electronmicroscopic investigations of wolbachia-like microorganisms in haemaphysalis inermis. 1977600395
rickettsiae belonging to the spotted fever group from ticks in the tribec mountains.rickettsiae of the spotted (sf) group were found in a selected locality of the tribec mountains in southern slovakia in 1974. the rickettsiae were found in 10.8% of females and 6.1% of males of haemaphysalis inermis and 7.3% of females and 4.8% of males of ixodes ricinus. no significant differences in the incidence were observed during the year. coxiella burneti was found in 1 male and 4 females of h. inermis and 1 male of i. ricinus in ad adjacent locality. antibodies against rickettsiae of the ...1976820614
toxic effect of endocytobionts from dermacentor reticulatus ticks in three tick species after in vivo application.the endocytobionts from ovaries of partially engorged female dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inoculated introcoelomally into females of three tick species, d. reticulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis inermis, caused considerable morphological alterations in the examined cells and tissues of the synganglion, fat body, tracheal complex and ovary of these recipients.19921638925
extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with coxiella burnetii in slovakia.between 1987-1989 almost 7000 adult ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis concinna, haemaphysalis punctata and haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of slovakia were screened for the presence of coxiella burnettii. the proportion of ticks containing c. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%. attempts to recover c. burnetii by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs from pools of 1-6 specimens of haemocyte ...19911884784
peculiarities of tick-borne encephalitis virus reproduction in haemaphysalis inermis ticks and their explants.virological, electron microscopic and immunomorphological investigation on the reproduction of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus in haemaphysalis inermis ticks and in tissue explants from nymphs during their metamorphosis revealed that the virus reproduced in the cells of different tissues and organs of ticks which were in different phases and stages of life cycle. during the eclipse phase of tbe virus persistence in ticks, when no virus could be demonstrated by infectivity assay, viral partic ...19862878587
isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from haemaphysalis inermis ticks. 19664380516
localization of tick-borne encephalitis virus in alveolar cells of salivary glands of dermacentor marginatus and haemaphysalis inermis ticks. 19724404901
[scanning electron microscopy studies of ticks. iv. haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895]. 19724668507
a rickettsia-like organism showing positive immunofluorescence with antisera to coxiella burnetii in haemaphysalis inermis ticks.a rickettsia-like organism (rlo) was detected in the oocytes of haemaphysalis inermis ticks. the rlos were about 5 microns long bent rods with a definite inner structure. they were gram-negative and could be visualized by giemsa but not by gimenez staining. attempts to cultivate the rlo in chick embryo yolk sacs, various types of cell culture and tick body cavities were unsuccessful. the rlo displayed a bright immunofluorescence with antisera to coxiella burnetii, but no immunofluorescence was o ...19816118050
[parasitic horse ticks in italy. observations on their distribution and pathogenic role].the following 13 species of ticks, belonging to ixodidae family, were recorded in italy on horse (equus caballus) since 1931: ixodes ricinus, i. gibbosus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. parva, h. punctata, h. sulcata, dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rh. bursa, rh. turanicus, hyalomma marginatum, hy. detritum, boophilus annulatus. the regional distribution and the role of the species in the transmission of pathogens are reported.19947637997
[temporal distribution of ticks (acarina: ixodidae) in "macchia grande" park in manziana in the province of rome].temporal distribution of tick species was studied in the woodland "macchia grande" of manziana in the province of rome, italy. a total of 2,494 ticks was collected by means of drag sampling during one year of survey (1993). among the species identified, ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758) (95.9%) was the most abundant, followed by haemaphysalis inermis (birula, 1895) (2.2%), rhipicephalus bursa (canestrini e fanzago, 1877) (1.8%), dermacentor marginatus sulzer, 1776) (0.1%). i. ricinus was present d ...19947638000
ticks and tick-borne diseases as a constraint to sheep and goat production in italy. selected features.the paper reviews basic information on small ruminant production in italy and on the tick species commonly found on them. a total of 13 ixodidae species have been reported to parasitise sheep in the country. the tick species were belonging to five genera: ixodes (two species), haemaphysalis (four species), dermacentor (one species), rhipicephalus (three species) and hyalomma (three species). the same species, with the exception of haemaphysalis inermis and hyalomma detritum have been reported al ...19979530693
comparison of the protein profiles of salivary gland extracts derived from three species of unfed and partially fed ixodid ticks analysed by sds-page.salivary gland extracts (sge) from unfed and 5 days fed adult female ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758); haemaphysalis inermis (birula, 1895) and dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) ticks were prepared. the protein content after feeding increased by 10.6, 8.7 and 6.8 times, respectively. extracts were equilibrated to the same protein content and submitted to sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by computer analysis of the scanned gels. relative differences in protein profiles of ex ...200010833019
general review of tick species present in present, 24 species are known to occur in portugal: argas vespertilionis, ornithodoros maritimus and ornithodoros erraticus in argasidae; ixodes acuminatus, ixodes bivari, ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes simplex simplex, ixodes ventalloi, ixodes vespertilionis, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor pictus', haemaphysalis hispanica, haemaphysalis inermis, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhi ...199911071535
anti-interleukin-8 activity of tick salivary gland extracts.interleukin-8 (il-8) is one of many mammalian chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) that direct mammalian inflammatory and immune cells to sites of injury and infection. chemokines are produced locally and act on leucocytes through selective receptors. the principal role of il-8 is to control the movement and activity of neutrophils. to date, several tick species have been shown to modulate the production or activity of certain cytokines but none of these are chemokines. using an il-8 specific elis ...200111589777
heterogeneity in the effect of different ixodid tick species on human natural killer cell activity.tick saliva plays a vital role in blood-feeding, including manipulation of the host response to tick infestation. furthermore, a diverse number of tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva, some of which exploit the immunomodulatory activities of their vector's saliva. we report that salivary gland extracts (sge) derived from dermacentor reticulatus adult ticks induce a decrease in the natural killer (nk) activity of effector cells obtained from healthy human blood ...200211856443
ticks (ixodidae) on migrating birds in egypt, spring and fall 1962.over a number of years studies have been carried out in egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. in continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. the 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the pre ...196414163959
identification of a new borrelia species among small mammals in areas of northern spain where lyme disease is endemic.the role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where lyme disease is endemic in northern spain. a low rate of infestation by ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of b. burgdorferi sensu lato to i. ricinus larvae that fed on them. in contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time ...200515746336
tick-borne flavivirus infection in ixodes scapularis larvae: development of a novel method for synchronous viral infection of ticks.following a bite from an infected tick, tick-borne flaviviruses cause encephalitis, meningitis and hemorrhagic fever in humans. although these viruses spend most of their time in the tick, little is known regarding the virus-vector interactions. we developed a simple method for synchronously infecting ixodes scapularis larvae with langat virus (lgtv) by immersion in media containing the virus. this technique resulted in approximately 96% of ticks becoming infected. lgtv infection and replication ...200717490700
ir-lbp, an ixodes ricinus tick salivary ltb4-binding lipocalin, interferes with host neutrophil function.during their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that can interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response.200819096526
rickettsial agents in slovakian ticks (acarina, ixodidae) and their ability to grow in vero and l929 cell lines.a total of 80 adult ticks (55 haemaphysalis inermis, 12 dermacentor reticulatus, 11 d. marginatus, 2 ixodes ricinus) were collected from vegetation in three areas of slovakia (forest and pasture habitat) in central europe. forty-six (46 ticks) (57.5%) of all species tested were positive by the hemocyte test, pcr assays based on the glta and ompa genes showed a rickettsiaceae infection in 77.5% of the ticks, whereas only one h. inermis tick was positive for anaplasmataceae on a 16s rrna-based pcr ...200819120229
distribution and molecular detection of theileria and babesia in questing ticks from northern spain.a total of 562 questing adult ixodid ticks, collected during 2003-05 in 10 recreational mountain areas in northern spain, were analysed for piroplasm infection. reverse line blot (rlb) analysis using a panel of probes for 23 piroplasm species identified 16 different piroplasms, with an overall prevalence of 9.3%. most were theileria spp.-positive (7.7%), 3.0% were positive for babesia spp. and 1.4% of ticks harboured both genera. ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758), the most abundant tick in the veg ...200819120958
molecular analysis of ixodes granulatus, a possible vector tick for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in taiwan.the genetic identity of ixodes granulatus ticks was determined for the first time in taiwan. the phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16s ribosomal dna gene obtained from 19 strains of ticks representing seven species of ixodes and two outgroup species (rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis inermis). four major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. all these i. granul ...200919184580
influence of biotope on the distribution and peak activity of questing ixodid ticks in order to update the occurrence of hard tick species in hungary, 3442 questing ticks were collected from the vegetation by the dragging/flagging method in 37 different places in the country, between march and june of 2007. ixodes ricinus (l.) turned out to be ubiquitous. dermacentor marginatus (schulzer) was absent from sampling sites in the southwestern part of the country, but in most places was concomitant and contemporaneous with dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius). these two species, as w ...200919239612
molecular investigation of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) as potential vectors of rickettsial and mycoplasmal agents.the aim of the present study was twofold. first, in general, to reveal new aspects of the potential vector role of ixodid ticks and fleas by screening large numbers of specimens with recently developed molecular biological methods. second, to evaluate the occurrence of vector-borne infectious agents in a geographical context. altogether 3442 unfed hard ticks (ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. concinna, h. punctata) and 939 fleas of cats and dogs (c ...201019660880
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
fatal bovine anaplasmosis in a herd with new genotypes of anaplasma marginale, anaplasma ovis and concurrent haemoplasmosis.haematological and molecular analysis of blood samples was carried out during an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in hungary. acute disease was observed in five animals, two of which died. anaplasma-carrier state was diagnosed in 69 (92%) of cattle. further evaluation of 24 blood samples revealed concurrent infections with mycoplasma wenyonii and 'candidatusm. haemobos' in 22 and 21 animals, respectively. in addition, two cows were identified with rickettsaemia. regarding molecular investigation ...201021094505
the hard-tick fauna of mainland portugal (acari: ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens.this work is an updated revision of the available information on portuguese ixodid tick species. it includes data on tick biology, ecology, taxonomy and host/pathogen-associations. the current list of portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species: dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776), dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), haemaphysalis hispanica gil collado, 1938, haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895, haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, 1878, hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844, hyal ...201121452063
tick-borne encephalitis virus in dogs - is this an issue?abstract: the last review on tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in dogs was published almost ten years ago. since then, this zoonotic tick-borne arbovirus has been geographically spreading and emerging in many regions in eurasia and continues to do so. dogs become readily infected with tbe virus but they are accidental hosts not capable to further spread the virus. they seroconvert upon infection but they seem to be much more resistant to the clinical disease than humans. apart from their use as sent ...201121489255
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in israel.we report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in israel. rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in hyalomma marginatum and hyalomma detritum while rickettsia massiliae was present in rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. furthermore, a novel uncultured sfgr was detected in haemaphysalis adleri and haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. the pathogenicity of the novel sfgr for humans is unk ...201122049050
prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ixodid ticks collected from the republic of korea during this study, we demonstrated that tbev-infected ticks have been distributed in the rok, combined with our previous results. these results suggest that tbev may exist in the rok, and h. longicornis, h. flava, and i. nipponensis may be potential vectors of tbev. in addition, these results emphasize the need for further epidemiological research of tbev.201224159517
ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment.ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. all of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence ...201324312085
ticks infesting humans in italy and associated pathogens.ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (tbds). the incidence of human tbds in italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available.201425023709
climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: the butterfly effect.we have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. the impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. on the occasion of the impact of environmental changes on infectious diseases (iec ...201526835253
modulation of host immunity by tick generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. functional data are, however, lacking. given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland ...201526189360
prevalence of francisella tularensis and francisella-like endosymbionts in the tick population of hungary and the genetic variability of francisella-like agents.several new taxa belonging to the genus francisella have been described recently. the present study describes the prevalence of francisella tularensis and francisella-like endosymbionts (fle) in ticks collected from hungary from 2007 to 2009 and characterizes the genetic variability of fles. a total of 5402 ixodid ticks (ixodes ricinus, i. acuminatus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. concinna, h. punctata) were collected from vegetation and animal hosts and teste ...201323421891
spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in belgium.the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in europe. sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. however, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control.201323800283
flying ticks: anciently evolved associations that constitute a risk of infectious disease spread.ticks are important vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases affecting human and animal health worldwide. ticks are often found on wild birds, which have been long recognized as a potential risk factor for dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (tbp), thus raising societal concerns and prompting research into their biology and ecology. to fully understand the role of birds in disseminating some ticks species and tbp, it is important to consider the evolutionary relationships between birds, ...201526467109
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
dna of piroplasms of ruminants and dogs in ixodid bat this study 308 ticks (ixodes ariadnae: 26 larvae, 14 nymphs, five females; i. vespertilionis: 89 larvae, 27 nymphs, eight females; i. simplex: 80 larvae, 50 nymphs, nine females) have been collected from 200 individuals of 17 bat species in two countries, hungary and romania. after dna extraction these ticks were molecularly analysed for the presence of piroplasm dna. in hungary i. ariadnae was most frequently identified from bat species in the family vespertilionidae, whereas i. vespertilion ...201627930692
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle, sheep and goats in ilam county, ilam province, iran.this survey was performed to find out the infestation rate of ixodidae ticks in domestic ruminants in ilam county during 21 march 2009 to 23 august 2009. sampling was performed in 25 villages and 15 animal farm from different areas of this county. a total of 1,316 ticks were collected from 416 cattle, 208 sheep and 147 goats. the overall prevalence of ticks was recorded: 43, 23.5, and 49/6 % in cattle, sheep, and goats respectively. the number of ticks that collected from cattle, sheep, and goat ...201325698857
assessment of exposure to piroplasms in sheep grazing in communal mountain pastures by using a multiplex dna bead-based suspension array.piroplasms are tick-borne hemoprotozoans with a major impact on extensive management systems. detection of sub-clinical low-level carriers, which can act as source of infection for vector ticks, is key to protect livestock trade and facilitate preventive control programs. the purpose of this study was to develop a method for the detection of ovine piroplasms and to use it in a field study aimed at investigating piroplasms infection in semi-extensive production systems in the basque country (nort ...201324499621
cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (spirurida, onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern italy.cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (spirurida, onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the european roe deer (capreolus capreolus) transmitted by ixodes ricinus (acari, ixodidae). at the necropsy of a roe deer from the parco regionale di gallipoli cognato (basilicata region, southern italy), two female nematodes of c. rugosicauda were found. following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 i. ricinus ticks were collected. in addition, 240 ticks we ...201324533349
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades v and vi (europe 1 and 2) in ticks in kosovo, 2012.despite being a small country, kosovo represents one of the few foci of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) in europe. the distribution of kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of cchf virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. a better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of cchfv in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. we investigated the 2012 distribution of kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived cchfv. hya ...201425255381
diversity of haemaphysalis-associated piroplasms of ruminants in central-eastern europe, hungary.increasing numbers of genetic variants are being recognized among piroplasms, but the precise taxonomical status, the tick vector and the geographical range of several species or genotypes are still unknown. bovine piroplasmosis was reported to re-emerge in north-east hungary. because theileria-infection was newly diagnosed in one cattle herd in the same region of the country, the aim of this study was to molecularly identify the relevant agent, to find its local vector tick species, and to exam ...201526652614
molecular evidence for trans-stadial and transovarial transmission of babesia occultans in hyalomma marginatum and rhipicephalus turanicus in turkey.a total of 1064 adult ticks identified as hyalomma marginatum (n=965), rhipicephalus turanicus (n=86), haemaphysalis inermis (n=9) and rhipicephalus bursa (n=4) along with 20 egg masses derived from h. marginatum (n=18) and r. bursa were screened for babesia occultans. the ticks were combined into 328 pools and infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (mle) with 95% confidence intervals (ci). of these pools, 23 (7%) were positive for b. occultans, and the overall mle ...201425002306
molecular evidence of rickettsia spp. in ixodid ticks and rodents in suburban, natural and rural habitats in slovakia.natural foci of tick-borne spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae of public health concern have been found in slovakia, but the role of rodents in their circulation is unclear. ticks (ixodes ricinus, ixodes trianguliceps, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis concinna and haemaphysalis inermis) and tissues of rodents (apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus, myodes glareolus, microtus arvalis, microtus subterraneus and micromys minutus) were examined for the presence of ...201728340608
species diversity and abundance of ticks in three habitats in southern italy.a 2-year study was conducted from march 2010 to march 2012 in a forested area in southern italy to evaluate the species diversity and abundance of free-living ticks in 3 different habitats: (i) a meadow habitat within an enclosure inhabited by roe deer (capreolus capreolus); (ii) a man-made trail located in a high-altitude, forested area; and (iii) a grassland near a house inhabited by 3 people. in total, 10,795 ticks were collected. ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (69.0%), followed ...201323403153
occurrence of ixodiphagus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) in ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) in southern italy.natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp ixodiphagus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae). the aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of i. hookeri dna in a community of ticks (ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, hyalomma marginatum, haemaphysalis inermis and rhipicephalus turanicus). from may 2010 to march 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with i. hookeri ...201525614120
efficiency of flagging and dragging for tick is acknowledged that data from field studies on tick ecology might be biased by collection methods, but actually comparative studies are still limited. herein we assessed whether the efficiency of flagging and dragging varies according to tick developmental stage, species, season and habitat. ticks were collected in three sites bordered by an oak forest. the abundance of ticks collected by each collection method varied according to tick species, developmental stage, season, and habitat. flagg ...201323417703
molecular analysis of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae), an incriminated vector tick for babesia vogeli in taiwan.the genetic identity of rhipicephalus sanguineus tick was determined for the first time in taiwan. the phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16s ribosomal dna gene obtained from 32 strains of ticks representing six species of rhipicephalus, two species of dermacentor and two outgroup species (haemaphysalis inermis and ixodes ricinus). seven major clades can be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony ...201627815655
impact of a freeway on the dispersal of ticks and ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: forested resting areas may become lyme disease barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. the aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from march to june) in eight habitats of differe ...201728605964
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