de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae).vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. we have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or african beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, s ...200919286778
micropropagation and in vitro conservation of vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews).vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews (syn. v. fragrans salisb.), a source of natural vanillin, plays a major positive role in the economy of several countries. a native to the central america, its primary gene pool is threatened by deforestation and over collection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. therefore, multiplication and conservation of vanilla diversity is of paramount importance because of its narrow genetic base. it plays an important role in the p ...200919521841
identification of novel orosensory active molecules in cured vanilla beans (vanilla planifolia).sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and hplc in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by lc-ms and 1d/2d nmr experiments, led to the discovery of seven velvety mouth-coating molecules in cured beans of vanilla planifolia . among these, 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)vanillin, 4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-methoxyphenol, 4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, (1-o-vanilloyl)-(6-o-feruloyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside, americanin a, and 4',6'-di ...200919298044
natural polyploidy in vanilla planifolia (orchidaceae).vanilla planifolia accessions cultivated in reunion island display important phenotypic variation, but little genetic diversity is demonstrated by aflp and ssr markers. this study, based on analyses of flow cytometry data, feulgen microdensitometry data, chromosome counts, and stomatal length measurements, was performed to determine whether polyploidy could be responsible for some of the intraspecific phenotypic variation observed. vanilla planifolia exhibited an important variation in somatic c ...200818923533
rp-hptlc densitometric determination and validation of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in accelerated solvent extract of vanilla planifolia*.a simple, fast and sensitive rp-hptlc method is developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of vanilla planifolia pods. in addition to this, the applicability of accelerated solvent extraction (ase) as an alternative to microwave-assisted extraction (mae), ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae) and soxhlet extraction was also explored for the rapid extraction of phenolic compounds in vanilla pods. good separation was achiev ...200718027359
specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (vanilla planifolia) beans.with the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees c for 40 days were studied. moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. use of naphthalene acetic acid (naa; 5 mg/l) or ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. other f ...200717385887
biological variation of vanilla planifolia leaf metabolome.the metabolomic analysis of vanilla planifolia leaves collected at different developmental stages was carried out using (1)h-nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis in order to evaluate their variation. ontogenic changes of the metabolome were considered since leaves of different ages were collected at two different times of the day and in two different seasons. principal component analysis (pca) and partial least square modeling discriminate analysis (pls-da ...201020074761
development and validation of an rp-hplc method for quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in vanilla planifolia.a simple and fast method was developed using rp-hplc for separation and quantitative determination of vanillin and related phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract of pods of vanilla planifolia. ten phenolic compounds, namely 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and piperonal were quantitatively determined using acn, methanol, and 0.2% acetic acid in water as a mo ...200717313136
evolution of novel o-methyltransferases from the vanilla planifolia caffeic acid o-methyltransferase.the biosynthesis of many plant secondary compounds involves the methylation of one or more hydroxyl groups, catalyzed by o-methyltransferases (omts). here, we report the characterization of two omts, van omt-2 and van omt-3, from the orchid vanilla planifolia andrews. these enzymes catalyze the methylation of a single outer hydroxyl group in substrates possessing a 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene moiety, such as methyl gallate and myricetin. this is a substrate requirement not previously reported for an ...200616830185
inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract.the purpose of this study was to search for a novel quorum sensing inhibitor and analyse its inhibitory activity.200616706905
genetic fidelity of long-term micropropagated shoot cultures of vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews) as assessed by molecular markers.occurrence of genetic variants during micropropagation is occasionally encountered when the cultures are maintained in vitro for long period. therefore, the micropropagated multiple shoots of vanilla planifolia andrews developed from axillary bud explants established 10 years ago were used to determine somaclonal variation using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and intersimple sequence repeats markers (issr). one thousand micro-plants were established in soil of which 95 plantlets (consis ...200717427995
properties of diphenolase from vanilla planifolia (andr.) shoot primordia cultured in of diphenolase (ppo, ec1.10.3.1) from vanilla (vanilla planifolia andr.) shoot primordia culture were investigated. two ph optima of the enzyme extraction at ph 6 and 8 were found. nevertheless, the enzymes shared the same optimum ph of activity-between ph 3 and 4. sodium dodecyl sulfate slightly improved diphenolase extraction but caused a 3-fold increase in its specific activity. the extracts of ph 6 and 8.0 revealed three isozyme bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-two o ...200111453787
developmental changes in raphide-forming cells of vanilla planifolia and monstera deliciosa. 19665956757
microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction of vanillin and its quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography in vanilla planifolia.microwave-assisted extraction (mae), ultrasound-assisted extraction (uae) and conventional extraction of vanillin and its quantification by hplc in pods of vanilla planifolia is described. a range of nonpolar to polar solvents were used for the extraction of vanillin employing mae, uae and conventional methods. various extraction parameters such as nature of the solvent, solvent volume, time of irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energy inputs were optimized. hplc was performed on rp ods colum ...200616605078
occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews) in india.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews) in india was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (cp) nucleotide sequence properties. in mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of chenopodiaceae, cucurbitaceae, fabaceae and solanaceae. nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of cmv. the virus was purified from inoculated n. benthamiana plants and ne ...200516052072
chemical investigation and authenticity of indian vanilla beans.representative and validated samples taken from a 500 acre vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews) plantation in india have shown significant deviations in aromatic profile, especially the relative amounts of vanillin (high) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (low) and the deuterium isotopic (snif-nmr) values. however, the carbon isotopic values (carbon 13 profiles) were generally in accordance with the previous findings on vanilla from other geographic origins.200415675816
characterization of a multifunctional methyltransferase from the orchid vanilla planifolia.the final enzymatic step in the synthesis of the flavor compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is believed to be methylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. we have isolated and functionally characterized a cdna that encodes a multifunctional methyltransferase from vanilla planifolia tissue cultures that can catalyze the conversion of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde to vanillin, although 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde is not the preferred substrate. the higher catalytic efficiency of the purifie ...200415118832
phenylpropanoid metabolism in suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia andr. : iv. induction of vanillic acid formation.kinetin is used as an elicitor to induce vanillic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia. maximal induction is observed at a kinetin concentration of 20 micrograms per gram of fresh weight of cells. vanillic acid synthesis is observed a few hours after elicitation. the effects of kinetin on the activity of some enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, i.e. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-hydroxycinnamate:coenzyme a ligase and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose:trans-cinnamic ...199216668858
phenylpropanoid metabolism in suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia andr. : ii. effects of precursor feeding and metabolic inhibitors.feeding of cinnamic acid and ferulic acid to non-treated and chitosan-treated cell suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia resulted in the formation of trace amounts of p-hydroxy benzoic acid (5.2 micrograms per gram fresh weight of cells) and vanillic acid (6.4 micrograms per gram fresh weight of cells), respectively. addition of a 4-hydroxycinnamate: coa-ligase inhibitor, 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-cinnamic acid (mdca), resulted in a reduced biosynthesis of ligneous material with a simultaneous si ...199016667725
unusual 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde synthase activity from tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid vanilla planifolia.tissue cultures of the vanilla orchid, vanilla planifolia, produce the flavor compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) and vanillin precursors such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. a constitutively expressed enzyme activity catalyzing chain shortening of a hydroxycinnamic acid, believed to be the first reaction specific for formation of vanilla flavor compounds, was identified in these cultures. the enzyme converts 4-coumaric acid non-oxidatively to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the presence of a ...200212423881
patterns of carbon partitioning in leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism species during deacidification.carbohydrates stored during deacidification in the light were examined in 11 crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) species from widely separated taxa grown under uniform conditions. the hypothesis that nad(p) malic enzyme cam species store chloroplastic starch and glucans, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase species store extrachloroplastic sugars or polymers was disproved. of the six malic enzyme species examined, kalanchoe tubiflora, kalanchoe pinnata, kalanchoe daigremontiana, and vanilla plan ...199612226397
bioactive aromatic compounds from leaves and stems of vanilla fragrans.alcoholic extracts of leaves and stems of vanilla fragrans were fractionated with ethyl acetate and aqueous butanol. all three fractions of ethyl acetate, butanol, and water were screened for toxic bioactivity against mosquito larvae. the results of these experiments showed that the fractions from the ethyl acetate and butanol phases were both active in the bioassay. bioactivity of the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be much greater than that from the butanol fraction in mosquito larvae toxi ...200111714297
beta-glucosidase and peroxidase stability in crude enzyme extracts from green beans of vanilla planifolia andrews.the extraction method for beta-glucosidase from green vanilla beans has been studied. the effect of storage of green beans and protein extracts on beta-glucosidase and peroxidase activity was investigated: the best method, resulting in the highest enzyme activities, particularly for glucosidase, was through extraction of very fresh green beans in the presence of bistris propane buffer at ph 8. the best method for storage of the extracts was at -80 degrees c after addition of 15% glycerol, when o ...200111705022
long-chain aliphatic beta-diketones from epicuticular wax of vanilla bean species. synthesis of nervonoylacetone.analysis of the neutral lipids from vanilla fragrans and vanilla tahitensis (orchidaceae) without saponification resulted in the isolation and identification of a new product family in this plant: beta-dicarbonyl compounds. the compound structures are composed of a long aliphatic chain with 2,4-dicarbonyl carbons and a cis double bond at the n-9 position. they represent approximately 28% of the neutral lipids, that is, 1.5%, in immature beans, and approximately 10% of the neutral lipids, that is ...200011052727
identification of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in leaf, stem and roots of the obligate cam plant vanilla planifolia salib. (orchidaceae): a physiological and molecular approach.this study provides the first comparative analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms (pepc; ec in an obligate crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) plant, vanilla planifolia salisb. (orchidaceae). nocturnal co2 fixation and malate accumulation by the leaves and the green stem show that these organs perform cam. the chloroplast-containing aerial roots, however, exhibit c3 photosynthesis. the catalytic activity of pepc was highest in the leaves compared with the stem and aerial ro ...19989869426
phenylpropanoid metabolism in suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia andr. : iii. conversion of 4-methoxycinnamic acids into 4-hydroxybenzoic acids.feeding of 4-methoxycinnamic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid to cell suspension cultures of vanilla planifolia resulted in the formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid, respectively. the homologous 4-methoxybenzoic acids were demethylated to the same products. it is concluded that the side chain degrading enzyme system accepts the 4-methoxylated substrates while the demethylation occurs at the benzoic acid level. the demethylating en ...199016667674
fast single run of vanilla fingerprint markers on microfluidic-electrochemistry chip for confirmation of common frauds.a new strategy based on the fast separation of the fingerprint markers of vanilla planifolia extracts and vanilla-related samples on microfluidic-electrochemistry chip is proposed. this methodology allowed the detection of all required markers for confirmation of common frauds in this field. the elution order was strategically connected with sequential sample screening and analyte confirmation steps, where first ethyl vanillin was detected to distinguish natural from adultered samples; second, v ...200919739138
ultrafast uplc-esi-ms and hplc with monolithic column for determination of principal flavor compounds in vanilla this study, two novel chromatographic methods based on monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (uplc) were developed for the ultrafast determination of principal flavor compounds namely vanillin, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in ethanolic extracts of vanilla planifolia pods. good separation was achieved within 2.5 min using chromolith rp18e column (100 mm x 4.6 mm) for hplc and acquity beh c- ...200919750505
shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of vanilla planifolia (orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.vanilla planifolia is an important orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. because mass production of v. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for pr ...201020444255
purification and characterization of vanilla bean (vanilla planifolia andrews) beta-d-glucosidase.vanilla bean beta-d-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by successive anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography. the enzyme is a tetramer (201 kda) made up of four identical subunits (50 kda). the optimum ph was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees c at ph 7.0. k(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin were 1.1 and 20.0 mm, respectively; v(max) values were 4.5 and 5.0 the beta-d-glucosidase was ...200312720410
localization of beta-d-glucosidase activity and glucovanillin in vanilla bean (vanilla planifolia andrews).the morphology, anatomy and histology of mature green vanilla beans were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. beans have a triangular cross-section with a central cavity containing seeds. each angle is lined with tubular cells, or papillae, while the cavity sides consist of placental laminae. the epicarp and endocarp are formed by one or two layers of very small cells, while the mesocarp contains large, highly vacuolarized cells, the cytoplasm being restricted to a thin layer ...200312871846
metabolic changes in different developmental stages of vanilla planifolia pods.the metabolomic analysis of developing vanilla planifolia green pods (between 3 and 8 months after pollination) was carried out by nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. multivariate data analysis of the (1)h nmr spectra, such as principal component analysis (pca) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (pls-da), showed a trend of separation of those samples based on the metabolites present in the methanol/water (1:1) extract. older pods had a highe ...200919681612
metabolome of vanilla planifolia (orchidaceae) and related species under cymbidium mosaic virus (cymmv) infection.the genus vanilla which belongs to the orchidaceae family comprises more than 110 species of which two are commercially cultivated (vanilla planifolia and vanilla xtahitensis). the cured pods of these species are the source of natural vanilla flavor. in intensive cultivation systems the vines are threatened by viruses such as cymbidium mosaic virus (cymmv). in order to investigate the effect of cymmv on the growth and metabolome of vanilla plants, four accessions grown in intensive cultivation s ...201222902551
biosynthesis of vanillin via ferulic acid in vanilla planifolia.(14)c-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, ferulic acid, and methionine were applied to disks of green vanilla pods 3 and 6 months after pollination (immature and mature pods), and the conversion of these compounds to vanillin or glucovanillin was investigated. in mature green vanilla pods, radioactivities of 11, 15, 29, and 24% from (14)c-labeled phenylalanine, 4-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and methionine, respectively, were incorporated into ...200919817415
evaluation of chemical variability of cured vanilla beans (vanilla tahitensis and vanilla planifolia).in order to establish a chemical fingerprint of vanilla diversity, thirty samples of v. planifolia j. w. moore and v. tahitensis g. jackson cured beans from seven producing countries were examined for their aroma and fatty acid contents. both fatty acid and aroma compositions were found to vary between vanilla species and origins. vanillin was found in higher amounts in v. planifolia (1.7-3.6% of dry matter) than in v. tahitensis (1.0-2.0%), and anisyl compounds were found in lower amounts in v. ...200919911578
improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design.vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid vanilla planifolia. currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. a de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, saccharamyces cerevisiae. in this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternati ...201021059201
conserved differential expression of paralogous deficiens- and globosa-like mads-box genes in the flowers of orchidaceae: refining the 'orchid code'.in flowering plants, class-b floral homeotic genes encode mads-domain transcription factors, which are key in the specification of petal and stamen identity, and have two ancient clades: def-like and glo-like genes. many species have one gene of each clade, but orchids have typically four def-like genes, representing ancient gene clades 1, 2, 3 and 4. we tested the 'orchid code', a combinatorial genetic model suggesting that differences between the organs of the orchid perianth (outer tepals, in ...201121435045
the complete sequence of cymbidium mosaic virus from vanilla fragrans in hainan, china.the complete nucleotide sequence of cymbidium mosaic virus (cymmv) isolated from vanilla in hainan province, china was determined for the first time. it comprised 6,224 nucleotides; sequence analysis suggested that the isolate we obtained was a member of the genus potexvirus, and its sequence shared 86.67-96.61% identities with previously reported sequences. phylogenetic analysis suggested that cymmv from vanilla fragrans was clustered into subgroup a and the isolates in this subgroup displayed ...201121442302
increased nuclear dna content in raphide crystal idioblasts during development in vanilla planifolia l. (orchidaceae).longitudinal files of raphide crystal idioblasts form within the cortical meristematic region of vanilla planifolia aerial roots. cell and nuclear enlargement occur gradually throughout idioblast development and nuclear diameter approximates idioblast maturity. cytophotometric determination of nuclear dna (feulgen) contents, measured by the two-wavelength method, revealed that all cortical parenchyma cells are diploid (2c = 6.3 pg), whereas all crystal idioblast nuclei are endopolyploid. idiobla ...19846698045
vanillin formation from ferulic acid in vanilla planifolia is catalysed by a single enzyme.vanillin is a popular and valuable flavour compound. it is the key constituent of the natural vanilla flavour obtained from cured vanilla pods. here we show that a single hydratase/lyase type enzyme designated vanillin synthase (vpvan) catalyses direct conversion of ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. the enzyme shows high sequence similarity to cysteine proteinases and is specific to the substitution pattern at the aromatic ring and does not metabolize ...201424941968
diversity and dynamics of plant genome size: an example of polysomaty from a cytogenetic study of tahitian vanilla (vanilla xtahitensis, orchidaceae).•premise of the study: abnormal mitotic behavior with somatic aneuploidy and partial endoreplication were previously reported for the first time in the plant kingdom in vanilla planifolia. because vanilla plants are vegetatively propagated, such abnormalities have been transmitted. this study aimed to determine whether mitotic abnormalities also occur in vanilla hybrid or are suppressed by sexual reproduction. •methods: twenty-eight accessions of vanilla ×tahitensis, one v. planifolia, and hybri ...201121613071
functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl coa o-methyltransferase-like gene family from vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized o-methyltransferases.caffeoyl coa o-methyltransferases (omts) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl coa omt-like genes, which have not been well characterized. here, we identified two new caffeoyl coa omt-like genes by screening a cdna library from specialized hair cells of pods of the orchid vanilla planifolia. characterization of the corresponding two enzymes, designated vp-omt ...201121629984
patterns of introduction and diversification of vanilla planifolia (orchidaceae) in reunion island (indian ocean).the cultivated species vanilla planifolia is a typical example of a crop introduced from its area of origin (america) to new regions where natural pollinators are absent. although the vanilla cultivars are exclusively vegetatively propagated, a high degree of phenotypic variation is observed among the cultivars in their introduction areas such as reunion island. to test several hypotheses explaining this variation-different introduction events, somatic mutations and sexual reproduction (through ...200821632406
ecophysiology of cuticular transpiration: comparative investigation of cuticular water permeability of plant species from different habitats.water permeabilities of astomatous, isolated cuticular membranes (cm) of 24 different plants species were measured. permeances varied from 1.7×10(-11) m·s(-1) (vanilla planifolia leaf) up to 2.1×10(-9) m·s(-1) (malus cf. domestica fruit) among different plant species, thus covering a range of over 2 orders of magnitude. ranking of species according to permeances resulted in four distinct groups. the first group, of species with the lowest cuticular transpiration rates, included evergreen species ...199628307383
fungal endophytes of vanilla planifolia across réunion island: isolation, distribution and biotransformation.the objective of the work was to characterize fungal endophytes from aerial parts of vanilla planifolia. also, to establish their biotransformation abilities of flavor-related metabolites. this was done in order to find a potential role of endophytes on vanilla flavors.201526070309
differential responses of vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.root and stem rot (rsr) disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (vanilla planifolia and v. × tahitensis, orchidaceae). breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to rsr and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of forv. in this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to rsr including v. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relati ...201526734032
contribution of bacillus isolates to the flavor profiles of vanilla beans assessed through aroma analysis and chemometrics.colonizing bacillus in vanilla (vanilla planifolia andrews) beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. the flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. ...201526473810
combined inoculation of pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (vanilla planifolia).this study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on vanilla plants. based on the in vitro performance of indigenous trichoderma spp. and pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. the maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of trichoderma harzianum with pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by ps ...201324494528
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