two novel strains of bacillus thuringiensis toxic to coleopterans.two novel strains of bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from native habitats by the use of genes coding for proteins toxic to coleopterans (cryiii genes) as hybridization probes. strain eg2838 (isolated by the use of the cryiiia probe) contained a cryiiia-hybridizing plasmid of approximately 100 mda and synthesized crystal proteins of approximately 200 (doublet), 74, 70, 32, and 28 kda. strain eg4961 (isolated by the use of a cryiiia-related probe) contained a cryiiia-hybridizing plasmid of ap ...19911781691
new spiroplasmas from insects and flowers: isolation, ecology, and host association.eight spiroplasma strains from insects and one from spring flowers failed to react with antisera specific for any of the 11 described spiroplasma groups, with sera directed against spiroplasma group i subgroups, or with sera directed against two unnumbered groups previously reported to occur in tabanid flies. strains, all from maryland, were isolated from the hemolymph of the spotted cucumber beetle diabrotica undecimpunctata and the lampyrid beetle ellychnia corrusca, and the guts of the cantha ...19872889699
membrane-permeabilizing activities of bacillus thuringiensis coleopteran-active toxin cryiiib2 and cryiiib2 domain i peptide.bacillus thuringiensis toxin cryiiib2 exhibits activity against two agriculturally important pests, the colorado potato beetle, leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata. cryiiib2 shows significant structural similarity to colorado potato beetle-active toxin cryiiia, whose crystal structure has been determined elsewhere [j. li, j. carrol, and d. j. ellar, nature (london) 353:815-821, 1991]. a clone limited to the putative 7-alpha-helical bundle domain ...19947527203
structure of the insecticidal bacterial delta-endotoxin cry3bb1 of bacillus thuringiensis.the coleopteran-active delta-endotoxin cry3bb1 from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) strain eg7231 is uniquely toxic to diabrotica undecimpunctata, the southern corn rootworm, while retaining activity against leptinotarsa decemlineata, the colorado potato beetle. the crystal structure of the delta-endotoxin cry3bb1 has been refined using data collected to 2.4 a resolution, with a residual r factor of 17.5% and an r(free) of 25.3%. the structure is made up of three domains: i, a seven-helix bundle (re ...200111468393
binary insecticidal crystal protein from bacillus thuringiensis, strain ps149b1: effects of individual protein components and mixtures in laboratory bioassays.a family of novel binary insecticidal crystal proteins, with activity against western corn rootworm, diabrotica virgifera virgifera leconte, was identified from bacillus thuringiensis berliner. a binary insecticidal crystal protein (bicp) from b. thuringiensis strain ps149b1 is composed of a 14-kda protein (cry34abl) and a 44-kdaprotein (cry35ab1). these proteins have been co-expressed in transgenic maize plants, zea mays l., and effectively control western corn rootworm larvae under field condi ...200212076012
insect resistance conferred by 283-kda photorhabdus luminescens protein tcda in arabidopsis thaliana.the tcda gene of photorhabdus luminescens encodes a 283-kda protein, toxin a, that is highly toxic to a variety of insects, including some agriculturally important pests. we tested the efficacy of transgenic toxin a in arabidopsis thaliana for control of feeding insects. plants with toxin a expression above about 700 ng/mg of extractable protein were highly toxic to tobacco hornworm (manduca sexta). toxin a isolated from transgenic plants also strongly inhibited growth of the southern corn rootw ...200312949536
nicotine's defensive function in nature.plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. to determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. to date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. we transformed native tobacco(nicotiana attenuata) with a consensus ...200415314646
uptake of bt endotoxins by nontarget herbivores and higher order arthropod predators: molecular evidence from a transgenic corn agroecosystem.the planting of transgenic crops expressing bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins is widespread throughout the world; the prolific increase in their application exposes nontarget organisms to toxins designed to control pests. to date, studies have focused upon the effects of bt endotoxins on specific herbivores and detritivores, without consideration of their persistence within arthropod food webs. here, we report the first quantitative field evaluation of levels of bt endotoxin within nontarget her ...200516029480
discovery and characterization of sip1a: a novel secreted protein from bacillus thuringiensis with activity against coleopteran larvae.bioassay screening of bacillus thuringiensis culture supernatants identified strain eg2158 as having larvicidal activity against colorado potato beetle (leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae. ion-exchange fractionation of the eg2158 culture supernatant resulted in the identification of a protein designated sip1a (secreted insecticidal protein) of approximately 38 kda having activity against colorado potato beetle (cpb). an oligonucleotide probe based on the n-terminal sequence of the purified sip1a ...200616489451
toxicity of chromobacterium subtsugae to southern green stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) and corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).diabrotica spp. (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) beetles and southern green stink bugs, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae), are pests on corn, zea mays l., and soybean, glycine max (l.) merr., as well as on cucurbits. control of these insects has depended on chemicals. an alternative to chemical control is the use of biologicals. use of bacteria, fungi, viruses, pheromones, and metabolites to control these insects can potentially improve resistance management and reduce pesticide use. o ...200717598525
enhancement of bacillus thuringiensis cry3aa and cry3bb toxicities to coleopteran larvae by a toxin-binding fragment of an insect cadherin.the cry3aa and cry3bb insecticidal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis are used in biopesticides and transgenic crops to control larvae of leaf-feeding beetles and rootworms. cadherins localized in the midgut epithelium are identified as receptors for cry toxins in lepidopteran and dipteran larvae. previously, we discovered that a peptide of a toxin-binding cadherin expressed in escherichia coli functions as a synergist for cry1a toxicity against lepidopteran larvae and cry4 toxicity against dipt ...200919329664
studies on bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from swedish soils: insect toxicity and production of b. cereus-diarrhoeal-type moderate concentration, 23 of 40 strains of bacillus thuringiensis isolated from sweden were toxic to trichoplusia ni and five were toxic to aedes aegypti. five of the strains were toxic to diabrotica undecimpunctata at high concentration, two were toxic to heliothis virescens at low concentration and five produced thuringiensin (formerly called β-exotoxin). no strain was toxic towards the beet armyworm spodoptera exigua at low concentration. twenty-three of the strains produced a b. cereus-d ...199424421086
monitoring cucumber beetles in sweetpotato and cucurbits with kairomone-baited kairomone formulations (trécé, inc., salinas, ca) were evaluated for their effectiveness as attractants for luring three species of cucumber beetles into pherocon crw traps (trécé, inc.) in cucurbit and sweetpotato fields. the spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber; the banded cucumber beetle, diabrotica balteata leconte; and the striped cucumber beetle, acalymma vittatum (f.), were captured in this study. tre8276 (tic mixture: 500 mg of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, ...200515765678
identification of a volatile attractant for diabrotica and acalymma spp. from blossoms of cucurbita maxima duchesne.fractionation of headspace volatiles from cucurbita maxima blossoms by high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the isolation of a single component which was highly active in an electroantennogram bioassay on diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi antennae. this compound was identified as indole by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. field-trapping bioassays were conducted which indicated that indole is a potent attractant of the western corn rootworm,d. virgifera virgifera, and the stri ...198624306908
agelastatins c and d, new pentacyclic bromopyrroles from the sponge cymbastela sp., and potent arthropod toxicity of (-)-agelastatin a.two new agelastatins, c (3) and d (4), along with the known compound (-)-agelastatin a (1), were isolated from the indian ocean sponge cymbastela sp. the structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data and chemical correlation of 4 with a common derivative 5, also prepared from 1. agelastatin a (1) exhibited potent activity against brine shrimp (lc50 1.7 ppm) in addition to insecticidal activity against larvae of beet army worm, spodoptera exigua, and corn rootworm, diabrotica undec ...19989461668
effect of a phloxine b-cucurbitacin bait on diabroticite beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).cucurbitacin e glycoside, extracted from a bitter mutant of hawkesbury watermelon [citrulls lanatus (thunb.) matsum. & nakai (syn. citrullus vulgaris schrad)] is the active ingredient of a feeding stimulant for the corn rootworm complex. it is the primary component of a water-soluble bait that can be combined with toxins for adult diabroticite control. studies were conducted using phloxine b (d&c red 28), a xanthene dye, as the toxin. this dye was efficacious against diabrotica undecimpunctata h ...200111561848
an alternative sampling technique for cucumber beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) and diurnal beetle activity on muskmelon.field studies were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of yellow sticky traps as an alternative sampling technique for striped, acalymma vittatum (f.), and spotted, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber, cucumber beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) and the diurnal beetle activity on muskmelon, cucumis melo l., near vincennes, in, in 2003 and 2004. the experimental design included six replications of seven 20-m-long rows each of muskmelon with 1.5 m between rows. on each sampling date, ...200717598544
a selective insecticidal protein from pseudomonas mosselii for corn rootworm control.the coleopteran insect western corn rootworm (wcr, diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is an economically important pest in north america and europe. transgenic corn plants producing bacillus thuringiensis (bt) insecticidal proteins have been useful against this devastating pest, but evolution of resistance has reduced their efficacy. here we report the discovery of a novel insecticidal protein, pip-47aa, from an isolate of pseudomonas mosselii. pip-47aa sequence shows no shared motifs, domains or s ...201728796437
belowground resistance to western corn rootworm in lepidopteran-resistant maize genotypes.several maize, zea mays l., inbred lines developed from an antiguan maize population have been shown to exhibit resistance to numerous aboveground lepidopteran pests. this study shows that these genotypes are able to significantly reduce the survival of two root feeding pests, western corn rootworm, diabrotica virgifera virgifera leconte, and southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber. the results also demonstrated that feeding by the aboveground herbivore fall armyworm, s ...201121404871
capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a determinant for vector transmission by a beetle.cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (ccmv) is a bromovirus transmitted by species of chrysomelid beetles, including the spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii barber. an experimental system was set up to identify the viral determinant(s) of the beetle transmission of ccmv. nicotiana clevelandii was selected as an experimental plant host because it supports the replication and accumulation of both ccmv and a second member of the family bromoviridae, cucumber mosaic virus (cmv). us ...201019828763
insect-mediated dispersal of the rhizobacterium pseudomonas chlororaphis.abstract the southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata subsp. howardi, a common and mobile insect pest, was shown to transmit the rhizobacte-rium pseudomonas chlororaphis strain l11 between corn plants. strain l11 has been genetically modified to contain the laczy genes from escherichia coli. it can reach high densities on roots and invade the roots and move into the foliage. d. undecimpunctata subsp. howardi became infested with l11 as larvae while feeding on roots of seed-inoculated c ...199818944825
effects of a potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor on midgut proteolytic enzyme activity and growth of the southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).the major proteinase activity in extracts of larval midguts from the southern corn rootworm (scr), diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was identified as a cysteine proteinase that prefers substrates containing an arginine residue in the p1 position. gelatin-zymogram analysis of the midgut proteinases indicated that the artificial diet-fed scr, corn root-fed scr, and root-fed western corn rootworms (diabrotica virgifera virgifera) possess a single major proteinase with an apparent molecular mass ...200211886775
effects of [3h]-bidn, a novel bicyclic dinitrile radioligand for gaba-gated chloride channels of insects and vertebrates.1. the radiolabelled bicyclic dinitrile, [3h]-3,3-bis-trifluoromethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile ([3h]-bidn), exhibited, specific binding of high affinity to membranes of the southern corn rootworm (diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and other insects. a variety of gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor convulsants, including the insecticides heptachlor (ic50, 35 +/- 3 nm) and dieldrin (ic50, 93 +/- 7 nm), displaced [3h]-bidn from rootworm membranes. when tested at 100 microm, 1 ...19979257933
spiroplasma diabroticae sp. nov., from the southern corn rootworm beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata (coleoptera:chrysomelidae).spiroplasma strain du-1t (t = type strain), which was isolated from hemolymph of the corn rootworm diabrotica undecimpunctata (coleoptera:chrysomelidae), was serologically distinct from other spiroplasma species, groups, and subgroups. cells of strain du-1t were shown by light microscopy to be helical motile filaments. electron microscopy revealed cells bounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane, with no evidence of a cell wall. the organism was not sensitive to 500 u of penicillin per ml. strain ...19978995806
characterization of the lectin from the bulbs of eranthis hyemalis (winter aconite) as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.the lectin from eranthis hyemalis has been previously characterized as consisting of two polypeptide chains covalently linked by disulfide bond(s) (cammue, b. p., peeters, b., and peumans, w. j. (1985) biochem. j. 227, 949-955). we have further characterized the biochemical properties of the lectin and demonstrated that it possesses the property of inhibition of protein synthesis using in vitro eukaryotic translation systems. the protein also possesses antiviral activity against the plant virus, ...19938227081
cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.the characteristic bitter substances of the cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (chrysomelidae, galerucinae, luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. these beetles (e.g., diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (cuc) b on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to cuc b than to cuc e and less responsive to c ...198016592849
identification of a female-produced sex pheromone from the southern corn rootworm,diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber.a sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the southern corn rootworm (scr),diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber. the synthesized compound, 10-methyl-2-tridecanone was shown to be attractive to males of the scr, and also to males ofd. u. undecimpunctata mannerheim, the western spotted cucumber beetle (wscb), and ofd. u. duodecimnotata in mexico. males of both the scr and the wscb strongly preferred ther over thes enantiomer. the resolved enantiomers were not tes ...198324407866
evolution of diabroticite rootworm beetle (chrysomelidae) receptors for cucurbita blossom volatiles.the diabroticite rootworm beetles coevolved with plants of the family cucurbitaceae as demonstrated by their feeding dependence on the tetracyclic triterpenoid cucurbitacins. these beetles also exhibit strong attraction to phenylpropanoid volatile components of cucurbita blossoms. a mixture of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, indole, and (e)-cinnamaldehyde, all blossom components, is highly attractive to the several species of diabroticite cucumber beetles and corn rootworms and is considered a simplifi ...199111607158
structure and formation of the peritrophic membrane in the larva of the southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata.the peritrophic membrane (pm) in larvae of the southern corn rootworm diabrotica undecimpunctata (coleoptera:chrysomelidae) forms along the full length of the midgut epithelium, defining d. undecimpunctata as a type i insect with respect to pm formation. pm formation occurs in three phases: organization of a continuous lamella of matrix from material secreted into the interstices between the microvilli, maturation and apical movement of the lamella along the microvilli, and shedding of the lamel ...199418621274
insecticidal properties of several monoterpenoids to the house fly (diptera: muscidae), red flour beetle (coleoptera: tenebrionidae), and southern corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).house flies, musca domestica (l.), and their eggs were treated with 22 monoterpenoids to determine the topical, fumigant, and ovicidal activity of each compound. fumigant activity of 14 monoterpenoids were examined further using red flour beetles, tribolium castaneum (herbst). third-instar southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber, were treated with carvacrol, citral, citronellal, menthol, pulegone, verbenol, and verbenone to determine their activity on larvae. structure- ...19947962947
aggregation behavior of western spotted cucumber beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) in vegetable cropping systems.aggregation behavior of adult western spotted cucumber beetles (diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata mannerheim) (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) was examined in six snap bean (phaseolus vulgaris) fields adjacent to corn fields in western oregon in 2004-2006. in the 2004 and 2005 studies, sweep net sampling was used to estimate beetle numbers along transect lines running perpendicular to the edges of the bean fields next to sweet corn fields. beetles were collected from the fields and dissected ...200919508791
root herbivory: molecular analysis of the maize transcriptome upon infestation by southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi.while many studies have characterized changes to the transcriptome of plants attacked by shoot-eating insect pests, few have examined transcriptome-level effects of root pests. maize (zea mays) seedlings were subjected to infestation for approximately 2 weeks by the root herbivore southern corn rootworm (scr) diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, and changes in transcript abundance within both roots and shoots were analyzed using a 57k element microarray. a total of 541 genes showed statistically ...201222172013
field and vegetable crops as hosts of larval western spotted cucumber beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).the western spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (cucurmis melo l.) in northern california. recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern sacra ...201122251641
metathesis-mediated synthesis of (r)-10-methyl-2-tridecanone, the southern corn rootworm pheromone.(r)-10-methyl-2-tridecanone, the female sex pheromone of the southern corn rootworm (diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber), was synthesized in 9 steps from methyl (s)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate in a 15.7% overall yield. olefin cross metathesis between (r)-6-methyl-1-nonene and 5-hexen-2-one employing grubbs' first-generation catalyst was the key step of the synthesis.201222313781
genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. however, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. the transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (e)-β-caryophyllene ...201323425633
corn stand and yield loss from seedling injury by southern corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber, can cause severe stand loss in reduced tillage corn after a vetch cover crop. trials conducted over 3 yr found that clothianidin and thiamethoxam neonicotinoid seed treatments and conventional granular insecticides applied in-furrow or as a t-band were very effective against southern corn rootworm. treatments were categorized as no control (untreated), partial control, and full control based on the extent of seedling injury. in 2 ...201324020280
independent action between dvsnf7 rna and cry3bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and colorado potato beetle, leptinotarsa recent years, corn rootworm (crw)-resistant maize events producing two or more crw-active bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (moa). the maize hybrid mon 87411 has been developed that produces the crw-active cry3bb1 bt protein (hereafter cry3bb1) and expresses a rnai-mediated moa that also targets crw. as part of an environmental risk assessment for mon 87411, the potential for an interaction between the crw ...201525734482
effects of rag1 on the preference and performance of soybean defoliators.the rag1 gene confers antibiotic resistance to soybean aphid, aphis glycines matsumura (hemiptera: aphididae), and in 2010, varieties expressing rag1 were released for commercial use in the united states. we do not know how rag1 varieties will influence the broader community of defoliating insects that inhabit soybean fields. in 2010 and 2011, the preference and performance of pest insects that defoliate soybeans [glycines max (l.) merr] were tested using rag1 and aphid-susceptible varieties. th ...201324498760
biological activities oftrewia nudiflora extracts against certain economically important insect ethanol extract oftrewia nudiflora (euphorbiaceae) seed was tested as an agent for controlling several economically important insects. results suggest that this plant extract acts as an antifeedant for the spotted cucumber beetle (diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber) and the european corn borer [ostrinia nubilalis (hübner)] but not for the other insects tested. also indicated were morphogenic effects on the codlingmoth [laspeyresia pomonella (l.)], disruption of the normal life cycle of ...198224414952
ovicidal levels of 2.45 ghz electromagnetic energy for the southern corn rootworm.eggs of southern corn rootworm (diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber) were subjected to electromagnetic energy at 2.45 ghz in slotted waveguide applicators to determine ovicidal threshold levels. ovicidal levels at different intensities and exposure times are presented. infrared measurements of temperature changes and estimates of the heating produced at the mical.19751044338
relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within california hedgerows.research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in california, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. we compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. we used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa ...201323905731
high tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?high tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. high tunnels have recently increased in the u.s. and thus research on their management is lacking. one purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. we compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years on three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber.028580756
copulatory courtship signals male genetic quality in cucumber the spotted cucumber beetle, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), males court females during copulation by stroking them with their antennae. stroking occurs exclusively during the first stages of copulation, after a male has penetrated a female's vaginal duct but before he is allowed access to her bursa copulatrix. females accept the spermatophore of fast-stroking males and reject those of slow-stroking males by relaxing or constricting muscles distorting the vagin ...200312590774
resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to adult diabrotica beetles.production of sweetpotatoes, ipomoea batatas (l.) lam. (convolvulaceae), is limited by several insect pests, including diabrotica spp. (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), and new integrated pest management (ipm) techniques for this crop are needed. host plant resistance is one attractive approach that fits well into ipm programs. a host plant resistance research program typically depends on reliable bioassay procedures to streamline evaluation of germplasm. thus, a bioassay technique was developed for ...200717461084
sublethal effects of vatpase-a and snf7 dsrnas on biology of southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber.rna interference is a powerful tool against corn rootworm. adults and neonates of southern corn rootworm, diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi barber (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), were exposed to the lc50 of vatpase-a and snf7 double-stranded rnas (dsrnas), and the effects on female fecundity, egg viability, male fitness as measured by sperm viability and mating capacity, larval recovery along with dry weight, and instar determination 10 d after exposure to dsrna, were determined. significant reduc ...201729045668
evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.the bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (coleoptera: chrysomelidae). a cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata mannerheim and acalymma trivittatum mannerheim) in honeydew melons (cucumis melo l.). field studies were condu ...201121882695
natural enemies partially compensate for warming induced excess herbivory in an organic growth system.predators can limit prey abundance and/or levels of activity. the magnitudes of these effects are contingent on predator and prey traits that may change with environmental conditions. aberrant thermal regimes could disrupt pest suppression through asymmetric effects, e.g. heat-sensitive predator vs. heat-tolerant prey. to explore potential effects of warming on suppressing pests and controlling herbivory in a vegetable crop, we performed laboratory experiments exposing an important pest species ...201728779159
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