isolation of the gene encoding an immunodominant membrane protein of the apple proliferation phytoplasma, and expression and characterization of the gene immunodominant membrane protein (imp) of the apple proliferation (ap) phytoplasma was detected in preparations from ap-diseased periwinkle plants using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the ap agent. following isolation from western blots and partial sequencing, degenerate oligonucleotides derived from the imp sequence were used as probes to identify a dna fragment containing the orf encoding the imp. complete sequencing and subsequent analysis of the cloned dna fragment revealed the pr ...199910463160
bacterial endosymbionts of the psyllid cacopsylla pyricola (hemiptera: psyllidae) in the pacific northwestern united states.insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. we collected pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola (förster) (hemiptera: psyllidae), from pear orchards in washington and oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer ("summerform") an ...201728334388
frequency and seasonal distribution of pear psylla infected with the pear decline phytoplasma in california pear orchards.abstract pear decline (pd) is an important disease of pyrus communis fruiting cultivars in europe, asia, and the americas. pd is caused by a phloem-limited phytoplasma that, in california, is transmitted from diseased to healthy trees by pear psylla, cacopsylla pyricola. the percentage of phytoplasma-infected pear psylla has never been assessed in the united states in field-collected insects. pear psylla were collected monthly from pd-infected trees from three orchards in northern california. in ...200218944248
integrated management of phytoplasma diseases in pome fruit: an overview of efficacy results of ipm insecticides against pear psylla (cacopsylla pyri).phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic mollicutes that cause devastating diseases in various crops worldwide. the closely related pome fruit tree phytoplasmas candidatus phytoplasma mali and candidatus phytoplasma pyri are the causal agents of apple proliferation and pear decline, respectively. they can be transmitted from tree to tree by psyllidae. as pear suckers (cacopsylla pyri) are widely considered to be the most important pest in pear orchards, a good control of this insect vector is a key ele ...201021539243
stylet penetration of cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (epg) study.detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla cacopsylla pyri l. (hemiptera psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of "candidatus phytoplasma pyri" responsible of pear decline disease (pd) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections for advanced breeding programs. the electrical penetration graph technique or (full) epg may relevantly contribute to this knowledge. c. pyri epg waveforms were characterized on basis of amplitude, f ...201121802423
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