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comparative use of bendiocarb and ddt to control anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a malarious area of mexico.the state of sinaloa has one of the highest and most persistent malaria transmission levels in mexico. due to this situation, with resistance of the vector anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald to ddt, the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb was evaluated as an alternative to ddt for residual house-spraying in village-scale trials during 1985-87. application rates of the active ingredient per square metre of sprayable surface (ai/m2) were 0.4 g bendiocarb 80% wettable powder (80wp) and 2 g ddt 75% ...19911768914
observations on the flight and mating behavior of anopheles pseudopunctipennis under insectary conditions.anopheles pseudopunctipennis showed a bimodal daily pattern in flight activity with the largest peak at 2000 h and the smaller one at 0400 h. in the first 10 days as adults, the maximum swarming activity was observed between 2-6 days of age. also, sexual encounters were registered at the same time interval.19911895093
limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, anopheles albimanus and anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of chiapas state, mexico.field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern chiapas, mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. at each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of anopheles albimanus larvae i ...19902098467
effect of indoor residual spraying of ddt and bendiocarb on the feeding patterns of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in mexico.intense and persistent use of ddt for malaria control has increased resistance and induced exophilic behavior of anopheles pseudopunctipennis. an evaluation of bendiocarb and ddt to control this species in sinaloa, mexico, showed that, in spite of ddt-resistance, both insecticides produced similar effects. feeding patterns were analyzed to explain these results. resting mosquitoes were collected over the dry and wet seasons. anophelines were tested in an elisa to determine the source of the meal ...19902098469
[anopheles pseudopunctipennis and its relation to malaria in the mexican republic. 1931]. 19892697098
colonization of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in panama. 19715168248
anopheles pseudopunctipennis: laboratory maintenance and malaria susceptibility of a strain from el salvador.the techniques involved in the establishment of a strain of anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis from el salvador, central america are presented. results of experimental susceptibility studies using coindigenous strains of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax as well as p. vivax from colombia indicated that this anopheline strain does not possess the biologic capability for malaria transmission. the usefulness of biological susceptibility data in establishing the vector status of anophe ...19806996500
biochemical systematics and population genetic structure of anopheles pseudopunctipennis, vector of malaria in central and south america.an electrophoretic survey of 42 populations of anopheles pseudopunctipennis collected throughout its known geographic distribution was performed to clarify the taxonomic status of this important malaria vector species. the results indicated strong differences in the allele frequencies of three enzyme loci (glycerol dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucomutase) of the 33 loci analyzed. no fixed electromorphic differences separate the populations of an. pseudopunctipenni ...19957485688
bionomics of larval populations of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in the tapachula foothills area, southern mexico.the population dynamics of anopheles pseudopunctipennis larvae were studied in a foothill region near tapachula, mexico. systematic surveillance of wet-season and dry-season habitats was conducted during 1990 and 1991. sampling along transects of the coatan river was employed to quantify habitat availability and population densities of larvae during the dry season. during the wet season, larvae were most abundant in temporary habitats, such as seepage springs, rain pools, and pools in stream and ...19947707050
bionomics of adult anopheles pseudopunctipennis (diptera: culicidae) in the tapachula foothills area of southern mexico.field studies on the bionomics of adult anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald were conducted to assess its relative importance as a primary vector of vivax malaria in southern mexico. in four malaria endemic villages in a foothill region near tapachula, mexico, population densities of a. pseudopunctipennis increased during the dry seasons of 1990 and 1991. the pattern of nocturnal host-seeking activity indoors was unimodal with a late night peak at 0100 hours enhancing its vectorial significance ...19947966168
evidence through crossmating experiments of a species complex in anopheles pseudopunctipennis sensu lato: a primary malaria vector of the american continent.crossmating experiments were conducted to determine if postmating reproductive barriers are involved in the maintenance of genetic divergence among populations of anopheles pseudopunctipennis sensu lato, a primary malaria vector of the american continent. reciprocal crosses were conducted between colony and wild strains from mexico, bolivia, and peru. hybridization experiments revealed unidirectional male/female hybrid sterility in crosses between mexican females and south american males. the da ...19938279641
[effectiveness of a carbamate insecticide as a household low-volume spray for malaria control].a comparative regional-scale evaluation of the epidemiological impact of low volume (lv) spray of bendiocarb and the conventional spray of ddt against malaria in an endemic area of northern chiapas was carried out. three anopheline species were found: anopheles pseudopunctipennis, an. albinanus and an. argyritarsis. the most prevalent was an. pseudopunctipennis, a species we suspect may be involved in the transmission of most malaria cases. this species showed high levels of resistance to ddt. h ...19938470018
predictions of malaria vector distribution in belize based on multispectral satellite data.use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. a blind test of remote sensing-based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in belize. four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations f ...19968600771
differential susceptibilities of anopheles albimanus and anopheles pseudopunctipennis to infections with coindigenous plasmodium vivax variants vk210 and vk247 in southern mexico.the susceptibilities to coindigenous plasmodium vivax of colonized anopheles albimanus and anopheles pseudopunctipennis from southern mexico were investigated by simultaneous feeding with infected blood obtained from patients. the genes encoding circumsporozoite protein variant types (vk210 and vk247) in blood samples were determined by pcr and oligonucleotide probe hybridization. a. albimanus was more susceptible to vk210, and a. pseudopunctipennis was more susceptible to vk247.19999864243
the romanomermis iyengari parasite for anopheles pseudopunctipennis suppression in natural habitats in oaxaca state, mexico.in september and november 1996 romanomermis iyengari welch, a parasite of larval mosquitoes, was released in 44 natural larval habitat sites of anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald in an attempt to reduce the larval populations of this important malaria vector. the selected treatment sites ranged in size from 5 to 500 m2. the study was carried out in pochutla district of oaxaca state, on the pacific coast of mexico. chemical pesticides to reduce vector populations have been the principal tool i ...199910050611
cytogenetic evidence for a species complex within anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald (diptera: culicidae).anopheles pseudopunctipennis was collected from acapulco, mexico and sallee river, grenada, west indies and used in cross-mating experiments. larvae from the cross, mexico female x grenada male, died in the third instar. however, adult progeny were obtained from the reciprocal cross grenada female x mexico male. these hybrid males had testes with apparently normal appearance but some without viable sperm. polytene chromosomes obtained from hybrid females exhibited extensive asynapsis of the x ch ...199910348242
different prevalences of plasmodium vivax phenotypes vk210 and vk247 associated with the distribution of anopheles albimanus and anopheles pseudopunctipennis in mexico.the geographic distribution of plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein phenotypes from patient blood used to infect colonized anopheles albimanus and an. pseudopunctipennis was investigated in southern mexico. parasite phenotype types were determined in blood samples by a polymerase chain reaction and oligoprobe hybridization or by immunofluorescent assay of sporozoites. the proportion of infected mosquitoes and the number of oocysts per mosquito confirmed previous in vitro observations indica ...200010761736
insecticide susceptibility in anopheles pseudopunctipennis from colombia: comparison between bioassays and biochemical assays.anopheles pseudopunctipennis, one of the primary vectors of malaria in the southwest of colombia, was evaluated for susceptibility to the 3 major insecticide groups (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates) by bioassay and biochemical assay. larval populations, which were collected principally from irrigation channels in agricultural areas, where the intensity of insecticide use varied, were utilized to establish susceptibility for the 1st time in this species. the baselines for each popul ...200011198920
plasmodium vivax blood-stage dynamics.we examine the dynamics of parasitemia and gametocytemia reflected in the preintervention charts of 221 malaria-naive u.s. neurosyphilis patients infected with the st. elizabeth strain of plasmodium vivax, for malariatherapy, focusing on the 109 charts for which 15 or more days of patency preceded intervention and daily records encompassed an average 98% of the duration of each infection. our approximations of merogony cycles (via "local peaks" in parasitemia) seldom fit patterns that correspond ...200212099421
ethological changes in anopheles pseudopunctipennis in mexico after prolonged use of ddt. 196414203509
plasmodium berghei ookinetes induce nitric oxide production in anopheles pseudopunctipennis midguts cultured in vitro.the anopheles pseudopunctipennis nitric oxide synthase gene (apnos) was identified and its partial sequence showed high homology with nos from a. stephensi, a. gambiae (putative sequence), and drosophila melanogaster. apnos was mainly expressed in male and female adult mosquitoes and was induced by a blood meal. nitric oxide (no) was produced by in vitro-cultured mosquito midguts inoculated by enema with plasmodium berghei ookinetes, saccharomyces cerevisiae, gram-positive bacteria (micrococcus ...200415350609
population control of the malaria vector anopheles pseudopunctipennis by habitat manipulation.insect vector-borne diseases continue to present a major challenge to human health. understanding the factors that regulate the size of mosquito populations is considered fundamental to the ability to predict disease transmission rates and for vector population control. the mosquito, anopheles pseudopunctipennis, a vector of plasmodium spp., breeds in riverside pools containing filamentous algae in mesoamerica. breeding pools along 3 km sections of the river coatan, chiapas, mexico were subjecte ...200415475337
genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax isolates from azerbaijan.plasmodium vivax, although causing a less serious disease than plasmodium falciparum, is the most widespread of the four human malarial species. further to the recent recrudescence of p. vivax cases in the newly independent states (nis) of central asia, a survey on the genetic diversity and dissemination in azerbaijan was undertaken. azerbaijan is at the crossroads of asia and, as such, could see a rise in the number of cases, although an effective malaria control programme has been established ...200415535878
clustered local transmission and asymptomatic plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic peruvian amazon community.there is a low incidence of malaria in iquitos, peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. this low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected asymptomatic infections.200515975146
[spatial distribution of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in the yungas de salta rainforest, argentina].to compare the abundance of anopheles pseudopunctipennis and other anopheline mosquitoes in three different wild areas, modified by human activities, and to verify how environmental differences affect the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes.200516113905
life-table analysis of anopheles malaria vectors: generational mortality as tool in mosquito vector abundance and control studies.vector control will for sometime remain a primary weapon in the war against vector borne diseases. malaria is of paramount importance in this with its associated high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-saharan africa. this study on generational mortality associated factors in anopheles mosquitoes life-table analysis was designed to investigate the fecundity, levels of mortality and mortality associated factors at the aquatic stages of anopheline malaria vectors.200516161700
plasmodium vivax: impaired escape of vk210 phenotype ookinetes from the midgut blood bolus of anopheles pseudopunctipennis.the site in the midguts of anopheles pseudopunctipennis where the development of plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein vk210 phenotype is blocked was investigated, and compared to its development in an. albimanus. ookinete development was similar in time and numbers within the blood meal bolus of both mosquito species. but, compared to an. pseudopunctipennis, a higher proportion of an. albimanus were infected (p=0.0001) with higher ookinete (p=0.0001) and oocyst numbers (p=0.0001) on their i ...200716875689
[breeding places and biting activity of anopheles species in the municipality of cimitarra, santander, colombia].forty five percent of malaria cases in the department of santander, colombia originate in the municipality of cimitarra. this locality has reported cases from the rural and urban areas. the population between 15 and 45 years of age is the most affected. additionally, cimitarra has registered malaria cases in children under 1 year of age.200616925099
genetic structures of geographically distinct plasmodium vivax populations assessed by pcr/rflp analysis of the merozoite surface protein 3beta gene.the recent resurgence of plasmodium vivax malaria requires close epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of the circulating parasite populations. in this study, we developed a combination of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr/rflp) method to investigate the genetic diversity of the p. vivax merozoite surface protein 3beta (pvmsp3beta) gene among four asian parasite populations representing both tropical and temperate strains with dramatic divergent re ...200617129568
effect of novaluron (rimon 10 ec) on the mosquitoes anopheles albimanus, anopheles pseudopunctipennis, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus from chiapas, mexico.dengue fever is a serious problem in mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. in accordance with the world health organiz ...200617199749
host choice and human blood index of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the andean valleys of bolivia.the human blood index (hbi, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man) is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the hbi. anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in south america. unfortunately, few data exist concerning hbi values in its range of distribution and none from bolivia where this species is considered as an i ...200717241459
impact of environmental manipulation for anopheles pseudopunctipennis theobald control on aquatic insect communities in southern mexico.extraction of filamentous algae from river pools is highly effective for the control of anophelespseudopunctipennis in southern mexico. we determined the magnitude of changes to the aquatic insect community following single annual perturbations performed over two years. in 2001, algae were manually removed from all the pools in a 3 km long section of the river coatán, mexico, while an adjacent section was left as an untreated control. in 2002, the treatments of both zones were switched and algal ...200717633425
optimization of a semi-nested multiplex pcr to identify plasmodium parasites in wild-caught anopheles in bolivia, and its application to field epidemiological studies.without an adequate dna extraction protocol, the identification of plasmodium species in whole mosquitoes by pcr is difficult because of the presence of reaction inhibitors from the insects. in this study, eight dna extraction protocols were tested, from which a chelex-based protocol was selected. then a semi-nested multiplex pcr technique that detects and distinguishes among the four human plasmodium species in single mosquitoes and in pools of up to 100 mosquitoes was optimized. the technique ...200818358508
local adaptation and vector-mediated population structure in plasmodium vivax malaria.plasmodium vivax in southern mexico exhibits different infectivities to 2 local mosquito vectors, anopheles pseudopunctipennis and anopheles albimanus. previous work has tied these differences in mosquito infectivity to variation in the central repeat motif of the malaria parasite's circumsporozoite (csp) gene, but subsequent studies have questioned this view. here we present evidence that p. vivax in southern mexico comprised 3 genetic populations whose distributions largely mirror those of the ...200818385220
fundamental issues in mosquito surveillance for arboviral transmission.marked spatiotemporal variabilities in mosquito infection of arboviruses, exemplified by the transmission of west nile virus (wnv) in america, require adaptive strategies for mosquito sampling, pool screening and data analyses. currently there is a lack of reliable and consistent measures of risk exposure, which may compromise comparison of surveillance data. based on quantitative reasoning, we critically examined fundamental issues regarding mosquito sampling design and estimation of transmissi ...200818466940
a physiological time analysis of the duration of the gonotrophic cycle of anopheles pseudopunctipennis and its implications for malaria transmission in bolivia.the length of the gonotrophic cycle varies the vectorial capacity of a mosquito vector and therefore its exact estimation is important in epidemiological modelling. because the gonotrophic cycle length depends on temperature, its estimation can be satisfactorily computed by means of physiological time analysis.200818655724
rapid suppression of onchocerca volvulus transmission in two communities of the southern chiapas focus, mexico, achieved by quarterly treatments with mectizan.the impact of quarterly mectizan (ivermectin) treatments on transmission, microfiladermia, and ocular lesions was evaluated in two formerly hyperendemic communities (las golondrinas and las nubes ii) located in the main endemic focus for onchocerciasis in southern chiapas, mexico. the data suggest that onchocerca volvulus transmission has been suppressed after elimination of microfiladermia in these two communities. increasing the frequency of mectizan treatment to four times per year appears to ...200818689630
species composition and distribution of adult anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in panama.anopheles (diptera: culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in panama. mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the national malaria eradication service. fourteen anopheles species were identified. the highest average human biting rates were recorded from anopheles (nyssorhynchus) albimanus (wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and anopheles (anopheles) punctimacula (dyar and kn ...200818826025
a supervised land cover classification of a western kenya lowland endemic for human malaria: associations of land cover with larval anopheles habitats.a supervised land cover classification was developed from very high resolution ikonos satellite data and extensive ground truth sampling of a ca. 10 sq km malaria-endemic lowland in western kenya. the classification was then applied to an investigation of distribution of larval anopheles habitats. the hypothesis was that the distribution and abundance of aquatic habitats of larvae of various species of mosquitoes in the genus anopheles is associated with identifiable landscape features.200919371425
ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in sudan.the global malaria situation, especially in africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. the successful application of the sterile insect technique (sit) for the control of the new world screwworm cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the us ...200919917073
sugar deprivation reduces insemination of anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae), despite daily recruitment of adults, and predicts decline in model populations.our research tests the hypothesis that the inability to sugar-feed reduces the insemination rate in mosquito populations. to test this, we measured the effects of sugar availability on cumulative insemination performance of male anopheles gambiae giles s.s. (diptera: culicidae) during 10-d periods of continual emergence of equal numbers of both sexes, and we evaluated the implications at the population level with a matrix population model. on each day of each of four replicates, 20 newly emerged ...200919960677
species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic anopheles (diptera: culicidae) in the states of córdoba and antioquia, northwestern colombia.malaria is a serious health problem in the states of córdoba and antioquia, northwestern colombia, where 64.4% of total colombian cases were reported in 2007. because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with highest malaria transmission. a total of 1,768 anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from march 200 ...200920140372
sequence variation of ookinete surface proteins pvs25 and pvs28 of plasmodium vivax isolates from southern mexico and their association to local anophelines infectivity.the polymorphism of pvs25 and pvs28 ookinete surface proteins, their association to circumsporozoite protein repeat (cspr) genotypes (vk210 and vk247) and their infectivity to local anopheles albimanus and anopheles pseudopunctipennis were investigated in plasmodium vivax-infected blood samples obtained from patients in southern mexico. the pvs25 and pvs28 complete genes were amplified, cloned and sequenced; and the cspr genotype was determined by pcr amplification and hybridization. the amino a ...201020363376
incrimination of the mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, as the primary vector of heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, in coastal yucatan, mexico.mosquito collections were carried out on microfilaraemic dogs, positive for dirofilaria sp., for 18 consecutive nights in the coastal town of celestún, yucatan, southeast mexico, during the rainy season (august) of 2007. a total of 292 female mosquitoes representing 12 species of dipteran culicidae were collected: anopheles albimanus (wiedemann); anopheles crucians (wiedemann); anopheles pseudopunctipennis (theobald); culex coronator (dyar & knab); culex interrogator (dyar & knab); culex nigripa ...201020572932
plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite genotypes: a limited variation or new subspecies with major biological consequences?plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants have been identified in several geographical areas. the real implication of the genetic variation in this region of the p. vivax genome has been questioned for a long time. although previous studies have observed significant association between vk210 and the duffy blood group, we present here that evidences of this variation are limited to the csp central portion.201020573199
prevalence of plasmodium vivax vk210 and vk247 subtype in myanmar.plasmodium vivax is divided into two subtypes, a dominant form, vk210 and a variant form, vk247. this division is dependent on the amino acid composition of the circumsporozoite (cs) protein. in this study, the prevalence of the vk247 variant form of p. vivax was investigated in myanmar.201020615261
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.abstract:201020712879
naturally occurring triggers that induce apoptosis-like programmed cell death in plasmodium berghei ookinetes.several protozoan parasites have been shown to undergo a form of programmed cell death that exhibits morphological features associated with metazoan apoptosis. these include the rodent malaria parasite, plasmodium berghei. malaria zygotes develop in the mosquito midgut lumen, forming motile ookinetes. up to 50% of these exhibit phenotypic markers of apoptosis; as do those grown in culture. we hypothesised that naturally occurring signals induce many ookinetes to undergo apoptosis before midgut t ...201020844583
epidemiology and control of malaria in colombia.malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to plasmodium falciparum. a limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that h ...201121881765
ecology of anopheles darlingi root with respect to vector importance: a review.anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the americas. in this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. this paper aims to provide information on the importance, ecology and behavior of an. darlingi. it reviews publications that addressed ecological and behavioral aspects that are important to understand the ...201121923902
[twenty-year surveillance of insects relevant to public health during the construction of hydroelectric facilities in antioquia, colombia].entomological studies conducted in large hydroelectric infrastructure projects are a tool for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. these diseases emerge as a consequence of changes made to the terrain that often increase the natural and artificial mosquito larval habitats. many of these insects are of public health importance and population increases result in an increased risk of disease transmission.201223715181
abstracts of the fourth international symposium on molecular insect science. may 28-june 2, 2002. tucson, arizona, usa. 200215455051
surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. the convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabilit ...200717967056
urban mosquito fauna in mérida city, méxico: immatures collected from containers and storm-water drains/catch basins.we examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from november 2011 to june 2013 in mérida city, méxico. a wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. in total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. the most commonly collected species were aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (n = 60,961) a ...025429168
comparative studies on the stenogamous and eurygamous behavior of eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. mating behavior of stenogamous anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (=an. lesteri), anopheles pursati and anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. the self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (drs) values, 3.6 and 7. ...201627023618
does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in container habitats?aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) is recently invasive in north america and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. throughout its native and expanded range, ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary ...023427654
plasmodium vivax and mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western argentina.a case of co-infection with plasmodium vivax and mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the argentina/bolivia border. the case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western argentina between 1983 and 2001. trophozoites of p. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with m. ozzardi mic ...201323866313
diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the pacific coast of mexico.the abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the pacific coast of mexico. diversity was estimated using the shannon index (h'), similarity measures and cluster analysis.201424450800
molecular taxonomy provides new insights into anopheles species of the neotropical arribalzagia series.phylogenetic analysis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit i (coi) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequences were used to evaluate initial identification and to investigate phylogenetic relationships of seven anopheles morphospecies of the arribalzagia series from colombia. phylogenetic trees recovered highly supported clades for an. punctimaculas.s., an. calderoni, an. malefactor s.l., an. neomaculipalpus, an. apicimacula s.l., an. mattogrossensis and an. perya ...201525774795
abundance, behavior and entomological inoculation rates of anthropophilic anophelines from a primary colombian malaria endemic area.in colombia for several years, the urabá-bajo cauca and alto sinú region has registered the highest numbers of malaria cases in the country. malaria vector incrimination and the characterization of entomological parameters will allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and the design of effective vector control strategies for this region.201323497535
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
is there malaria transmission in urban settings in colombia?colombia contributes a significant proportion of malaria cases in the americas, which are predominantly rural. however, in the last 8 years ~ 10 % of the endemic municipalities have also reported urban and peri-urban malaria cases, a growing concern for health authorities. this study focused on the characterization of the officially reported urban malaria cases.201526573620
insecticide resistance in areas under investigation by the international centers of excellence for malaria research: a challenge for malaria control and elimination.scale-up of the main vector control interventions, residual insecticides sprayed on walls or structures and/or impregnated in bed nets, together with prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, have led to a global reduction in malaria transmission. however, resistance in vectors to almost all classes of insecticides, particularly to the synthetic pyrethroids, is posing a challenge to the recent trend of declining malaria. ten international centers of excellence for malaria research (icemr) locate ...201526259947
a study on relapse/re-infection rate of plasmodium vivax malaria and identification of the predominant genotypes of p. vivax in two endemic districts of nepal.malaria is a major public health problem in nepal inflicted primarily by the parasite plasmodium vivax, - the only species responsible for relapse cases in nepal. knowledge on its relapse rate is important for successful malaria control, but is lacking in nepal. the information on circulating predominant genotypes of p. vivax is equally relevant for high endemic districts of nepal to understand the transmission dynamics of the parasite and to uncover the coverage and efficacy of potential vaccin ...201324041296
larval habitat characteristics of the main malaria vectors in the most endemic regions of colombia: potential implications for larval control.malaria incidence has recently decreased globally and, as malaria elimination is envisioned as a possibility by the health authorities, guidance is needed to strengthen malaria control strategies. larval source treatment, which could complement routine vector control strategies, requires knowledge regarding the anopheles larval habitats.201526620401
anopheles species composition explains differences in plasmodium transmission in la guajira, northern colombia.malaria in la guajira, the most northern state of colombia, shows two different epidemiological patterns. malaria is endemic in the municipality of dibulla whereas in riohacha it is characterised by sporadic outbreaks. this study aimed to establish whether differences in transmission patterns could be attributed to different vector species. the most abundant adult female species were anopheles aquasalis, exclusive to riohacha, and anopheles darlingi, restricted to dibulla. anopheles mosquitoes w ...025411002
population dynamics.this chapter reviews aspects of population dynamics that may be conceptually important for biological control of mosquitoes. density dependent population regulation among immature stages has important implications for biological control of mosquito populations, primarily because it can lead to compensatory or overcompensatory mortality due to additions of a biological control agent. this can result in control efforts leading to no change in the target population, or actual increases in the targe ...017853611
the effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in anopheles stephensi.the environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. little is known on the presence of such parental effects in anopheles. if present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences.200717892562
mosquito vectors of ape malarias: another piece of the puzzle. 201627118843
spatial distributions of anopheles species in relation to malaria incidence at 70 localities in the highly endemic northwest and south pacific coast regions of colombia.a proper identification of malaria vectors is essential for any attempt to control this disease. between 40 and 47 anopheles species have been recorded in colombia, and eight species complexes have been identified in the last decade. an update of anopheles species distribution and its relationship with malaria is required, particularly for newly identified members of species complexes.201627515166
larval habitat characterization of anopheles darlingi from its northernmost geographical distribution in chiapas, mexico.anopheles darlingi is considered the most efficient malaria vector in the neotropical region. in mexico, its role as an incriminated vector of plasmodium has not been confirmed in the lacandon forest. similarly, knowledge about bionomic and larval ecology is scarce. the study aim was to identify and describe the larval habitats of an. darlingi in chiapas, méxico.201526693816
efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, bti and temephos larvicides for control of anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern mexico.the larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. effects on non-target insects were also determined.201424479683
determination of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, in anopheles culicifacies mosquito midgut and haemolymph by anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: plausible mechanism of refractoriness.the diverse physiological and pathological role of nitric oxide in innate immune defenses against many intra and extracellular pathogens, have led to the development of various methods for determining nitric oxide (no) synthesis. no metabolites, nitrite (no2-) and nitrate (no3-) are produced by the action of an inducible anopheles culicifacies no synthase (acnos) in mosquito mid-guts and may be central to anti-parasitic arsenal of these mosquitoes.200818442373
comparison of transmission parameters between anopheles argyritarsis and anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of bolivia.anopheles (anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the andes of bolivia. there, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be anopheles argyritarsis. although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for bolivia. comparing the vectorial efficiency of an. pseudopuncti ...201323941216
new highland distribution records of multiple anopheles species in the ecuadorian andes.several recent climate change reviews have stressed the possibility of some malaria vectors occupying regions of higher altitudes than previously recorded. indeed, highland malaria has been observed in several african nations, possibly attributable to changes in land use, vector control and local climate. this study attempts to expand the current knowledge of the distribution of common anopheles species in ecuador, with particular attention to highland regions (> 500 m) of the andes.201121835004
mermithid nematodes found in adult anopheles from southeastern senegal.over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in africa. mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. both romanomermis culicivorax and romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalen ...201222741946
land cover, land use and malaria in the amazon: a systematic literature review of studies using remotely sensed data.the nine countries sharing the amazon forest accounted for 89% of all malaria cases reported in the americas in 2008. remote sensing can help identify the environmental determinants of malaria transmission and their temporo-spatial evolution. seventeen studies characterizing land cover or land use features, and relating them to malaria in the amazon subregion, were identified. these were reviewed in order to improve the understanding of the land cover/use class roles in malaria transmission. the ...201323758827
a systematic, realist review of zooprophylaxis for malaria control.integrated vector management (ivm) is recommended as a sustainable approach to malaria control. ivm consists of combining vector control methods based on scientific evidence to maximize efficacy and cost-effectiveness while minimizing negative impacts, such as insecticide resistance and environmental damage. zooprophylaxis has been identified as a possible component of ivm as livestock may draw mosquitoes away from humans, decreasing human-vector contact and malaria transmission. it is possible, ...201526264913
malaria vector research and control in haiti: a systematic review.haiti has a set a target of eliminating malaria by 2020. however, information on malaria vector research in haiti is not well known. this paper presents results from a systematic review of the literature on malaria vector research, bionomics and control in haiti.201627443992
influence of environmental factors on the abundance of anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water streams in northern guadalcanal, solomon islands.the main vector of malaria in solomon islands is anopheles farauti, which has a mainly coastal distribution. in northern guadalcanal, solomon islands, high densities of an. farauti are supported by large brackish streams, which in the dry season are dammed by localized sand migration. the factors controlling the high larval productivity of these breeding sites have not been identified. accordingly the influence of environmental factors on the presence and density of an. farauti larvae was assess ...201121910907
malaria epidemiology and control within the international centers of excellence for malaria research.understanding the epidemiological features and metrics of malaria in endemic populations is a key component to monitoring and quantifying the impact of current and past control efforts to inform future ones. the international centers of excellence for malaria research (icemr) has the opportunity to evaluate the impact of malaria control interventions across endemic regions that differ in the dominant plasmodium species, mosquito vector species, resistance to antimalarial drugs and human genetic ...201526259946
colour cues: effects of ipomoea plant extract on culex quinquefasciatus say gravid females in choosing oviposition site.the interaction between plants and insects is dynamic, and may favour either the plant or the insect. plant chemicals are deeply implicated in this relationship and influence insect behaviour. here, we investigated the oviposition behaviour response of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes based on the colour cues produced by ipomoea cairica leaves extract. in this study, two sets of oviposition choice experiments were conducted: (1) single solution in a cage; and (2) multiple concentration solution ...027688853
temperature-dependent pre-bloodmeal period and temperature-driven asynchrony between parasite development and mosquito biting rate reduce malaria transmission intensity.a mosquito needs to bite at least twice for malaria transmission to occur: once to acquire parasites and, after these parasites complete their development in their mosquito host, once to transmit the parasites to the next vertebrate host. here we investigate the relationship between temperature, parasite development, and biting frequency in a mosquito-rodent malaria model system. we show that the pre-bloodmeal period (the time lag between mosquito emergence and first bloodmeal) increases at lowe ...201323383280
the remarkable journey of adaptation of the plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to new world anopheline mosquitoes.plasmodium falciparum originated in africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. anophelines from the new world are evolutionary distant form african ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. it is thought that plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. the mosquito immune system can gre ...025185006
establishment of a free-mating, long-standing and highly productive laboratory colony of anopheles darlingi from the peruvian amazon.anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in the amazon region and is among the most efficient malaria vectors worldwide. however, due to the lack of a well-established laboratory colony, key control-relevant aspects of the bionomics, behaviour, genetics, and vector-parasite relationships of an. darlingi remain unknown. here, biological parameters that had been successful in initiating other anopheles colonies were optimized and improved for an. darlingi, with the aim of establish a free-mat ...201526024853
the history of 20th century malaria control in peru.malaria has been part of peruvian life since at least the 1500s. while peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. in this review, major increases in peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. political support for malaria control has varied ...201324001096
successful malaria elimination in the ecuador-peru border region: epidemiology and lessons learned.in recent years, malaria (plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the ecuador-peru coastal border region. the aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. a proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in el oro province, ecuador, and the tumbes region, peru. data collection efforts incl ...201627894320
genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum in honduras.understanding the population structure of plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. central america is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite's circulating species. this study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from honduras.201223181845
testing local adaptation in a natural great tit-malaria system: an experimental approach.finding out whether plasmodium spp. are coevolving with their vertebrate hosts is of both theoretical and applied interest and can influence our understanding of the effects and dynamics of malaria infection. in this study, we tested for local adaptation as a signature of coevolution between malaria blood parasites, plasmodium spp. and its host, the great tit, parus major. we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of birds in the field, where we exposed birds from two populations to plasmo ...201526555892
successful malaria elimination strategies require interventions that target changing vector behaviours.the ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. when planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original global malaria eradication programme (gmep), conducted with ddt-based indoor residual spraying (irs), did not achieve its goals. one of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so that th ...201323388506
malaria knowledge, concern, land management, and protection practices among land owners and/or managers in lowland versus highland ecuador.to control malaria effectively, it is essential to understand the current knowledge, beliefs, concerns, land management practices, and mosquito bite protection methods in use by citizens. this study presents a comparative, quantitative, interview-based study of land owners and/or managers (n = 262) in the ecuadorian lowlands (presently considered malarious) (n = 131) and highlands (potentially malarious in the future) (n = 131). although respondents had a strong understanding of where the diseas ...201222363897
larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission.adult anopheline mosquitoes transmit plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. in disease control policy documents, the world health organization includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce plasmodium parasite transmission. the global fund finances larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of ma ...201324323308
plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, bolivia.plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in latin america, asia, and the horn of africa. however, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. p. vivax infect ...024050302
the salivary gland chromosomes of anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis.the authors present a salivary chromosome map of anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the americas. the salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric x and two metacentric autosomes. the arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. the metacentric x is the first to be described in the subgenus anopheles. the banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the north amer ...05295407
a video-tracking analysis-based behavioral assay for larvae of anopheles pseudopunctipennis and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of dengue, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya viruses, whereas anopheles pseudopunctipennis (theobald) is the principal vector for malaria in latin america. the larval stage of these mosquitoes occurs in very different development habitats, and the study of their respective behaviors could give us valuable information to improve larval control. the aim of this study was to set up a bioassay to study basic larval behaviors using a video-tracking software. ...201728399206
schools as potential risk sites for vector-borne disease transmission: mosquito vectors in rural schools in two municipalities in colombia.dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in colombia. vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. the objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmissi ...201526375902
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a fourteenth symposium. abstracts.the 14th annual latin american symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 70th annual meeting in savannah, ga, in february 2004. the principal objective, as for the previous 13 symposia, was to promote participation in the amca by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 37 presentations that were given orally in spanish or presented as posters by participant ...200415669378
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a twelfth symposium. denver, colorado, february 2002. summaries.the 12th annual latin american symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 68th annual meeting in denver, co, in february 2002. the principal objective, as for the previous 11 symposia, was to promote participation in the amca by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in spanish or presented as posters by participants ...200212322934
anthropophilic anopheles species composition and malaria in tierradentro, córdoba, colombia.malaria is still a primary health problem in colombia. the locality of tierradentro is situated in the municipality of montelíbano, córdoba, in the northwest of colombia, and has one of the highest annual parasite index of malaria nationwide. however, the vectors involved in malaria transmission in this locality have not yet been identified. in this study, the local anthropophilic anopheles composition and natural infectivity with plasmodium were investigated. in august 2009, 927 female anophele ...201424863977
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