effects of temperature on virus-host relationships and on activity of the noninclusion virus of citrus red mites, panonychus citri. 19744413172
effect of prolonged storage on a noninclusion virus of the citrus red mite. 19725085825
persistence of a nonoccluded virus of the citrus red mite on lemons and in intact dead mites. 19705449742
effect of ionic concentration on the infectivity of a virus of the citrus red mite, panonychus citri. 19685655350
ige-mediated allergy to spider mite, panonychus citri in occupationally exposed individuals.this paper is the first report on allergy caused by a spider mite, panonychus citri. some of fruitgrowers cultivating citrus junos were manifested immediate allergic symptoms by farming, especially by harvest. by examining c. junos trees, we found the trees cultivated by the fruitgrowers were infested with p. citri. twelve subjects complaining of immediate allergic symptoms were examined by intradermal test and rast using allergen extracts prepared from p. citri and dermatophagoides spp. in intr ...19958857108
occupational allergy due to spider mites: tetranychus urticae (koch) and panonychus citri (koch).allergy to both house dust and storage mites is well established, but information about other species of mites is scant.19968955575
new occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (panonychus citri).there have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (crm, panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge.199910071529
citrus red mite (panonychus citri) is the most common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis in citrus evaluate type i hypersensitivity to citrus red mite (panonychus citri), its prevalence, and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, a cross-sectional survey was performed among citrus farmers on cheju island, korea.199910457115
spider mite allergy in apple-cultivating farmers: european red mite (panonychus ulmi) and two-spotted spider mite (tetranychus urticae) may be important allergens in the development of work-related asthma and rhinitis symptoms.recent investigations have suggested that the citrus red mite (panonychus citri) is the most important allergen affecting citrus-cultivating farmers with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or both.199910589014
bronchial responsiveness to methacholine is increased in citrus red mite (panonychus citri)-sensitive children without asthmatic symptoms.a recent investigation has suggested that citrus red mite (panonychus citri, crm) is a common sensitizing allergen among children living around citrus farms.200010931120
specific igg1 and igg4 antibodies to citrus red mite in citrus farmers: a study of their relationship to respiratory symptoms.citrus red mite (crm) is known as the most common sensitizing allergen in subjects with asthma and rhinitis working on citrus farms. the aim of this study is to evaluate the role of specific igg1 (slgg1) and specific igg4 (slgg4) to crm in citrus farmers. questionnaire survey and skin prick test including crm antigen was done by 136 workers. specific ige (slge), slgg1 and slgg4 to crm were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). crm-sensitive-asthma was diagnosed upon presence of ...200010983688
citrus red mite (panonychus citri) is a common sensitizing allergen among children living around citrus orchards.a recent investigation has suggested that panonychus citri (citrus red mite) is the most common causative allergen in citrus-cultivating farmers with asthma or allergic rhinitis.200011030274
association of hla-drb1(*)07 and drb1(*)04 to citrus red mite (panonychus citri) and house dust mite sensitive asthma.specific ige responses to allergens provide useful models for evaluating the genetic factors that control human immune responses. a recent survey demonstrated that the citrus red mite (panonychus citri, crm) is the most important allergen in the development of asthma in citrus farmers.200011069565
sensitivity to citrus red mite and the development of asthma.the citrus red mite (panonychus citri, crm) is an important allergen in the development of asthma and/or rhinitis in citrus farmers and a common sensitizing allergen among exposed children. the aim of this study was to evaluate crm-induced skin responses and serum-specific ige, igg4, and igg1 responses, and their role in the development of asthmatic symptoms among exposed adolescents.200011152170
molecular cloning and characterization of a microsatellite locus found in an rapd marker of a spider mite, panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).genetic markers were searched using pcr with 40 kinds of decanucleotide primers to investigate dna polymorphism in panonychus citri. a region consisting of a variable number of ct tandem repeats (microsatellite) was found in a fragment amplified with the opb10 primer. the microsatellite differed in size by ca. 100bp among several p. citri populations screened and was derived from at least seven alleles. this region was characteristic of p. mori and p. osmanthi, but was lacking in p. ulmi. the fl ...200011156164
spider-mite problems and control in taiwan.problems with spider mites first appeared in taiwan in 1958, eight years after the importation of synthetic pesticides, and the mites evolved into major pests on many crops during the 1980s. of the 74 spider mite species recorded from taiwan 10 are major pests, with tetranychus kanzawai most important, followed by t. urticae, panonychus citri, t. cinnabarinus, t. truncatus and oligonychus litchii. most crops suffer from more than one species. spider mites reproduce year-round in taiwan. diapause ...200011156169
identification of ige-binding components of citrus red mite in sera of patients with citrus red mite-induced asthma.our previous investigations demonstrated that citrus red mite (crm) antigen could cause ige-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed farmers working on citrus farms.200111174189
diseases of overview is given of studies on diseases of mites. knowledge of diseases of mites is still fragmentary but in recent years more attention has been paid to acaropathogens, often because of the economic importance of many mite species. most research on mite pathogens concerns studies on fungal pathogens of eriophyoids and spider mites especially. these fungi often play an important role in the regulation of natural mite populations and are sometimes able to decimate populations of phytophagous ...200011201358
citrus red mite (panonychus citri) may be an important allergen in the development of asthma among exposed children.recent investigations have demonstrated that spider mites are important allergens in the development of asthma in fruit-cultivating farmers.200111359426
differences in sensitization rates to outdoor aeroallergens, especially citrus red mite (panonychus citri), between urban and rural children.a recent investigation has suggested that citrus red mite (panonychus citri, crm) is the most important allergen in citrus-cultivating farmers with asthma and allergic rhinitis.200111428744
ige binding components in tetranychus urticae and panonychus ulmi-derived crude extracts and their cross-reactivity with domestic mites.recent investigation has revealed that spider mites such as tetranychus urticae and panonychus ulmi are important allergens in the development of occupational asthma among apple farmers.200111591197
relationship between sensitization to citrus red mite (panonychus citri) and the prevalence of atopic diseases in adolescents living near citrus orchards.recent investigations have demonstrated that the citrus red mite (panonychus citri, crm) is the most important allergen in citrus fruit farmers with asthma and rhinitis and a common sensitizing allergen in children living near citrus orchards.200212100053
identification of immunoglobulin e binding components of the two-spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae: allergenic relationships with the citrus red mite and house-dust mite.the two-spotted mite (tsm) is commonly found on fruit trees, herbaceous plants, and greenhouse flowers. however, a recent investigation indicated that the sensitization rate to tsm was as high as that of house-dust mites (hdms) in nonfarmers as well as in farmers working in orchards in this country. the aim of this study was to identify immunoglobulin e (ige)-binding components within tsm and to evaluate the allergenic relationship with the citrus red mite (crm) and hdm. sera were collected from ...200212125508
role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestation of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.spider mites such as the citrus red mite and the two-spotted spider mite have been demonstrated to be important allergens for fruit cultivating farmers.200212220468
biology of three species of agistemus (acari: stigmaeidae): life table parameters using eggs of panonychus citri or pollen of malephora crocea as food.the biology and life table parameters of agistemus industani gonzalez, a. cyprius gonzalez, and a. floridanus gonzalez (acari: stigmaeidae) were studied under laboratory conditions using two food sources: panonychus citri (mcgregor) eggs or ice plant, malephora crocea (jacquin) schwantes pollen at 25 degrees c. the larval, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult stages of a. industani fed on citrus red mite eggs. all active stages of a. industani, except the larva, fed on all p. citri stages and the l ...200415176733
[bioassay on oviposition repellency of non-preferable plant extracts against citrus red mite panonychus citri].the oviposition repellency of the alcohol extracts from 50 species of non-preferable plants and azadirachtin against citrus red mite (panonychus citri) was determined using laboratory bioassays. in choice tests, the extracts from 42 of the 50 plant species and 1% azadirachtin (2000 x) significantly reduced oviposition 1d after treatment. the repellency effect of the extracts from the 42 plant species was better than that of azadirachtin. mikania micrantha extract had the best result, with an int ...200415669510
[control effects of mikania micrantha alcohol extract on citrus red mite panonychus citri].this study showed that spraying 0.2 and 0.4 g x l(-1) mikania micrantha alcohol extracts on panonychus citri could significantly decrease the survival rates of p. citri eggs, larvae and nymphs, and 0.1 g x l(-1) m. micrantha alcohol extract could also significantly decrease the survival rates of larvae and nymphs. in a no-choice test, both the fecundity and the longevity of female p. citri fed on the leaves treated with all three test concentrations 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g x l(-1) of m. micrantha alc ...200516011182
toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to tetranychus urticae and panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus.bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by uniroyal chemical (now chemtura corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of tetranychus urticae and panonychus citri. acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. no cross-r ...200717972019
acarological diagnostic research at the diagnostic centre for plants during the period 2004-2006.during the period 2004-2006, 1691 samples of different origin were examined at the diagnostic centre for plants. we received 1046 samples of imported plant material for detection and identification of quarantine organisms. more than 200 samples were checked on mites and insects to get a phytosanitary certificate for export and 391 samples were investigated for diagnostic reason. the berlese-funnel and dissecting microscopy technique were used to separate mites from the samples. for identificatio ...200718399474
role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of california citrus.portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the san joaquin valley california citrus integrated pest management (ipm) program. foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on california red scale, aonidiella aurantii (maskell); cottony cushion scale, icerya purchasi maskell; or citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), populatio ...200818459411
survey of natural enemies of spider mites (acari: tetranychidae) in citrus orchards in eastern spain.field surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2007 to determine the species composition and relative abundance of natural enemies associated with colonies of either the citrus red mite, panonychus citri, or the two spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae, in valencian citrus orchards (eastern spain). fourteen species were recorded, six phytoseiid mites and eight insect predators. two of them are reported for the first time on citrus in spain and two more are first reports as predators associated wi ...200918803026
the effect of pre spring spray to reduce of citrus important pests.the importance of pre spring spray against citrus aphids, pulvinaria aurantii cockerell and panonychus citri mcgregor that are the most important pest of citrus during spring was tested. in this research, 150 trees ten years old sweet orange (thomson navel on citrus aurantium (root stocks)) in a citrus orchard approximately three hectares sampled. the experiment was laid out in a totally randomized (one-way) design replicated five times. according to the results, the pre spring spray do not effe ...200819137868
foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, tetranychus kanzawai and panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae), by mallada basalis (neuroptera: chrysopidae).tetranychus kanzawai kishida and panonychus citri (mcgregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. this study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of larvae of a domesticated line of the green lacewing, mallada basalis (walker), in no-choice tests with different life stages of these two mite pests. after a period of prey deprivation, all three larval ...200919508780
effects of euseius stipulatus on establishment and efficacy in spider mite suppression of neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis in clementine.the two-spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae, is one of the most problematic phytophagous pests in spanish clementine orchards. the most abundant predatory mites in this ecosystem are euseius stipulatus, phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus. euseius stipulatus is dominant but poorly adapted to utilize t. urticae as prey. it mainly persists on pollen and citrus red mite, panonychus citri. a recent study suggested that the more efficacious t. urticae predators p. persimilis and ...201019777356
di(4, chlorophenoxy) methane for control of citrus red mite. 194620286301
monitoring of resistance to spirodiclofen and five other acaricides in panonychus citri collected from chinese citrus orchards.citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), is one of the most important pesticide-resistant pests in china. in order better to understand its resistance status, six populations of the mite were collected from chinese citrus orchards for monitoring of resistance to spirodiclofen and another five acaricides.201020540074
past, present, and future of allergy in korea.korean allergology has made great progress in keeping pace with global scientific advances in spite of a short history. outstanding academic and scientific researches have been performed in a variety of allergy fields in korea. epidemiologic studies revealed increasing prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases and considerable morbidity and mortality in korea. novel inhalant allergens such as citrus red mite and two-spotted spider mite as causes of asthma and allergic rhinitis have been discove ...201020592913
antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ros) generation, which caused oxidative damage. in this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °c) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °c) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), peroxida ...201020709071
the complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated trnas.the family tetranychidae (chelicerata: acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. to date, mitochondrial genomes of only two tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. the scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in acari (mites and ticks). informat ...201020969792
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 january 2009-30 april 2009.this article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: agalinis acuta; ambrosia artemisiifolia; berula erecta; casuarius casuarius; cercospora zeae-maydis; chorthippus parallelus; conyza canadensis; cotesia sesamiae; epinephelus acanthistius; ficedula hypoleuca; grindelia hirsutula; guadua angustifolia; leucadendron rubrum; maritrema novaezealandensis; meretrix meretrix; nilaparvata lugens; ...200921564911
evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative rt-pcr during development and abiotic stress in panonychus citri (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae).quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) is preferred for gene expression analysis in living organisms. currently, it is a valuable tool for biological and ecological studies as it provides a relatively straightforward way to assess the relevance of transcriptional regulation under developmental and stress tolerance conditions. however, studies have shown that some commonly used reference genes varied among different experimental treatments, thus, systemat ...201122203483
Analysis of Transcriptome Differences between Resistant and Susceptible Strains of the Citrus Red Mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).The citrus red mite is a worldwide citrus pest and a common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis. It has developed strong resistance to many registered acaricides, However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. we therefore used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptomes between resistant strains and susceptible strains.201122162774
spirodiclofen and spirotetramat bioassays for monitoring resistance in citrus red mite, panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).background: citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), is a key pest of san joaquin valley california citrus. spirodiclofen was registered for mite control in 2007, and spirotetramat for scale control in 2008. because of the potential for resistance to spirodiclofen to develop in spider mites, and cross-resistance to spirotetramat used for other citrus pests, bioassay methods for resistance monitoring were developed. results: the responses of four populations of adult female, egg and larval s ...201122102515
Purification and partial characterization of glutathione S-transferases from three field populations of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play central roles in phase II detoxification of both xenobiotics (drugs, insecticides, and herbicides) and endogenous compounds in almost all living organisms. In this study, we successfully purified the GSTs from the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, by affinity chromatography on Glutathione Sepharose 4B and compared the biochemical characterizations of the purified GSTs from three field populations [beibei (BB), wanzhou (WZ), and zhongxian (ZX)]. SDS-PAGE re ...201121979304
inhibition of formation of birefringent crystals by high humidity in citrus red mites infected with virus. 20154364195
involvement of three esterase genes from panonychus citri (mcgregor) in fenpropathrin resistance.the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. however, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. in this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (tpp) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (cares) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. the subse ...201627548163
molecular characterization of vitellogenin and its receptor genes from citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor).the production and uptake of yolk protein play an important role in the reproduction of all oviparous organisms. vitellogenin (vg) is the precursor of vitellin (vn), which is the major egg storage protein, and vitellogenin receptor (vgr) is a necessary protein for the uptake of vg into developing oocytes. in this paper, we characterize the full-length vg and vgr, pcvg1 and pcvgr, respectively, of the citrus red mite panonychus citri (mcgregor). the pcvg1 cdna is 5748 nucleotides (nt) with a 5553 ...201525739087
transcriptome profiling of a spirodiclofen susceptible and resistant strain of the european red mite panonychus ulmi using strand-specific rna-seq.the european red mite, panonychus ulmi, is among the most important mite pests in fruit orchards, where it is controlled primarily by acaricide application. however, the species rapidly develops pesticide resistance, and the elucidation of resistance mechanisms for p. ulmi has not kept pace with insects or with the closely related spider mite tetranychus urticae. the main reason for this lack of knowledge has been the absence of genomic resources needed to investigate the molecular biology of re ...201526581334
identification and characterization of seven glutathione s-transferase genes from citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor).the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), is a global citrus pest, and has developed severe resistance to several types of acaricides. however, the molecular mechanisms of resistance in this mite remain unknown. in this study, seven full-length cdnas encoding glutathione s-transferases (gsts) genes were identified and characterized in p. citri. the effects of pyridaben and fenpropathrin exposure on the expression of these genes were also investigated. phylogenetic analysis revealed that ...201324351815
exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. in this study, we cloned the cdna sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, pcchs1, in the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. the full-length cdna of pcchs1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kda. a phylogenetic anal ...201424590130
characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione s-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in panonychus citri (mcgregor).the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in china. however, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. in this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione s-transferases (gsts) gene (pcgstm5) in abamectin-resistant p. citri. quantitative real-time pcr analysis showed that the transcripts ...201627521916
coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.intraguild predation (igp) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. it is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. however, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. to investigate such coincidental igp, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite tetranychus kanzawai kishida (acari: tetranychidae) when it ...201222286142
mite diversity (acari: tetranychidae, tydeidae, iolinidae, phytoseiidae) and within-tree distribution in citrus orchards in southern spain, with special reference to eutetranychus orientalis.mite diversity of selected citrus orchards in andalusia (southern spain) was studied during 2002-2007. the following species were found: eutetranychus orientalis, tetranychus urticae, panonychus citri (tetranychidae), tydeus californicus, lorryia formosa (tydeidae), pronematus ubiquitus (iolinidae), euseius stipulatus, typhlodromus phialatus, neoseiulus californicus, euseius scutalis, phytoseiulus persimilis, paraseiulus talbii and neoseiulus cucumeris (phytoseiidae). eutetranychus orientalis wa ...201729022207
the complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite psoroptes cuniculi (arthropoda: arachnida) provides insights into acari available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass acari (mites and ticks). mitochondrial (mt) dna is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many acari species. herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite psoroptes cuniculi.201425052180
disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex pcr.gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. we designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the tetranychidae tetranychus urticae and panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the phytoseiidae family; these predatory mi ...201525824504
vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system.ambient ultraviolet-b (uvb) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. however, the effects of uvb on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. a comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (uv) radiation. first, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of ph ...201223093097
the complete mitochondrial genomes of six species of tetranychus provide insights into the phylogeny and evolution of spider mites.many spider mites belonging to the genus tetranychus are of agronomical importance. with limited morphological characters, tetranychus mites are usually identified by a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular diagnostics. to clarify their molecular evolution and phylogeny, the mitochondrial genomes of the green and red forms of tetranychus urticae as well as t. kanzawai, t. ludeni, t. malaysiensis, t. phaselus, t. pueraricola were sequenced and compared. the seven mitochondria ...201425329165
[resistance realized heritability and risk assessment of panonychus citri to avermectin and fenpropathrin].on the basis of resistance breeding and selection in laboratory, and by using the threshold trait analysis in quantitative genetics, this paper studied the realized resistance heritability of panonychus citri (mcgregor) collected from beibei of chongqing to avermectin and fenpropathrin, and predicted the resistance risk of p. citri to these two acaricides. after 11- and 16-generations of selection with avermectin and fenpropathrin, the resistance of p. citri to the two acaricides increased by 3. ...201122097380
genetic diversity and population structure of panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae), in china based on mitochondrial coi gene sequences.the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae), is regarded as one of the most important citrus pests in many countries, such as japan, spain, and china. in this study, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene was used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 15 p. citri populations collected from three citrus (citrus spp.) planting regions of china. our analysis found that these populations had relatively low genetic diversities. bayesian tree ...201021309245
parallel evolution of cytochrome b mediated bifenazate resistance in the citrus red mite panonychus citri.bifenazate is a recently developed acaricide that is mainly used to control spider mites on a variety of crops. although first thought to be a neurotoxin, genetic evidence obtained from bifenazate resistant tetranychus urticae strains suggested an alternative mode of action as a qo pocket inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex iii. in this study, we reveal how bifenazate resistance in strains of panonychus citri is maternally inherited and can confer cross-resistance to the known qo inhibitor ac ...201120735493
molecular effects of irradiation (cobalt-60) on the control of panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).the effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. in this study, exposure to 400 gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of panonychus citri. the irradiation caused the degradation of the dna of p. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucle ...201526569230
suspension of egg hatching caused by high humidity and submergence in spider mites.we tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. in both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many tetranychus and panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. however, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. this was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immedia ...201526314067
regulation of three isoforms of sod gene by environmental stresses in citrus red mite, panonychus citri.superoxide dismutase (sod) is a family of enzymes with multiple isoforms that possess antioxidative abilities in response to environmental stresses. panonychus citri is one of the most important pest mites and has a global distribution. in this study, three distinct isoforms of sod were cloned from p. citri and identified as cytoplasmic cu-znsod (pcsod1), extracellular cu-znsod (pcsod2), and mitochondrial mnsod (pcsod3). mrna expression level analysis showed that all three isoforms were up-regul ...201526063404
genetic similarity among agistemus pallinii matioli et al (acari: stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in viçosa, minas gerais state, brazil.stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in brazil. it is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in brazil. however, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd-pcr) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an agistemus pallinii matioli et al populatio ...200919488517
seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in alabama satsuma citrus.six alabama satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, dialeurodes citri (ashmead); purple scale, lepidosaphes beckii (newman); glover scale, l. gloveri (packard); and citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor). two distinct population peaks were re ...200818419929
development of iphiseiodes quadripilis (banks) (acari: phytoseiidae) on pollen or mite diets and predation on aculops pelekassi (keifer) (acari: eriophyidae) in the laboratory.development and reproduction of iphiseiodes quadripilis (banks) were evaluated on single food diets of pollen (malephora crocea jacquin [ice plant] or quercus sp. [oak]), spider mites, [eutetranychus banksi (mcgregor) or panonychus citri (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae)], or the citrus rust mite phyllocoptruta oleivora (ashmead) (acari: eriophyidae). experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber at 28 degrees +/- 1 degrees c, 14:10 (l:d) daylength, and 45% rh. i. quadripilis completed ...200717349110
acaricidal activity against panonychus citri of a ginkgolic acid from the external seed coat of ginkgo acaricidal substance extracted from the external seed coat of ginkgo biloba l. was identified by uv (ultraviolet), ir (infrared), ei-ms (electron impact ion source mass spectrometry), (1)h nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance) and (13)c nmr as 6-[(z)-10-heptadecenyl]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (compound 1). laboratory bioassay on citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcg), showed that compound 1 possessed the following properties. (i) powerful contact toxicity with an lc(50) of 5.2 mg litre(-1) after 24 h ...200616475219
larval cryptothelea gloverii (lepidoptera: psychidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on florida citrus.the orange bagworm (obw), cryptothelea gloverii (packard) (lepidoptera: psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale pseudaonidia duplex (cockerell) (homoptera: coccidae). in this study using laboratory assays, obw preyed upon citrus rust mite, phyllocoptruta oleivora (ashmead) (acari: eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both p. oleivora and panonychus citri (mcgregor) (acari: tetranychidae), two important pest mites on florid ...200516082926
significance of habitat type for the genetic population structure of panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).restricted migration and habitat fragmentation promote genetic differentiation between populations. because most of the hosts of panonychus citri are woody plants, mainly citrus trees that are usually planted at intervals of several metres, this mite likely faces more risks (e.g., starvation) by dispersing between host plants, compared to other spider mite species that infest both herbaceous and woody plants, such as tetranychus urticae. such a limited gene flow between patches (host plants) can ...200516082921
molecular characterization of three heat shock protein 70 genes and their expression profiles under thermal stress in the citrus red mite.three heat shock protein 70 family transcripts, named pchsp70-1, pchsp70-2 and pchsp70-3, were isolated from the citrus red mite, panonychus citri. pchsp70-1, pchsp70-2, and pchsp70-3 contained an open reading frame of 1977, 1968, and 2028 nucleotides that encoded 658, 655 and 675 amino acid residues, respectively. comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of pchsp70-1 and pchsp70-2 showed 86.34% identity, while the amino acid sequence of pchsp70-3 was only 57.39 and 58.75% identical to that of ...201121717055
characterization and expression patterns of key ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling genes in a spider mite (panonychus citri).ecdysteroids play a crucial role in regulating molting in the phylum of arthropoda and much is known with members of the subphylum of hexapoda including the insecta. however, this is still unclear in key pests as spider mites belonging to the subphylum of chelicerata that originated earlier in the cambrian period. in this study, we investigated 14 key genes of ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling and their expression over the different developmental stages in the citrus red mite, panonychus ci ...201728645488
abamectin treatment affects glutamate decarboxylase expression and induces higher gaba levels in the citrus red mite, panonychus citri.the citrus red mite, panonychus citri, is one of the most economically and globally destructive mite pests of citrus. acaricide resistance has been a growing problem in controlling this pest. as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in organisms, γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) is synthesized from the amino acid glutamate by the action of glutamate decarboxylases (gads). in the present study, one novel gad gene, pcgad, was identified and characterized from p. citri. the opening reading frame of pcgad ...201728656486
the economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research.acaricides are one of the cornerstones of an efficient control program for phytophagous mites. an analysis of the global acaricide market reveals that spider mites such as tetranychus urticae, panonychus citri and panonychus ulmi are by far the most economically important species, representing more than 80% of the market. other relevant mite groups are false spider mites (mainly brevipalpus), rust and gall mites and tarsonemid mites. acaricides are most frequently used in vegetables and fruits ( ...026047107
identification of responsive proteins in panonychus citri exposed to abamectin by a proteomic approach.abamectin is a microbial-derived pesticide widely used for control of agricultural pests. however, sustained use of abamectin has led to the development of resistance in some target species. previous studies on arthropod resistance to abamectin have mainly used traditional biochemical and molecular approaches. to understand the responses of citrus red mite, panonychus citri, exposed to abamectin, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de). a total o ...201728219754
intermediate derivatisation method in the discovery of new acaricide candidates: synthesis of n-substituted piperazine derivatives and their activity against phytophagous discover and exploit novel acaricidal compounds, a series of novel n-substituted piperazine derivatives were designed and synthesised using a tert-butyl piperazine-1-carboxylate as the starting material by intermediate derivatisation methods, and their acaricidal activities were evaluated.201727448629
functional analysis of a chitinase gene during the larval-nymph transition in panonychus citri by rna interference.chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes that are required for chitin degradation and reconstruction in arthropods. in this study, we report a cdna sequence encoding a putative chitinase (pccht1) from the citrus red mite, panonychus citri. the pccht1 (564 aa) possessed a signal peptide, a conserver domain, and a chitin-binding domain. structural and phylogenetic analyses found that pccht1 had high sequence similarity to chitinases in tetranychus urticae. real-time quantitative pcr analyses showed that ...201627388447
molecular characterization of two carboxylesterase genes of the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).the citrus red mite, panonychus citri, is known for its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. to get better insight into the detoxification mechanism of p. citri, two carboxylesterase (care) genes, pce1 and pce2, were isolated and characterized. pce1 and pce2 contained open reading frames of 1,653 and 1,392 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 550 and 463 amino acid residues, respectively. phylogenetic analyses showed that pce1 an ...201323404785
lying down with protective setae as an alternative antipredator defence in a non-webbing spider antipredator defence in the citrus red mite panonychus citri, which does not produce protective webs, was examined experimentally. p. citri adult females lie down on citrus leaf surfaces with their dorsal setae (hair) directed in all upper directions. they seldom move in response to physical stimuli. compared to normal lying females, both manipulated non-lying females and hair-removed females suffered higher predation by predatory mites. a predator approaching the body surface of a lying fema ...201324312748
acaricidal activity against panonychus citri and active ingredient of the mangrove plant cerbera manghas.cerbera manghas is a mangrove plant which possesses comprehensive biological activities. a great deal of research has been undertaken on the chemical constituents and medical functions of c. manghas; insecticidal and antifungal activities have also been reported, but the acaricidal activity has not been studied. in our study, the acaricidal activity and active substances of c. manghas were investigated using a spray method, which showed that the methanol extracts of the fruit, twigs and leaves e ...201425918788
the complete mitochondrial genome of tetranychus truncatus ehara (acari: tetranychidae).the complete mitochondrial genome of tetranychus truncatus ehara (acari: tetranychidae) is a typical circular dna with length of 13,089 bp (genbank accession number: km111296). the genome contains all 13 protein-coding genes (pcgs), an a + t-rich region, two rrna genes and 22 trna genes. the a + t content of the mitochondrial genome is 84.5%. the at-skew is positive (0.032) while the gc-skew is negative (-0.058). the gene arrangement is conserved in t. urticae, panonychus citri and p. ulmi which ...201625162745
(60)co-γ irradiation affects the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite panonychus citri (acari: tetranychidae).radio-(60co), which emits γ rays, has been used worldwide in pest control. the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of effective-low-power 60co-γ irradiation on the enzymatic antioxidant system of the citrus red mite panonychus citri. one day old female adults were exposed to 0.4 kgy 60co-γ irradiation and on the, 6th h, 1st day, 2nd day, and 5th day post treatment, the mites were euthanized for biochemical analysis. the activity of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), perox ...201424853454
molecular characterisation of a sodium channel gene and identification of a phe1538 to ile mutation in citrus red mite, panonychus citri.the citrus red mite, panonychus citri (mcgregor), is regarded as one of the most serious citrus pests in many countries and has developed high resistance to pyrethroids as a result of the intensive use of these acaricides.201524753229
comparative toxicity of an acetogenin-based extract and commercial pesticides against citrus red mite.acetogenins, a class of natural compounds produced by some annonaceae species, are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport systems. although the cellular respiration processes are an important biochemical site for the acaricidal action of compounds, few studies have been performed to assess the bioactivity of acetogenin-based biopesticides on spider mites, mainly against species that occur in orchards. using residual contact bioassays, this study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity o ...201424696362
partial purification and properties of a cysteine protease from citrus red mite panonychus citri.several studies have reported that the citrus red mites panonychus citri were an important allergen of citrus-cultivating farmers in jeju island. the aim of the present study was to purify and assess properties of a cysteine protease from the mites acting as a potentially pathogenic factor to citrus-cultivating farmers. a cysteine protease was purified using column chromatography of mono q anion exchanger and superdex 200 hr gel filtration. it was estimated to be 46 kda by gel filtration column ...201424623894
an analysis of the small rna transcriptome of four developmental stages of the citrus red mite (panonychus citri).the citrus red mite (panonychus citri) can feed on more than 112 plant species around the world. endogenous small rnas (srnas) have proved to be important components of gene regulation in many eukaryotes. recently, many srnas have been shown to be involved in various biological processes, such as development in many animals, including insects; however, to date, no srnas have been reported in the citrus red mite. using illumina sequencing, several categories of srnas were identified, including 59 ...201424330037
biological and life table parameters of typhlodromus laurentii and iphiseius degenerans (acari, phytoseiidae) fed on panonychus citri and pollen of oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.typhlodromus laurentii and iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. in the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid panonychus citri. iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the sho ...201627497592
isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in tetranychus urticae and cross amplification in other tetranychidae and phytoseiidae species of economic importance.tetranychus urticae koch is a cosmopolitan phytophagous mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. population genetic studies using molecular markers such as microsatellites have proven to be extremely informative to address questions about population structure, phylogeography and host preferences. the aim of this study was to increase the available molecular tools to gain insight into the genetic structure of t. urticae populations of citrus orchards, which might help i ...201222349944
can exotic phytoseiids be considered 'benevolent invaders' in perennial cropping systems?numerous natural enemies were adopted worldwide for the control of major pests, including exotic phytoseiid species (acari: mesostigmata: phytoseiidae) that had been moved from continent to continent in protected and perennial agricultural systems. however, relatively fewer successes were recorded in perennial agricultural systems. in this manuscript we focus on the question: can and will exotic phytoseiids provide better pest control than indigenous species in perennial agricultural systems? to ...201322669275
panonychus from georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of p. hadzhibejliae (reck, 1947) (acari, tetranychidae).a survey of panonychus species was undertaken across georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: panonychus citri (mcgregor, 1916), panonychus hadzhibejliae (reck, 1947) and panonychus ulmi (koch, 1836). new hosts for p. ulmi and p. citri are recorded, buxus sempervirens, hedera colchica and prunus laurocerasus for p. ulmi and ficus carica for p. citri, whereas p. hadzhibejliae was only found on f. carica. the newly collected material also allowed us to investigate ...201627395141
design, synthesis, acaricidal activity, and mechanism of oxazoline derivatives containing an oxime ether moiety.two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate n-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. the bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and ...201424673392
tolerance to solar ultraviolet-b radiation in the citrus red mite, an upper surface user of host plant leaves.plant-dwelling mites are potentially exposed to solar ultraviolet-b (uvb) radiation that causes deleterious and often lethal effects, leading most mites to inhabit the lower (underside) leaf surfaces. however, in species of spider mite belonging to the genus panonychus, a substantial portion of individuals occur on upper leaf surfaces. we investigated whether the upper leaf surfaces of citrus trees are favorable for p. citri, and to what extent they are tolerant to uvb radiation. if eggs are not ...201323006025
antioxidant protection by astaxanthin in the citrus red mite (acari: tetranychidae).solar ultraviolet-b (uvb) radiation and radiant heat have lethal effects on plant-dwelling mites, including spider mites, and their natural enemies, such as phytoseiid mites, leading them to reside on lower leaf surfaces. panonychus spider mites are outcompeted by tetranychus spider mites and thus exploit upper leaf surfaces, where they are exposed to both uvb radiation and radiant heat. panonychus spider mites are thought to produce astaxanthin constitutionally. in this study, we compared carot ...201728981670
biofunctional analysis of vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor in citrus red mites, panonychus citri by rna interference.panonychus citri is one of the most damaging pests of horticultural crops. conventional control of this pest population through pesticides has led to the enhanced pest resistance. management of p. citri population through rnai, is still largely unknown. in oviparous organisms, fabrication and development of yolk protein play a vital role in the reproduction. vitellin (vn) is the source of eggs storage that helps in proper functioning of vitellogenin (vg) and vitellogenin receptor (vgr). vgr is v ...201729170435
disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in tetranychus urticae.carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins l ...201728674017
a horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant change.the genome of the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae was recently sequenced, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, but also the first genome of a highly polyphagous agricultural pest. genome analysis revealed the presence of an unexpected high number of cases of putative horizontal gene transfers, including a gene that encodes a cyanase or cyanate lyase. in this study we show by recombinant expression that the t. urticae cyanase remained functionally active af ...201222960016
development and reproduction of panonychus citri (prostigmata: tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.the species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite panonychus citri (mcgregor) (prostigmata: tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. in this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of p. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck (valencia, pera, natal, and hamlin), one variety of citrus reticulata ...201526459376
transcriptome analysis of the citrus red mite, panonychus citri, and its gene expression by exposure to insecticide/acaricide.the citrus red mite, panonychus citri, is known for its ability rapidly to evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. in this study, we constructed an unprecedented four gigabase pair transcriptome of p. citri, which was assembled into 64 149 unique transcripts, the functions of which were annotated by five public databases. a total of 116 unique transcripts were identified as representatives of potential involvement in the detoxification of xenobioti ...201222676046
increased infection through laboratory culturing of citrus red mites collected from diseased populations. 19725085823
volatile allelochemicals in the ageratum conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard and their effects on mites amblyseius newsami and panonychus citri.ageratum conyzoides l. weed often invades cultivated fields and reduces crop productivity in southeast asia and south china. however, intercropping this weed in citrus orchards may increase the population of predatory mite amblyseius newsami, an effective natural enemy of citrus red mite panonychus citri, and keep the population of p. citri at low and noninjurious levels. this study showed that a. conyzoides produced and released volatile allelochemicals into the air in the intercropped citrus o ...200516132220
does long-term feeding on alternative prey affect the biological performance of neoseiulus barkeri (acari: phytoseiidae) on the target spider mites?the predatory mite neoseiulus barkeri (hughes) is a good biological control agent for many small sucking pests. we aimed to determine whether rearing long term on alternative prey versus target prey species affected the performance of n. barkeri. therefore, we investigated the prey preference, life tables, and population parameters of n. barkeri between alternative prey tyrophagus putrescentiae (schrank) and three species of spider mites, tetranychus urticae koch, panonychus citri (mcgregor), an ...201728334233
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