the origin and early evolution of sauria: reassessing the permian saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.sauria is the crown-group of diapsida and is subdivided into lepidosauromorpha and archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. the split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. saurians have a very rich mesozoic and cenozoic fossil record, but their late paleozoic (permian) record is problematic ...201424586565
genetic diversity and population demography of the chinese crocodile lizard (shinisaurus crocodilurus) in china.the chinese crocodile lizard shinisaurus crocodilurus is a critically endangered species, listed in appendix ii of cites. its populations and habitat in china have undergone significant changes in recent years. understanding the genetic variability and phylogeography of this species is very important for successful conservation. in this study, samples were taken from 11 wild ponds and two captive populations in china. we sequenced mitochondrial cytb, partial nd6, and partial trna-glu and genotyp ...201424618917
sequencing, de novo assembling, and annotating the genome of the endangered chinese crocodile lizard shinisaurus crocodilurus.the chinese crocodile lizard, shinisaurus crocodilurus, is the only living representative of the monotypic family shinisauridae under the order squamata. it is an obligate semi-aquatic, viviparous, diurnal species restricted to specific portions of mountainous locations in southwestern china and northeastern vietnam. however, in the past several decades, this species has undergone a rapid decrease in population size due to illegal poaching and habitat disruption, making this unique reptile speci ...201728595343
postcranial skeleton of shinisaurus crocodilurus (squamata: anguimorpha).the postcranial skeleton is poorly known for shinisaurus crocodilurus, the chinese crocodile lizard. discrepancies exist between published accounts of shinisaurus; moreover, comparisons with complete specimens show important differences from the published descriptions. contrary to some publications, the axial skeleton variably consists of 26 or 27 presacral vertebrae, including eight cervical vertebrae. humeral entepicondylar and ectepicondylar foramina are present, as are an epipubis and hypois ...200615570597
complete mitochondrial genome of shinisaurus crocodilurus (squamata: shinisaurus) and its genetic relationship with related species.the 16,585 base pairs mitochondrial genome of shinisaurus crocodilurus was determined by using pcr amplification and dna sequencing. to determine the phylogenetic position of s. crocodilurus with related species within squamata, the phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 heavy-strand-encoded protein genes. phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony and bayesian inference methods consistently support that the s. crocodilurus was closely rela ...201222708858
unusual soft-tissue preservation of a crocodile lizard (squamata, shinisauria) from the green river formation (eocene) and shinisaur relationships.we describe an unusual squamate fossil from the green river formation (uintan, eocene) from the piceance creek basin, colorado, usa. the new specimen, usnm pal 540708, is a small fossil squamate skin lacking skeletal elements. it is preserved as a part and counterpart in fine-grained limestone. recovery of a fossil organism's skin (not a shed, but a true skin) is unusual and is most often accompanied by bone preservation. phylogenetic analysis of a combined morphology (phenotype) and genetic dat ...201424482393
diets alter the gut microbiome of crocodile lizards.the crocodile lizard is a critically endangered reptile, and serious diseases have been found in this species in recent years, especially in captive lizards. whether these diseases are caused by changes in the gut microbiota and the effect of captivity on disease remains to be determined. here, we examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and diet and disease by comparing the fecal microbiota of wild lizards with those of sick and healthy lizards in captivity. the gut microbiota in wi ...201729118742
immunoglobulin and t cell receptor genes in chinese crocodile lizard shinisaurus crocodilurus.squamata are reptiles that diverged from mammals 300 million years ago. during this period, the immunoglobulin (ig) and t lymphocyte receptor (tcr) genes evolved parallel to mammals. however, unlike mammals whose ig/tcr locus has retained a constant structure throughout evolution, squamata have witnessed duplications, losses, and/or gains in the domains of their immunoglobulin genes. the recent genome sequencing of shinisaurus crocodilurus, a representative species of the oldest reptiles, provid ...201829940409
genome sequence of morganella morganii dg56-16, isolated from shinisaurus crocodilurus.the complete genome sequence of morganella morganii dg56-16 was sequenced. this strain was isolated from the liver of a dead crocodile lizard (shinisaurus crocodilurus). the genome size was 3.9 mb, with a g+c content of 50.9%.201930701233
identification of austwickia chelonae as cause of cutaneous granuloma in endangered crocodile lizards using metataxonomics.the crocodile lizard (shinisaurus crocodilurus ahl, 1930) is an endangered reptile species, and in recent years many have died from diseases, especially the rescued and breeding individuals. however, pathogens underlying these diseases are unclear. in this study, we report our effort in rapidly identifying and isolating the pathogen that causes high mortality in crocodile lizards from guangdong luokeng shinisaurus crocodilurus national nature reserve. the typical symptom is cutaneous granuloma i ...201930886772
captivity influences gut microbiota in crocodile lizards (shinisaurus crocodilurus).captivity is an important measure for conservation of an endangered species, and it is becoming a hot topic in conservation biology, which integrates gut microbiota and endangered species management in captivity. as an ancient reptile, the crocodile lizard (shinisaurus crocodilurus) is facing extreme danger of extinction, resulting in great significance to species conservation in the reserve. thus, it is critical to understand the differences in gut microbiota composition between captive and wil ...202032390955
behavioural thermoregulation by the endangered crocodile lizard (shinisaurus crocodilurus) in captivity.understanding the factors that may affect behavioural thermoregulation of endangered reptiles is important for their conservation because thermoregulation determines body temperatures and in turn physiological functions of these ectotherms. here we measured seasonal variation in operative environmental temperature (te), body temperature (tb), and microhabitat use of endangered crocodile lizards (shinisaurus crocodilurus) from a captive population, within open and shaded enclosures, to understand ...202033077142
complete genome sequence of austwickia chelonae lk16-18, isolated from crocodile lizards.austwickia chelonae, a species of actinobacteria, is one of the pathogens that cause dermatophilosis in animals. here, we report the complete genome sequence of austwickia chelonae lk16-18, which was isolated from cutaneous granulomas in crocodile lizards.201830533740
impacts of maternal characteristics and temperature on juvenile survival in the crocodile lizard: implications for conservation.captive breeding is an important conservation measure that may restore and enhance wild populations of rare and endangered species. multiple anthropogenic hazards have brought the crocodile lizard, shinisaurus crocodilurus, to the brink of extinction. we initiated a captive breeding program and quantified female reproductive traits, including reproductive timing, litter size, litter mass, and neonate size. to identify the internal and external factors affecting female reproductive function, we t ...201930614073
neuroanatomy and electrophysiology of the lacertilian nucleus isthmi.horseradish peroxidase (hrp) tracings showed a bidirectional connection between the optic tectum (ot) and the ipsilateral nucleus isthmi (ni) pars magnocellularis (imc) in nocturnal gekko gekko and diurnal shinisaurus crocodilurus. we found that, in addition to a direct neuronal pathway, there is an indirect pathway from ot to imc via the nucleus profundus mesencephali (npm). the morphology of cells in ot, npm and ni was studied. visual units extracellularly recorded from ni were located within ...19836194859
microstructure, ontogeny, and evolution of scale surfaces in xenosaurid lizards.both scanning electron and light microscopy were used to examine the epidermal structure of scales taken from several ontogenetic stages of xenosaurus grandis and shinisaurus crocodilurus. in addition, scales from all xenosaurid species were examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine scale surface variation among genera, species, and subspecies. a varied and phylogenetically informative morphology characterizes the scale surfaces of xenosaurid lizards. scale surface morphology is cons ...199329865437
mitochondrial dna sequences of five squamates: phylogenetic affiliation of snakes.complete or nearly complete mitochondrial dna sequences were determined from four lizards (western fence lizard, warren's spinytail lizard, terrestrial arboreal alligator lizard, and chinese crocodile lizard) and a snake (texas blind snake). these genomes had a typical gene organization found in those of most mammals and fishes, except for a translocation of the glutamine trna gene in the blind snake and a tandem duplication of the threonine and proline trna genes in the spinytail lizard. althou ...200415449546
electrophysiological studies on the nucleus isthmi of the lizards gekko gekko and shinisaurus crocodilurus.this report studies visual responses of the isthmic units in gekko gekko and shinisaurus crocodilurus using extracellular recording and cobalt sulfide marking techniques. our results indicate that: (i) the nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (imc) is a visual center; (ii) there are luxotonic units in imc; (iii) imc units respond vigorously to moving contrast targets, of which 35% units burst only at the moment when targets are moving into and out of their receptive fields, none react to either t ...19853983614
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