field evaluations of dichlorvos as a vapor toxicant for control of prairie dog fleas. 19751181442
the biology of ctenocephalides canis in ireland.a colony of ctenocephalides canis was established using dogs as hosts. two diets were used as media. fleas reared on cats did not develop beyond the first larval stages. the effects of different temperatures on egg hatching and larval development were examined. larval survival was poor at 22 degrees c and 25 degrees c at 50% relative humidity, but good at 75% relative humidity at these temperatures. the development from egg to adult took 21 days.19921485415
[ctenocephalides canis and ctenocephalides felis infestations of dogs and cats. biology of the agent, epizootiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and control].a review is presented of the biology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of canine and feline ctenocephalides canis and c. felis infestation. also data are given on the prevalence of fleas in dogs and cats during a year at the 1st animal medical hospital, munich veterinary faculty. 5.5% of the dogs and 18.9% of the cats were infested with fleas.19912068719
flea species from dogs and cats in north-central florida.fleas were identified after removal from 100 dogs and 60 cats following routine presentation at a veterinary hospital in gainesville, fl. ctenocephalides felis comprised 92.4% and 99.8% of the fleas taken from dogs and cats respectively. pulex irritans accounted for 7.5% of the fleas found on dogs and for 0.2% of those found on cats. echidnophagia gallinacia was found on one dog. of the 100 dogs, 80 were infested with c. felis alone, one with p. irritans alone, and 18 carried a mixed infestation ...19873564340
cyromazine inhibits larval development of the dog flea, ctenocephalides canis (siphonaptera: pulicidae). 19863722594
prevalence of fleas on dogs in anambra state of examination of 338 dogs for fleas in anambra state revealed that 28.7% of the dogs were infested. while 2.1% of the dogs harboured the poultry flea echidnophaga gallinacea, 26.3% harboured the dog flea ctenocephalides canis. it was considered that ctenocephalides canis could be of great public health significance in this area in view of the high population of the flea. elimination of the flea was therefore recommended. the populations of fleas on dogs in other areas and the distribution of ct ...19853833826
ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in bendel state, investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in benin, sapele and auchi in bendel state of nigeria during the period january 1983 to december 1983 is presented. of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. the species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), otobius ...19853836217
prevalence of ectoparasites of small ruminants in nsukka, nigeria.over a period of one year (january 1983 to december 1983), an investigation was mounted to determine common ectoparasitic infestation of small ruminants in selected farms in nsukka, nigeria. the species identified in goats included ctenocephalides canis, boophilius decolouratus and amblyomma variegatum lides while those recovered from parasitized sheep were ctenocephalides canis and damalinia ovis. out of a total of 148 sheep and goats examined for ectoparasites, 68 (45.95%) were infested. a fur ...19853836218
[fleas (siphonaptera) in the human environment. analytic findings between 1961-1983 in the district of leipzig (east germany). ii. spacial and temporal distribution].during the last 20 years there has been very little infestation with fleas in the district of leipzig. out of the 8 species only pulex irritans and ctenocephalides felis are of hygienic concern. greater numbers of them were found in densely populated urban districts. origins of infestation were mainly dogs and cats kept in unhygienic conditions, and retreats of feral cats. there have been changes in the dominance of fleas associated with man. p. irritans probably had been the dominant species fo ...19854003847
ctenocephalides canis infestation of goats. 19836868129
the epizootiology of infestation of sheep with ctenocephalides canis in a livestock farm in nigeria. 19827186810
natural occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in the dog flea ctenocephalides canis in karnataka. 19807191408
helminth parasites and arthropods of feral cats.the prevalence (%) of helminth parasites in 327 mainly adult feral cats from 3 habitat groupings in victoria and new south wales was determined. the cestodes taenia taeniaeformis (33%) and spirometra erinacei (33%) were common; dipylidium caninum was rate (2%). the nematodes toxocara cati (28%), cyathospirura dasyuridis and cylicospirura felineus combined (27%) and aelurostrongylus abstrusus (14%) were common but their prevalence differed markedly between habitats. ollulanus tricuspis (5%), gnat ...19817340783
anthropophilic deflection of ctenocephalides canis (dog flea). 19817343533
ctenocephalides canis infestation of sheep and investigation into infestation of sheep and goats with ctenocephalides canis showed that while only a light degree of infestation was observed in the affected goats, light to heavy degrees of infestation occurred in sheep. in both species a light degree of infestation had no marked effect on the packed cell volume (pcv). both medium and heavy degrees of infestation resulted in a significant lowering of the pcv of the affected sheep.19807414697
flea species from dogs and cats in northern greece: environmental and clinical implications.fleas were identified after being collected from 129 dogs and 38 cats of random breed, sex and age. all these animals, infested with fleas and admitted to the clinic of medicine of the veterinary faculty in thessaloniki for routine procedures, were from different habitats and originated from various parts of northern greece. ctenocephalides canis was the most common species found on the dogs (71.3%). conversely, its prevalence in the 14 cats was substantially lower (5.3%). ctenocephalides felis ...19957676591
rodents and their arthropod ectoparasites in south sinai governorate, egypt.from the scientific point of research, little attention has been paid to south sinai governorate. in this paper, it was aimed to study the rodent population and their arthropod ectoparasites in three selected areas; st. catherine, wadi sahab and wadi feran. the highest rodent trap index was in st. catherine, followed by wadi sahab and then wadi feran. mus musculus was predominant mainly indoors in the three areas while acomys c. dimidiatus was predominant mainly outdoors. dipodillus dasyurus was ...19938308354
[parasitic fleas in dogs from two warsaw shelters, urban and suburban].dog's ectoparasites were collected from 3 different parts of the body (back of the ears, environs of the loins, and beginning of the tail) during seven months (1993/1994). material originated from two dog's shelters: paluch in warsaw and celestynów near warsaw. all 50 inspected dogs had the fleas ctenocephalides canis (curtis, 1826). 63% of fleas occupy back of the body, 31% the tail and 6% the ears. number of the females was higher than males. the highest number of fleas was stated in november ...19968967082
[acute organophosphate poisoning after spraying against dog fleas].a case of moderate organophosphate intoxication in a 49 year-old male who sprayed against dog-fleas in his home is presented. the patient had symptoms of cholinergic excess, presenting as gastrointestinal hyperactivity, salivation, sweating, muscle fasciculations and confusion after in-door spraying with windows and doors kept closed. he recovered after 4 mg of atropine. s-cholinesterase was 3900 u/l (normal range 3800-10,000 u/l) measured with an activity assay, and increased to 6700 u/l the fo ...19979214072
dynamics of plague in a gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from new mexico.a plague (yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through gunnison's prairie dogs (cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the moreno valley in north-central new mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. we observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. at two towns (midlake and val verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. at two additional towns (vega and south entran ...19979391954
[differential diagnosis of medically relevant flea species and their significance in dermatology].different flea species may infest humans temporarily. such arthropods should be considered as a possible cause of erythematous and pruritic papules and nodules of unclear origin. bites from animal fleas can be seen in people with close contact to domestic or wild animals. this dermatosis may often be misdiagnosed. several flea species including pulex irritans, ctenocephalides canis, ctenocephalides felis, ceratophyllus gallinae, ceratophyllus columbae and archaeopsylla erinacei may infest human ...19979441163
[notes on fleas (siphonaptera) of the fox cerdocyon thous (canidae) from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in jacobina, bahia, brazil].from july to september of 1998, 152 fleas were collected from 18 specimens of the fox cerdocyon thous captured in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of jacobina, state of bahia, brazil. the fleas were identified as: 136 rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, 11 pulex irritans, 2 ctenocephalides canis, 1 ctenocephalides felis felis and 2 xenopsylla cheopis.200010881126
a comparison of jump performances of the dog flea, ctenocephalides canis (curtis, 1826) and the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché, 1835).jump performances of ctenocephalides canis and ctenocephalides felis felis have been measured and compared on unfed young imagos. the mean length of the c. felis felis jump was 19.9+/-9.1cm; minimum jump was 2cm, and the maximum was one 48cm. the c. canis jump was significantly longer (30.4+/-9.1cm; from 3 to 50cm). for height jump evaluation, grey plastic cylindric tubes measuring 9cm in diameter were used. their height was increasing from 1 to 30cm by 1cm. groups of 10 fleas of the same specie ...200010962162
first blood meal of ctenocephalides canis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) on dogs: time to initiation of feeding and duration.two experiments were conducted on dogs to evaluate interval to initiation and duration of the first blood meal of ctenocephalides canis (curtis). percentage of fed male and female fleas was calculated for fleas held on dogs for 5, 15, 30, 60 min, 6, and 24 hr. duration of first blood meal was also measured for individual fleas confined on dogs. when fleas were free in the hair coat, 21.2% had begun blood feeding within 5 min. after 1 hr, 72.5% of fleas had fed. after 6 hr, 95.2% of males and 100 ...200111227894
[bartonella henselae infection in domestic cat and dog fleas].we studied on the infection of domestic cat and dog fleas with bartonella henselae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total of 62 fleas (36 ctenocephalidis felis from cats, 24 c. felis from dogs and 2 ctenocephalidis canis from dogs), stored in 70% ethanol, were analyzed by pcr for b. henselae specific dna. of the 62 fleas, c. felis from cats and dogs were positive for b. henselae specific dna in 12 of the 36 (33.3%) and in 5 of the 24 (20.8%), respectively, and c. canis from dogs was positiv ...200111260879
species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in germany.the species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. a total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. these fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) a ...200111393815
comparison of the activity of selamectin, imidacloprid and fipronil for the treatment of dogs infested experimentally with ctenocephalides canis and ctenocephalides felis felis.twenty-four beagles were randomly allocated into four groups of six and housed in separate cages. each dog was infested with 25 ctenocephalides canis and 25 ctenocephalides felis felis and two days later (day 0) the dogs in groups 1, 2 and 3 received a spot-on application of selamectin (6 mg/kg), imidacloprid (10 mg/kg), or fipronil (6-7 mg/kg), respectively, while the dogs in group 4 were not treated. the dogs were combed 48 hours later, the fleas were removed, counted and their species were de ...200111787782
flea species from dogs in three cities of chile.the purpose of this study was to establish the pattern of flea infestation in dogs in the cities of santiago (33 degrees latitude south, 70 degrees longitude west), concepción (36 degrees latitude south, 73 degrees longitude west) and osorno (40 degrees latitude south, 73 degrees longitude west), located in different parts of chile. the only species of fleas found on dogs from the three cities were ctenocephalides felis felis (41.8%), ctenocephalides canis (39.4%) and pulex irritans (18.8%). alt ...200211934466
determination of 'irritant' threshold concentrations for intradermal testing with allergenic insect extracts in normal horses.sixteen healthy horses with no history of skin or respiratory disease were used for an intradermal testing (idt) threshold study, in order to determine the concentrations of 13 commercial allergenic insect extracts most appropriate for idt. five dilutions of each extract were used, which included the manufacturer's recommended concentrations for equine idt, plus one dilution higher and three lower than these standard concentrations. allergens tested included caddisfly (trichoptera spp.), mayfly ...200312603683
wolbachia endosymbionts in fleas (siphonaptera).intracellular endosymbionts, wolbachia spp., have been reported in many different orders of insects and in nematodes but not previously in fleas. this is the first conclusive report of wolbachia spp. within members of the siphonaptera. using nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting of the 16s ribosomal rna gene, we screened for wolbachia spp. in fleas collected from 3 counties in georgia and 1 in new york. the prevalence of wolbachia spp. detected varied among the 6 different species scr ...200312760642
identification of rickettsia spp. and bartonella spp. in ffrom the thai-myanmar border.during a survey for possible rickettsial vectors in villages of the central part of the thai-myanmar border from september 2001 to february 2002, four species of fleas were collected from common peridomestic animals. all fleas were tested by pcr to detect dna of bacteria of the genera rickettsia (glta and ompb genes) and bartonella (its and ftsz genes). sequencing of pcr-amplified products was done using glta fragments for rickettsia and ftsz fragments for bartonella: two genotypes related to ri ...200312860622
notes on the effect of carbon dioxide in the breath as the stimulant on the flea, ctenocephalides canis (curtis, 1826). 195713513226
ectoparasitic species from canis familiaris (linné) in buenos aires province, argentina.several arthropods that live as ectoparasites on domestic dogs can cause severe dermatitis or act as vectors of pathogenic agents, resulting in serious diseases not only in dogs, but also in humans. we studied ectoparasites found on canis familiaris sampled in five areas in buenos aires province, argentina. the prevalence of fleas, ticks and lice was analyzed, as well as their seasonal variations through the different sites studied. the kind of infestation found in each host was determined and t ...200415019149
fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in georgia, usa: species composition and seasonal abundance.monthly flea collections were made from domestic dogs in bulloch county, georgia, usa from september 1996 to august 2004. a total of 2518 fleas belonging to 8 species were collected. the most common flea was the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (389 males and 1148 females), followed by the dog flea, ctenocephalides canis (250 males and 285 females), a generalist/carnivore flea, pulex simulans (106 males and 213 females), and a sticktight flea, echidnophaga gallinacea (3 males and 89 females). sma ...200515893082
a survey of cats and dogs for fleas: with particular reference to their role as intermediate hosts of dipylidium caninum.three species of fleas, viz. ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis, and pulex irritans were found in an examination of 81 cats and 48 dogs in wellington. c. felis was the most prevalent flea in cats, and c. canis predominated in dogs. it is speculated that c. felis, and its primary host the cat, may assume greater medical and veterinary significance than c. canis. in an examination of 1578 fleas for cysticercoids of the dog tapeworm, dipylidium caninum, all were found negative. these resu ...198416031050
prevalence of human pathogens in cat and dog fleas in new provide further information on the prevalence of rickettsia felis, bartonella hensela, and b. clarridgeiae in cat and dog fleas in new zealand and their distribution in the country.200516311612
a study of ectoparasites of canis lupus familiaris in mueang district, khon kaen, thailand.we studied ectoparasites found on canis lupus familiaris sampled in five areas in mueang district, khon kaen province, thailand. the prevalence of fleas and ticks as well as their density were determined in 100 dogs that did not receive treatments. a total number of 458 ectoparasites was found corresponding to two species: 25.8% ctenocephalides canis and 74.2% rhipicephalus sanguineus. r. sanguineus was the most abundant species, and ct. canis was the only flea species found. the stages of r. sa ...200516438201
qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of germany.from an ongoing country-wide study on the spectrum, the epidemiology and the population dynamics of flea infestations in dogs and cats, important preliminary results from the three areas of karlsruhe, nuernberg and leipzig are presented. a total of 1922 dogs and 1838 cats from 12 different veterinary practices or clinics in three areas of germany were systematically examined between july 2003 and june 2004. all dogs and cats appearing for a clinical veterinary consultation on one regular working ...200616442233
first molecular detection of rickettsia felis in fleas from algeria.fleas collected in algeria in the district of oran between july and september 2003 were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of rickettsia spp. dna using primers amplifying glta and ompa genes. two glta sequences identical to those of an emerging pathogen, rickettsia felis, were detected including i) r. felis california 2 in ctenocephalides canis from rodents and ii) r. felis rf2125 in archeopsylla erinacei from hedgehogs.200616606979
possible vector dissemination by swift foxes following a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern determine whether swift foxes (vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern texas, usa. a previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea pulex irritans. black-tailed pr ...200616870868
prevalence of rickettsia felis-like and bartonella spp. in ctenocephalides felis and ctenocephalides canis from la rioja (northern spain).our aim was to determine the presence of rickettsia spp. and bartonella spp. in ctenocephalides felis and ctenocephalides canis from la rioja (spain). a total of 88 specimens were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using glta and ompb genes as targets for rickettsia spp., and 16s rrna and ribc genes for bartonella spp. rickettsia felis-like (28.4%), bartonella clarridgeiae (6.8%), and bartonella henselae (3.4%) were detected in ctenocephalides spp. other bartonella sp. different from b. c ...200617114721
incidence and distribution pattern of rickettsia felis in peridomestic fleas from andalusia, southeast spain.the presence of rickettsia felis was investigated in three species of pulicid fleas (ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis and pulex irritans) collected in 38 locales in andalusia (spain) over the period 1999-2004. amplification of a fragment of ompb gene was positive in 54.17 % of lots of ct. felis. the identity of the pcr bands was confirmed as r. felis by sequence data obtained directly from the pcr amplicon. no rickettsia was found in ct. canis nor p. irritans.200617114737
prevalence of rickettsia felis in the fleas ctenocephalides felis felis and ctenocephalides canis from two indian villages in sao paulo municipality, brazil.we evaluated the presence of rickettsia infection among fleas collected on domestic dogs in two guarani indian communities in the suburban area of são paulo municipality, brazil. a total of 114 ctenocephalides felis felis and 47 ctenocephalides canis were collected from 40 dogs. a total of 41 c. felis felis (36.0%) and 9 c. canis (19.1%) fleas yielded expected bands by pcr, which were all shown by dna sequencing to be indentical to the corresponding sequence of a fragment of the rickettsia felis ...200617114741
bartonella infections in fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) and lack of bartonellae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from hungary.fleas (95 pulex irritans, 50 ctenocephalides felis, 45 ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 dermacentor reticulatus, 204 haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in hungary and tested, in assays based on pcr, for bartonella infection. low percentages of p. irritans (4.2%) and c. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. the groel sequences of the four isolates from p. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in genbank bu ...200617252927
survey of flea infestation in dogs and cats in the united kingdom during 2005.during 2005, 31 uk veterinary practices participated in a survey of flea infestation, during which 2653 dogs and 1508 cats were examined for evidence of flea infestation and skin disease compatible with flea allergy dermatitis (fad). the prevalence of flea infestation in the cats was 21.09 per cent, significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the dogs (6.82 per cent). the prevalence of skin lesions compatible with fad in the cats (8.02 per cent) was also significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the dog ...200717435095
ectoparasites of the endangered iberian lynx lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in spain.ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. the iberian lynx lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. we surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes vulpes vulpes, 24 egyptian mongooses herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets genetta genetta, two eurasian badgers meles meles, one polecat mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging car ...200717897365
fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and ...200818031934
no evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.plague, the disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. one suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. we examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern ...200818447619
oropsylla hirsuta (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae) can support plague epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) by early-phase transmission of yersinia pestis.plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, often leads to rapid decimation of black-tailed prairie dog colonies. flea-borne transmission of y. pestis has been thought to occur primarily via blocked fleas, and therefore studies of vector efficiency have focused on the period when blockage is expected to occur (> or =5 days post-infection [p.i.]). oropsylla hirsuta, a prairie dog flea, rarely blocks and transmission is inefficient > or =5 days p.i.; thus, this flea has been considered incapa ...200818454591
molecular evidence for bartonella spp. in cat and dog fleas from germany and france.nine hundred and fifty-two fleas were collected from 148 cats and 133 dogs at 18 widely distributed geographic locations in germany and france and examined for the presence of six different bartonella spp. (bartonella bacilliformis, bartonella clarridgeiae, bartonella elizabethae, bartonella henselae, bartonella quintana, bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) by pcr. thirty-five specimens (3.7%) tested positive for either b. henselae (14 positive fleas) or b. clarridgeiae (21 positive fleas). d ...200818489542
parasites of importance for human health in nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners.dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. they may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. in nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited.200819068110
evidence for the involvement of an alternate rodent host in the dynamics of introduced plague in prairie dogs.1. the introduction of plague to north america is a significant threat to colonies of prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus), a species of conservation concern in the great plains. other small rodents are exposed to the causative agent, yersinia pestis, during or after epizootics; yet, its effect on these rodents is not known, and their role in transmitting and maintaining plague in the absence of prairie dogs remains unclear. 2. we live-trapped small rodents and collected their fleas on 11 colonie ...200919302321
occurrence of rickettsia felis in dog and cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) from italy.abstract : rickettsia felis is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group, suspected to cause a murine typhus-like illness in humans, with a cosmopolitan distribution. this study was designed to estimate presence and occurrence of this pathogen in fleas collected from dogs and cats in different areas of italy. two species of fleas were identified, ctenocephalides felis (80.3%) and ctenocephalides canis (19.7%).overall, 320 fleas (257 c. felis and 63 c. canis) collec ...200919426447
discovery of the development candidate n-tert-butyl nodulisporamide: a safe and efficacious once monthly oral agent for the control of fleas and ticks on companion animals.nodulisporic acid a (1) is a structurally complex fungal metabolite that exhibits systemic efficacy against fleas via modulation of an invertebrate specific glutamate-gated ion channel. in order to identify a nodulisporamide suitable for monthly oral dosing in dogs, a library of 335 nodulisporamides was examined in an artificial flea feeding system for intrinsic systemic potency as well as in a mouse/bedbug assay for systemic efficacy and safety. a cohort of 66 nodulisporamides were selected for ...200919445514
evaluation of speed and duration of efficacy of spinosad tablets for treatment and control of ctenocephalides canis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) infestations in dogs.a controlled clinical trial was performed to determine the duration of efficacy of a new oral insecticide formulation of spinosad for the control of experimentally induced ctenocephalides canis infestations in dogs. twelve beagle dogs (two groups of six) were used in the study. dogs in the treated group received spinosad tablets per os on d0 at the commercial dosage. all dogs were infested with 100 fleas on days - 7, - 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. the dogs were combed four hours after each infestati ...200919585890
potential role for dog fleas in the cycle of leishmania spp.several species of leishmania spp. cause diseases in humans that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniosis. it has been observed that besides being transmitted by sand flies, leishmania spp. may also be transmitted by arthropods such as ticks and fleas. to investigate the possible role of dog fleas in the transmission of leishmania spp., ctenocefalides felis were removed from 22 dogs which were positive according to elisa and rk-39 tests. a c. felis sample from ea ...200919595512
ectoparasites of dogs and cats in hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around tirana, albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. the dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (december-february), spring (march-may), and summer (june-august); the cats were examined in late autumn (november). in addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. the arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick spe ...200919690887
prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness.a survey was conducted in order to gain current information on flea species (siphonaptera: pulicidae) infesting dogs and cats living in urban and rural areas of hungary, along with data on the factors that affect the presence, distribution and seasonality of infestation. in addition, owner awareness of flea infestation was evaluated. practitioners in 13 veterinary clinics were asked to examine all dogs and cats attending the clinic and to collect fleas, when present, on 2 days in each month from ...200919712149
detection and identification of bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in andalusia, spain.a total of 559 fleas representing four species (pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis and spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five iberian lynx lynx pardinus, six european wildcat felis silvestris, 10 common genet genetta genetta, three eurasian badger meles meles, 22 red fox vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in andalusia, southern spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for bartonella infection in an assay ba ...200919941605
a comparative study of leishmania infantum of infantile kala azar and leptomonas (herpetomonas) ctenocephali parasitic in the gut of the dog flea. 191919972481
rodent borne diseases and their fleas in menoufia governorate, egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent borne diseases and their fleas was carried out in ten centers of menofiya (quesna, shebeen el-kom, berka el-saabe, el-bagour, el-shohada, tala, menoff, searth el-lian, ashmon and el-sadat) governorate, egypt. rodent index (number of rodent / trap) and percentage frequency of different rodent species were recorded in spring (2009). the main species was norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, r. rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, r. ra ...201020503591
gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in fortaleza (brazil): high infection risk for humans?dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. however, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in brazil are available. we performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a brazilian metropolitan area. we included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of fortaleza (northeast brazil). after euthanization, dogs were autopsied. ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of ...201020532563
neonicotinoid insecticides: historical evolution and resistance mechanisms.the use ofneonicotinoid insecticides has grown considerably since their introduction in 1990s. they are used extensively for the control of agriculturally important crop pests and also in the control of cat and dog fleas. imidacloprid exploited through an elaborated structural and substituent optimization of nithiazine was launched to market in 1990. the selectivity ofneonicotinoid compounds for insect species has been attributed to their binding on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in which the ...201020737790
ddt to control cat and dog fleas and dog lice. 194620996726
the cat flea (ctenocephalides f. felis) is the dominant flea on domestic dogs and cats in australian veterinary practices.this study was undertaken to determine the flea diversity on urban dogs and cats in australia in 2009-2010. a total of 2530 fleas were recovered from 291 animals (151 dogs, 69 cats and 71 uncategorised dogs or cats) from veterinary clinics across five states of australia. the majority of specimens were from coastal areas. the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) was the most frequent flea species identified (98.8%, 2500/2530). the only other flea species identified was the stickfast flea (echi ...201121515000
the current status of fleas according to environmental changes in some governorates in egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent and their fleas was carried out in different environmental governorates (ismailia, dakahlia, el-fayoum, north sinai and matrouh), egypt. flea index (number of flea/rodent) and percentage frequency of different flea species were recorded in spring (2009- 2010). the main rodent species found were the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, rattus rattus frugivorus, the house mouse, mus musculus ...201121634253
efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (ctenocephalides canis, curtis, 1826).a novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (s)-methoprene (certifect™, merial limited, ga, usa) was evaluated in adult beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (ctenocephalides canis, curtis, 1826). sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), ...201121777738
[tick (ixodoidea) and flea (siphonaptera) species on three red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in erzurum province].in this study, three red foxes (vulpes vulpes) which died after traffic accidents were examined in terms of ectoparasites, in the province of erzurum in january of 2009. 13 ticks and 74 fleas were collected from the foxes and taken to the laboratory in separate glasses containing 70% alcohol. ticks were taken directly from 70% alcohol and have been identified under the stereo microscope. fleas were cleared in 10% koh solution during 4-13 days and washed in distilled water 3-4 times and were iden ...201121776598
Ticks and the city: Ectoparasites of the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) in an urban park.The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is known to host several ectoparasites and also tick-borne pathogens, but there is scant information on its eastern relative, the Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus). We have studied an urban population of E. roumanicus in a city park of central Budapest, Hungary, for 2 years to investigate their tick and flea species. A total of 5063 ticks and 818 fleas were collected from 247 hedgehogs (including 46 recaptures). Ectoparasite preva ...201122108019
field studies on dominant rodents and the efficacy of certain insecticides to their fleas in dakahlia governorate, egypt.a preliminary survey of domestic rodent and the efficacy of bendiocarb, diazinon and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides to their fleas were carried out in dakahlia governorates (aga, meet-ghamr, el-senbellawen, temi el-amded, beni-abed, dekernes, nabarow, talkha, menia el-nasr and el-kordy). rodent index (number of rodent/trap) and percentage frequency of drodent species were recorded from october 2010 to may 2011. the main rodent species found were the norway rat, rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellie ...201121980770
ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in hawassa, southern ethiopia.this study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around hawassa in southern ethiopia. in total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from november 2008 to april 2009. of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. the overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. a total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected and ...201123327214
survey of flea infestation in cats in spain.fleas are a common cause of feline skin disorders as well as vectors of zoonotic diseases. this study evaluated the flea species infesting domestic cats in spain and assessed factors influencing their distribution. fleas from 217 cats from 57 localities in spain were identified and associations between abundance, and host-dependent, host habitat and environmental factors were examined. variations in infracommunity and component community structure were also explored. three species were present, ...201223600822
efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on on dogs against phlebotomus perniciosus and ctenocephalides canis.this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new topical ectoparasiticidal spot-on containing 4.95% dinotefuran (w/w), 36.08% permethrin (w/w) and 0.44% pyriproxyfen (w/w) (vectra 3d, ceva, libourne, france) against portuguese strain of phlebotomus perniciosus and a french strain of ctenocephalides canis in dogs. twelve beagle dogs were exposed for 1 h to 100 p. perniciosus on day 6 for allocation in two groups. one group was treated on day 0, and the other group was the control group. ...201323996100
ectoparasites of stray dogs in mazandaran, gilan and qazvin provinces, north and center of iran.the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in mazandaran, gilan and qazvin provinces in fall and winter in 2013(december to march).201627308294
ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (etelerix algirus) in north western libya.the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (etelerix algirus) in north western region of libya. seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. a total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (xenopsylla cheopis and ctenocephalides canis). for ectoparasites, 10/3 ...201426623333
molecular detection of rickettsia felis and candidatus rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, asembo, kenya.the flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (fbsf) (rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. murine typhus has been known to be endemic to kenya since the 1950s, but fbsf was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) kenya. to characterize the potential exposure of humans in kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (xenopsylla cheopis, ctenoceph ...201323675818
fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes.modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. dirofilaria immitis, angiostrongylus vasorum, aelurostrongylus abstrusus and capillaria aerophila. all these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are ...201323497511
a molecular survey of anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., ehrlichia canis and babesia microti in foxes and fleas from sicily.fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. this study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the palermo and ragusa provinces of sicily, italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. thirteen foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to de ...201324589112
risk factors for prevalence of pig parasitoses in mbeya region, tanzania.a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in mbozi and mbeya (rural) districts of mbeya region, in tanzania. a total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. prevalence of taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on ag-elisa, mcmaster technique and full body sear ...201526324243
molecular detection of zoonotic bartonellae (b. henselae, b. elizabethae and b. rochalimae) in fleas collected from dogs in israel.fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. the characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in israel (rehovot and jerusalem) and their molecular screening for bartonella species (rhizobiales: bartonellaceae) was investigated. a total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. the fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the bartonella 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer (its). of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were ...201525865162
bartonella species in fleas from palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. the prevalence and genetic characteristics of bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from palestinian territories are described. flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern palestinian territories (n=11). the prevalent flea species were: ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and xenopsylla sp. ...201425424254
dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.the present study pertains to the dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. twenty dogs were presented to the divison of surgery, skuast-k for different surgical procedures. majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. on external examination dogs were found infested with ctenocephalides canis. when dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as ...201525698864
presence of ctenocephalides canis (curtis) and ctenocephalides felis (bouch├ë) infesting dogs in the city of aguascalientes, m├ëxico.abstract prevalence and seasonal distribution of ctenocephalides canis (curtis), and ctenocephalides felis (bouch├®) infestations in urban dogs of the city of aguascalientes, mexico were studied. between january and december 2007, 863 dogs in the municipal canine and feline control center were examined. overall prevalence of infestation was 12% (95% ci 10-14). seasonal distribution revealed that prevalences in spring and summer were highest while autumn and winter had lower prevalences. two infe ...201121671718
morphology and growth characteristics of cultured leptomonas ctenocephali from ctenocephalides felis felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) of dogs in confirm the taxonomic identification of a trypanosomatid found in the hindgut, rectum and malpighian tubules of dog fleas captured in belo horizonte, minas gerais, brazil, between april and november of 2005, 910 specimens of ctenocephalides felis felis were removed from street dogs and dissected, and isolates from their digestive tracts were cultivated in nnn-alpha-mem medium. four different morphological forms were observed in culture: long, slender, twisted promastigotes with a long flagell ...201121511398
characterisation of ecto- and endoparasites in domestic cats from tirana, albania.during 2008 to 2011, faecal samples, ear swabs, and ectoparasites obtained by full body search and total body comb were collected from 252 cats originating from the greater tirana area. faecal samples were examined using the mcmaster and baermann techniques, and a subset of 58 samples was tested for giardia-specific antigen using a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the ear swabs were examined for the presence of parasitic mites. overall, almost 93% of the cats were identifi ...201424994454
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and fleas from the democratic republic of the congo.little is known about the prevalence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae in ticks and fleas in the democratic republic of the congo. in 2008, 12 amblyomma compressum ticks were collected from 3 pangolins (manis gigantea). two haemaphysalis punctaleachi ticks were collected from 2 african civets (civettictis civetta congica), and one was collected from an antelope (onotragus leche). a total of 111 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, 23 ctenocephalides canis fleas, 39 c. felis fleas, and 5 tricho ...201223137572
fleas and ticks in carnivores from a domestic-wildlife interface: implications for public health and wildlife.fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. in rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris l.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. the aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in central ch ...201627539151
integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (ctenocephalides canis) vectoring rickettsia felis in central europe.fleas of the genus ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. the species ctenocephalides felis and ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as rickettsia felis and bartonella spp. improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the czech republic (n=97) and romania (n=66) were subjected ...201525899079
isolation of candidatus rickettsia asemboensis from ctenocephalides fleas.candidatus rickettsia asemboensis was identified molecularly in fleas collected in 2009 from asembo, kenya. multilocus sequence typing using the 17-kd antigen gene, rrs, glta, ompa, ompb, and sca4 demonstrated that candidatus r. asemboensis is closely related to rickettsia felis but distinct enough to be considered for separate species classification. following this molecular characterization of candidatus r. asemboensis, the in vitro cultivation of this bacterium was then performed. we used cte ...201525897814
detection of rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, bartonella species and yersinia pestis in fleas (siphonaptera) from africa.little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of rickettsia spp, bartonella spp. and yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical african countries.201425299702
ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the chittagong hill tracts in southeastern bangladesh.a large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. however, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. in the course of the present st ...201222576854
population genetic structure of the prairie dog flea and plague vector, oropsylla hirsuta.oropsylla hirsuta is the primary flea of the black-tailed prairie dog and is a vector of the plague bacterium, yersinia pestis. we examined the population genetic structure of o. hirsuta fleas collected from 11 prairie dog colonies, 7 of which had experienced a plague-associated die-off in 1994. in a sample of 332 o. hirsuta collected from 226 host individuals, we detected 24 unique haplotype sequences in a 480 nucleotide segment of the cytochrome oxidase ii gene. we found significant overall po ...201120696095
diversity of flea (siphonaptera) parasites on red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in foxes (vulpes vulpes (l.)) are widespread across europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. we describe flea fauna on red foxes in romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. we found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. mean flea load per fox wa ...201728399300
prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs of shimoga, karnataka.a study was carried out to ascertain the status of ecto-parasites infesting dogs of shimoga region. a total of 120 dogs with the history of skin problems presented to the local hospitals and local pet clinics of shimoga region were screened for different ecto-parasites. the ticks, fleas and lice were collected, processed and identified. the skin scrapings were also collected from the affected dogs and processed for identification of mites. out of 120 dogs examined, 59 (49.1 %) had harboured ecto ...201728316406
parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in albania: infestation with arthropod establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in tirana from march 2010 to april 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. in addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%ci 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be in ...201727796564
flea species infesting dogs in spain: updated spatial and seasonal distribution patterns.this entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in spain. bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. in a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late may 2013 to mid-july 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. a total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) (81. ...201727790728
prevalence of ectoparasites in owned dogs in kerman city, southeast of iran.the present study aimed to investigate the intensity and distribution of natural infestation of ectoparasites in owned dogs during june to november 2011 in kerman city, southeast of iran. one hundred two domestic dogs (63 males, 39 females) with age ranged between 45 days to 13 years were examined for ectoparasites infestation including (tick, lice, flea and mite) in kerman city. detailed questionnaire about grooming and bathing interval, keeping place (outdoor, indoor) and purpose of keeping we ...201627413320
insecticide resistance in fleas.fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. in the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis. historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carba ...201626999217
evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (simparica™) for the treatment and control of fleas on dogs.the efficacy of a single oral dose of a novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (simparica™, zoetis), for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs was confirmed in five laboratory studies. the studies were conducted using adult purpose-bred beagles and/or mixed breed dogs. all animals were individually identified and housed, and were allocated randomly to treatment with either placebo or sarolaner (eight to 10 per group) based on pretreatment parasite counts. three studies used cat flea (cten ...201626935820
a field trial of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to flea-infested sheep.three flea species, pulex irritans, ctenocephalides canis and c. felis parasitize shepherd dogs living on sheep farms in greece. the aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of spinosad, when administered three times every 4 weeks, as the only intervention to treat and prevent flea infestations in shepherd dogs living on sheep farms.201526065677
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