. killing rates were determined using time-kill methodology at 0.5-16 x mic fluconazole and amphotericin b c ...200818507151
[the fungicidal activity and paradoxical effect of caspofungin against yeast. influence of culture medium and incubation time].the effect of culture medium and incubation time on the fungicidal activity of caspofungin and on the frequency of paradoxical effect has been studied in 144 blood culture isolates (42, candida tropicalis, 32 candida glabrata, 21 candida krusei, 20 candida parapsilosis, 11 candida guilliermondii, 4 candida famata, 3 candida lusitaniae, 3 blastoschizomyces capitatus, 2 saccharomyces cerevisiae, 2 yarrowia lipolytica, 1 candida inconspicua, 1 candida lambica, 1 candida sake y 1 pichia ohmeri). the ...200718563217
stability of microbial communities in goat milk during a lactation year: molecular approaches.the microbial communities in milks from one herd were evaluated during 1-year of lactation, using molecular methods to evaluate their stability and the effect of breeding conditions on their composition. the diversity of microbial communities was measured using two approaches: molecular identification by 16s and 18s rdna sequencing of isolates from counting media (two milks), and direct identification using 16s rdna from clone libraries (six milks). the stability of these communities was evaluat ...200717604934
the diversity of eukaryotic microbiota in the traditional slovak sheep cheese--bryndza.we investigated the occurrence and diversity of yeasts and filamentous fungi in bryndza an artisanal slovak soft spreadable cheese prepared from raw sheep milk or from a mixture of sheep and cow milk. samples collected during four months of the summer production period from two locations (northern and southern parts of central slovakia) contained 10(5)-10(7) (cfu) yeasts and about 10(2) (cfu) of mold per gram of wet weight. further characterization by conventional taxonomy and sequence compariso ...200818639949
epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents of fungi isolated from clinical specimens from patients hospitalized in the department of general and liver surgery of the medical university of warsaw.the aim of this study was to analyze the type and antibiotic susceptibility of fungi isolated from clinical specimens obtained from patients hospitalized in the department of general, transplantation and liver surgery of the medical university of warsaw between 2000 to 2002. among the 326 clinical samples found to be positive on mycological culture, 356 strains were cultured. the most common isolates were yeastlike fungi of the genus candida 334 (93.8%), while others included 33 other types (6.2 ...200314529921
[mycological analysis of clinical materials of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition].the most frequent etiological factors of fungal infections in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (tpn) belong to candida genus of the yeastlike fungi. in the tpn patients the several infectious complications can develop: venous catheter infection, catheter candidemia (fungemia), fungal endocarditis or fungal ophtalmitis. the capability of hydrolytic (proteolytic, lipolytic) enzymes secretion as well as biofilm formation on artificial surfaces are the most important factors of fungal s ...201020873489
in vitro antifungal activity of phenothiazines and their combination with amphotericin b against different candida species.candidiosis is a mycosis that is currently increasingly affecting the population in consequence of its frequency and the severity of its complications, especially among immunocompromised hosts. in this work, the in vitro anticandidal activities of two phenothiazines (ptzs), chlorpromazine (cpz) and trifluoperazine (tfp), and their combinations with amphotericin b (amb) were tested against 12 different candida strains representing 12 species (candida albicans, candida glabrata, candida guillermon ...201121605196
[in vitro activity of caspofungin against fluconazole-resistant candida isolates from patients with hiv infection].antifungal therapy for mucosal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant candida species is problematic. the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of caspofungin against candida strains with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole isolated from hiv-infected patients.200415228899
species distribution and susceptibility profile of yeasts isolated from blood cultures: results of a multicenter active laboratory-based surveillance study in argentina.the mycology department of the instituto nacional de enfermedades infecciosas "dr. c. malbrán", conducted the second national multicenter survey on fungemia due to yeasts in argentina. the aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method e ...201122430989
removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure by microorganisms on perlite--bentonite carrier.laboratory-scale experiments were conducted using poultry manure (pm) from a laying hen farm. six strains of bacteria and one strain of yeast, selected on the base of the previous study, were investigated to evaluate their activity in the removal of odorous compounds from poultry manure: pure cultures of bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii lock 0272, bacillus megaterium lock 0963, pseudomonas sp. lock 0961, psychrobacter faecalis lock 0965, leuconostoc mesenteroides lock 0964, streptomyces viola ...201424768836
studies on the possible aetiological role of different candida species in pathogenesis of dentine caries by monitoring the calcium release from tooth particles.an in vitro model has been developed for study of cariogenic potential of different candida species. slices were prepared from the root of extracted healthy teeth. these disks were covered with inert material, only the central hole, i.e. the root canal dentin surface remained uncovered. these preparates with free root dentin surfaces were incubated in sabouraud medium in the presence of six-six candida albicans, candida glabrata, candida tropicalis, candida krusei, candida inconspicua and candid ...201424631750
rapid and accurate identification of isolates of candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (its2-mca).rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. we evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (its2-mca) as an identification tool for distinguishing between 16 candida spp., i.e. candida albicans, candida bracarensis, candida dubliniensis, candida famata, candida glabrata, candida guilliermondii, candida inconspicua, candida k ...201323142490
candida nivariensis isolated from a renal transplant patient with persistent candiduria-molecular identification using its pcr and maldi-tof.we report on the isolation of candida nivariensis from a renal transplant patient with persistent candiduria. biochemical profiling misidentified isolates as candida glabrata (3/5) and candida inconspicua (2/5). all isolates produced white colonies on chromagar(™) candida medium. internal transcribed spacer (its) ribosomal gene sequence analysis and maldi-tof-ms analysis (bruker biotyper(™) 2.0) identified all isolates as c. nivariensis, demonstrating the utility of maldi-tof as a rapid, accurat ...201324432244
candida inconspicua and candida norvegensis: new insights into identification in relation to sexual reproduction and genome organization.candida inconspicua and candida (pichia) norvegensis are two emerging pathogenic species that exhibit reduced susceptibility to azole derivatives. conventional (biochemical) approaches do not readily differentiate between the two species. the first aim of this work was to analyze the performance of biochemical, proteomic (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight [maldi-tof]), and molecular approaches in the precise identification of these species. these results then led us to s ...201525762773
killing rates exerted by caspofungin in 50 % serum and its correlation with in vivo efficacy in a neutropenic murine model against candida krusei and candida inconspicua.killing rates (k) of 1-32 µg ml(-1) caspofungin were determined in rpmi-1640 and in 50 % serum using time-kill methodology against three candida krusei (mics of all three isolates 0.25 µg ml(-1) in rpmi-1640 and 2 µg ml(-1) in serum) and three candida inconspicua clinical isolates (mic ranges 0.06-0.12 µg ml(-1) in rpmi-1640 and 0.25-0.5 µg ml(-1) in serum), against c. krusei atcc 6258 and against one c. krusei isolate that was resistant to echinocandins (mic 8 µg ml(-1) in rpmi-1640 and 32 µg m ...201424184471
invasive infections due to candida norvegensis and candida inconspicua: report of 12 cases and review of the literature.candida inconspicua and candida norvegensis are two closely related species rarely involved in invasive infections. the purpose of this study was to depict the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of candidemia due to these emerging fluconazole less susceptible species. a retrospective analysis of the epidemiology of c. inconspicua and c. norvegensis during the period 2006-2010 was initiated in six french university hospitals. from this, demographics, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic d ...201323855412
candida inconspicua, a fluconazole-resistant pathogen in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. 19979243058
fungaemia survey: a 10-year experience in bergamo, italy.the authors analysed 10 years of experience of fungaemia at a regional italian hospital, the azienda ospedaliera (a.o.) 'ospedali riuniti di bergamo', bergamo, italy, from 1988 to 1997. one hundred and sixty-eight cases were observed, with a global incidence corresponding to 3.43/10,000 in-patients. median age was 38.5 years and mean age was 38.9 years (range: 0-94 years). female:male ratio was 1:1.75. fungaemia occurred 25.7 days (mean value) after admission to the hospital. aetiology was: 134 ...199910592698
esterase activity of candida species isolated from immunocompromised hosts.a total of 149 clinical isolates of candida species isolated from immunocompromised patients were examined to ascertain their esterase activity by the tween 80 opacity test, which is a biochemical test used mainly to differentiate between candida albicans and candida dubliniensis. our results showed that c. albicans (92.3%), candida tropicalis (92.3%), candida parapsilosis (25%), c. dubliniensis (16.6%), candida inconspicua (100%), and candida lipolytica (100%) produced opacity halos through the ...200616854187
a nosocomial cluster of candida inconspicua infections in patients with hematological malignancies.candida inconspicua was recovered from three patients with hematological malignancies. two patients had intravenous-catheter-associated fungemia, whereas the third had fungal hepatitis. the three cases of infection occurred over a period of 1 month in patients staying in adjacent single rooms. in vitro susceptibility testing of fungal strains showed all isolates to be resistant to fluconazole, with mics greater than 32 microg/ml. all of the strains had identical dna restriction profiles and rand ...19989508314
karyotyping of fluconazole-resistant yeasts with phenotype reported as candida krusei or candida inconspicua.the yeasts candida krusei and candida inconspicua have similar phenotypes, which may make discrimination of these organisms difficult. in this study we determined the karyotypes of 51 isolates of these two yeast species by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis. we found that the 43 isolates that had the c. krusei phenotype had three karyotype-specific characteristics. these isolates produced either two or three bands between 2,000 and 3,000 kb and no band between 1,300 and 2 ...19968573520
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