ultrastructure of the basal organelles of flagella of clostridium chauvoei. 197550404
the inhibition of clostridium chauvoei by bacillus cereus metabolites. 1978105701
effects of passive immunity on immune response in calves vaccinated against clostridium chauvoei infection (blackleg). 1978252348
the preservation of clostridium chauvoei in liquid nitrogen. 1979551210
failure of clostridium chauvoei vaccines to protect against blackleg. 1977588168
hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (zalophus californianus califonianus and callorhinus ursinus). some of the more important bacterial pathogens for lan ...1978738931
production and counting of spores of clostridium chauvoei.the concentration and viability of spores produced by four different strains of clostridium chauvoei (c. feseri) grown in a modified medium for 18 days are described. the medium yielded enough viable spores for experimental work.1977879785
deoxyribonucleases and hyaluronidases of clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei. iii. relationship between the two organisms. 1976940440
some observations on the quality control testing of clostridium chauvoei vaccines.agglutination tests are not suitable for the estimation of the protective antibody level in the sera of vaccinated animals and should not be used for the quality control testing of blackleg vaccines. some highly virulent strains of cl. chauvoei are only effectively protected against by vaccines containing cells with a heat labile protective antigen in addition to the heat stable antigen common to all cells of cl. chauvoei. as these highly virulent strains may be encountered in the field it is im ...19761001827
some problems concerning the assay of clostridium chauvoei vaccine in laboratory animals.the potency test prescribed for cl. chauvoei vaccines in the british veterinary codex requires the complete survival of a group of immunized guinea pigs and death of all unvaccinated controls. problems arising from the influence of extraneous factors such as animal strain, diet and seasonal variation on the outcome of this test are discussed together with alternative methods that might permit the use of a standard preparation.19761001828
[failure of anti-symptomatic vaccination and the methods of vaccine activity control].blackleg (clostridium chauvoei) infection in charollais cattle appears to have undergone some etiological and pathogenic changes which are reflected in the apparent failure of vaccination. two methods have been used to determine the quality of the vaccines in order to meet the different requirements specified by pharmacopeias. the two methods differ in the vaccination schedules of the guinea pigs and the test strain used which may be either a virulent culture or a suspension of spore in calcium ...19761001829
the protective antigenicity of protoplasts and sphaeroplasts of a highly protective strain of clostridium chauvoei. 19751151332
the preparation of immunogenic cell walls from a highly protective strain of clostridium chauvoei.conventional methods for the preparation of cell walls of a highly protective strain of clostridium chauvoei destroy the protective antigen. bacteria were therefore lysed by the enzyme pronase instead of by the mechanical disintegration methods commonly employed. final purification and separation of cell walls and membranes was achieved by equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation with sodium iodide in a zonal rotor. the resultant cell walls had a two-layered structure when seen in ultra-thin ...19751151336
rabbit immunoglobulin responses to the flagella, somatic, and protective antigens of a highly protective strain of clostridium chauvoei.the immunoglobulin response of rabbits to the flagells (h), somatic (o), and protective antigens of a highly protective strain of clostridium chauvoei was studied using antisera that had been fractionated by sephadex g-200 chromatography. the h antigen elicited the characteristic agglutinin response to a protein antigen--early production of 19s globulin followed by persistent 7s globulin production. the o antigen stimulated a transient agglutinin response which was detected in both the 19s and 7 ...19751170136
electron capture gas chromatography study of the acid and alcohol products of clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei.the metabolic products produced by several strains of clostridium septicum obtained from patients and animals, along with strains of clostridium chauvoei, were studied in chopped meat glucose medium by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (ec-glc). the strains of c. septicum and c. chauvoei were shown to comprise five different metabolic groups. both the ec-glc study and the o and h antigenic study performed previously showed that strains of c. septicum comprise a heterogeneous group. one ...19761254716
[diagnosis of blackleg by direct immunofluorescence in bovine bone marrow].on smears of marrow-bone death bovines, presumptively diagnostic of black-leg, we have carried out the direct immunofluorescence test (if). we used two labelled immunosera with fluorescein isothiocyanate. the immunosera wer prepared with the reference strain 5078 of clostridium chauvoei as following: a) a cellular extract obtained with veronal buffer 0.045 m ph = 8.6, and b) a flagellar suspension obtained by agitation with glass beads, centrifuged at 3,500 x g, and centrifuged again at 16,000 x ...19921345316
antigenic analysis of clostridium chauvoei flagella with protective and non-protective monoclonal antibodies.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the flagellin of clostridium chauvoei were used to analyse the structural and antigenic characteristics on the bacterial flagellar surface. immune electron microscopy showed that three protective mabs recognized the surfaced-exposed epitopes on the flagellar filament of this bacteria. in contrast, two non-protective mabs recognized internal epitopes of the flagellar filament. these findings have been confirmed by elisa using mabs absorbed with w ...19921375622
partial characterization of the hemolysin produced by clostridium chauvoei. 19921391191
effect of cobra venom factor on experimental infection of mice against clostridium chauvoei.the effect of cobra venom factor (covf) treatment was examined to clarify the mechanism of resistance of mice to clostridium chauvoei infection. in covf-treated mice inoculated with spores of c. chauvoei, no death occurred and the organisms in the infected muscle progressively decreased, similar to that of non-treated control mice. these results indicated that c3 did not play a significant role in the resistance of mice against c. chauvoei infection.19921420556
purification and characterization of the lethal toxin (alpha-toxin) of clostridium septicum.clostridium septicum lethal (alpha-toxin) was purified and found to be a basic protein (pi 8.4) of approximately 48 kda that is both lethal and hemolytic. the alpha-toxin had a hemolytic activity of approximately 2 x 10(7) hemolytic units per mg and a 50% lethal dose of approximately 10 micrograms/kg of body weight for mice. the alpha-toxin formed concentration-dependent, sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant aggregates of approximately 230 kda. mice immunized with alpha-toxin showed a significant in ...19921541552
clostridium chauvoei myositis infection in a neonatal calf. 19921616991
purification and characterization of a sialidase from clostridium chauvoei nc08596.the sialidase secreted by clostridium chauvoei nc08596 was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction-chromatography, fplc ion-exchange chromatography, and fplc gel filtration. the enzyme was enriched about 10,200-fold, reaching a final specific activity of 24.4 u mg-1. it has a relatively high molecular mass of 300 kda and consists of two subunits each of 150 kda. the cations mn2+, mg2+, and ca2+ and bovine serum albumin have a posit ...19911823619
the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring the potency of vaccines containing clostridium chauvoei antigens.current standards (british pharmacopeia (veterinary) 1985) for vaccines containing clostridium chauvoei require a potency test based on a challenge assay in guinea-pigs. animal welfare and cost considerations favour the development of alternatives. most veterinary clostridial vaccines are multi component, requiring assays in rabbits to test the potency of components other than c. chauvoei. we describe the application of an elisa to measure the response to c. chauvoei vaccines in rabbits. the ant ...19902317354
opsonic activity of anti-flagellar serum against clostridium chauvoei by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes.the role of anti-flagellar serum against clostridium chauvoei in phagocytosis by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes was examined. anti-flagellar serum markedly increased phagocytic rate against the flagellated strain okinawa but not against a non-flagellated mutant (nfm) derived from the same strain, while anti-nfm serum increased the phagocytic rate against both strains. these results indicate that anti-flagellar serum exerts its protective effect by opsonic activity.19872442881
changes in clinical values of cattle infected with clostridium chauvoei ch3 strain and a local kad1 strain. haematological values.clostridium chauvoei ch3 and kad1 strains were found to cause marked changes in the blood parameters during the course of blackleg disease. these changes displayed by ch3 were found to be more marked than the local kad1 strain. results of changes in the haematological values in calves infected with blackleg organisms, showed an increase in rbc, pcv, hb and the total leukocyte count. mchc and mch remained within normal range values, however, a terminal significant increase of mcv was obtained. th ...19892626568
treatment of a calf with clostridium chauvoei a small beef cattle herd, two 2- to 3-month-old calves had died suddenly. a 2.5-month-old calf, with clostridium chauvoei infection of the right hip and stifle region, was treated successfully with procaine penicillin g. the herd had not been vaccinated against any disease.19892917897
[identification of clostridium chauvoei using the coagglutination test]. 19883064231
production, characterization, and protective effect of monoclonal antibodies to clostridium chauvoei flagella.monoclonal antibodies to flagella of clostridium chauvoei were obtained by the fusion of murine myeloma cells (p3-x63-ag8-u1) and spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with partially purified flagella of strain okinawa. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis with partially purified flagella, flagellated cells, and nonflagellated mutants were used to show that five monoclonal antibodies are specific for the flagella. in the western blot analysis, all five antiflagellar anti ...19873301677
clostridial myocarditis in lambs.five outbreaks of myocarditis were investigated in young sheep. they occurred during late winter and spring when there was lush growth of pasture following a prolonged period of drought. clinically the disease was characterised by sudden death and pathological findings were dominated by acute multifocal locally extensive necrotising and haemorrhagic myocarditis. a fluorescent antibody technique was used to demonstrate the presence of clostridium chauvoei in paraffin embedded sections of myocardi ...19883421885
standards for clostridium chauvoei vaccine--the relationship between the response of guinea pigs and sheep following vaccination and challenge with virulent c. chauvoei.twelve commercial 5-component clostridial vaccines with known variations in potency of the blackleg (clostridium chauvoei) component, were simultaneously tested in sheep and guinea pigs. controlled challenge experiments provided evidence of a highly significant correlation in the response of the 2 species. the guinea pig laboratory model is considered to be a valid indicator of field performance for vaccines containing blackleg antigen.19863729832
[immune response in mice challenged with extracts of clostridium chauvoei]. 19863797862
correlation between the indirect hemagglutinating antibody and protection of mice against clostridium chauvoei. 19863820924
pathological changes in the pericardium and meninges of cattle associated with clostridium chauvoei.twenty-nine cases of clostridium chauvoei infection in cattle were investigated over a two-year period. fourteen had lesions of myositis only, eight had lesions of both myositis and fibrinous pericarditis, six had lesions of fibrinous pericarditis only and one had lesions of purulent meningitis only. cl chauvoei was identified in all the lesions using the fluorescent antibody technique.19863952970
immunization of guinea-pigs and cattle with a reduced dose clostridium chauvoei vaccine produced in a semi-synthetic medium.a semi-synthetic culture medium and method are described for the production of a reduced dose clostridium chauvoei vaccine. the vaccine gave excellent results in guinea-pigs, and 2 injections of 2.0 ml protected cattle against challenge with 2 m.l.d. of a virulent culture for at least 12 months. the suitability of c. chauvoei strain op64 as a vaccine strain was confirmed.19863960492
an indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies to clostridium indirect hemagglutination (iha) test using sonicated extract as the antigen was developed for the detection of antibodies to clostridium chauvoei. this antigen can be adsorbed onto glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells treated with tannic acid and can be destroyed by trypsin and heat treatment. it corresponded well with the flagella of the organism, when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gel diffusion test. no serological cross-reactivity was f ...19854035956
[occurrence of neuraminidase and acylneuraminat-lyase in clostridium chauvoei (clostridium feseri)]. 19724145155
[composition of the gases given off by clostridium septicum, clostridium chauvoei and welchia perfringens cultured in a sodium thioglycolate medium under vacuum after alkalinization of the medium at the end of cultivation]. 19724338943
the protective antigen of a highly immunogenic strain of clostridium chauvoei including an evaluation of its flagella as a protective antigen. 19744436640
changes in clinical values of cattle infected with clostridium chauvoei: clinical relationships during infection. 19744464868
changes in clinical values of cattle infected with clostridium chauvoei: preliminary report. 19744850956
removal and separation of flagella from cells of clostridium chauvoei and preparation of a pure flagella suspension. 19714927013
characteristics and immunizing properties of culture filtrates of clostridium chauvoei. 19725023040
responses of hamsters and guinea pigs to antigens of clostridium chauvoei. 19725023041
preparation of a clostridium chauvoei antigen and determination of protective immunity by plate agglutination test. 19725023042
potency testing clostridium chauvoei-containing bacterins: relationship of agglutination titers and potency tests in cattle. 19725023043
[comparative study of gases emitted by clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei cultivated on sodium thioglycolate medium]. 19695373657
an evaluation of characteristics of clostridium chauvoei which possibly indicate a highly protective strain. 19705449416
sequential growth of clostridium chauvoei, clostridium septicum, and clostridium novyi in the same medium. 19695782565
effect of calcium chloride on germination and pathogenicity of spores of clostridium chauvoei. 19655855504
temperature studies on chicken inoculations to aid differentiation between clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum. 19685655004
location of esterases in clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei: an electron microscope study. 19675607845
demonstration of protective antigen carried by flagella of clostridium chauvoei.the protective antigen present on the flagella of clostridium chauvoei was studied by the mouse protection test. a partially purified flagella preparation (ppf) showed protective antigenicity after two intraperitoneal injections of 2 micrograms as protein, while the protective antigenicity of nonflagellated mutants (nfm) was 100-fold less than that of the flagellated parent strain. although the protective effect of antisera against the whole cells and ppf, in terms of ed50 values, was mostly los ...19846533441
isolation and characterization of non-flagellated and paralyzed flagellated mutants of clostridium chauvoei. 19836632478
effect of cyclophosphamide on experimental infection of mice against clostridium chauvoei. 19836672409
feed-borne clostridium chauvoei infection in mink. 19705527955
immunological differences between strains of clostridium chauvoei. 19676067707
protective cellular antigen of clostridium chauvoei.cellular antigens of clostridium chauvoei, strain irp-128, were demonstrated to be important in induction of immunity against this bacterium in guinea pigs. at least one major component of the cellular antigen complex was heat-labile. acid extraction of the bacterial cells, followed by selective purification for flagella, led to the preparation of an acid extract antigen that possessed a high degree of immunogenicity. the acid extract antigen contained flagellar components and was resolved into ...19807406286
levamisole vaccine combinations. 1. heightened antibody response.levamisole was combined with a clostridial vaccine and experiments conducted in sheep to determine the effect on anthelminitic and vaccine efficacy. vaccine potency was assessed in separate experiments in 200 sheep (divided into 5 groups). the individuals in each group were injected with one of the following 5 different preparations: levamisole combined with anaerobic vaccine at ph of either 3.5 or 6.0, vaccine alone at a ph of either 3.5 of 6.0, and levamisole alone. the combined levamisole/vac ...19807425988
clostridium chauvoei infection in a horse. 19807372536
diversity in molecular mass of the common edta-soluble antigens of clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum.common edta-soluble antigens of clostridium chauvoei and c. septicum were examined by indirect-immunofluorescence (ifa) and immunoblot analysis. the monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for the 35 kda antigen of c. chauvoei strain atcc 10092 were used. these mabs reacted with all 11 strains, 6 of c. chauvoei and 5 of c. septicum, in ifa. in immunoblot analysis with the mabs, the bands at molecular mass of 35 kda were found in all c. chauvoei strains, while the bands at 36 kda were found in 4 of ...19947518890
use of sugarcane molasses for culture of clostridium chauvoei. 19957548606
reversible expression of motility and flagella in clostridium chauvoei and their relationship to virulence.clostridium chauvoei strain okinawa produced spontaneous non-motile variants at an unusually high rate (approx. 10(-4) per generation) under normal conditions without mutagen. revertants of non-motile variants were detected at a rate of approximately 10(-3). biochemically, every variant corresponded well with the parental strain. by transmission electron microscopy, three of nine non-motile variants of strain okinawa were found to be flagellate, while the other six were found to be aflagellate. ...19957711898
influence of culture conditions on growth and protective antigenicity of clostridium chauvoei.the effect of culture conditions on growth and immunogenicity of clostridium chauvoei were examined. the ph control and partial feeding of the carbon source at high concentrations were beneficial for growth. the biomass yield was significatively improved, however the butanol concentration reached toxic levels hampering further growth. for each experimental condition the immunogenicity of cells was tested. no differences were found with cells obtained at different temperatures, but it decreased s ...19947989266
protection of mice against clostridium chauvoei infection by anti-idiotype antibody to a monoclonal antibody to flagella.polyclonal rabbit anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-id) against the protective monoclonal antibody specific to the flagella of clostridium chauvoei was produced, purified, and characterized. anti-id inhibited the binding of its related monoclonal antibody to the flagellar antigen, suggesting that the anti-id bore an internal image of the flagellar antigen. when mice were immunized with anti-id intraperitoneally, the survival rate increased significantly, compared with mice immunized with normal rabb ...19948004054
demonstration of common antigens on cell surface of clostridium chauvoei and c. septicum by indirect-immunofluorescence assay.the common antigens between clostridium chauvoei and c. septicum were examined by indirect-immunofluorescence assay (ifa). antisera to formalized cells of c. chauvoei and c. septicum strains and to edta-soluble antigens of these strains were used. the antisera to formalized cells, which have reacted only with homologous antigens in agglutination tests, reacted not only with homologous antigens but also with heterologous antigens in ifa. the antisera to edta-soluble antigens, which have shown no ...19948075228
antigenic mimicry of clostridium chauvoei flagella by polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies.polyclonal rabbit anti-idiotypic (anti-id) antibodies against two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for the flagella of clostridium chauvoei were produced, purified and characterised. lack of cross-reactivity with heterologous mabs indicated that the anti-id antibodies were highly specific. the surface-exposed epitopes of the flagellar filament recognised with protective mab were further distinguished by the anti-id antibodies. moreover, each anti-id antibody inhibited the binding of its rel ...19947507166
similarity in the edta-soluble antigens of clostridium chauvoei and c. septicum.the edta-soluble antigens were prepared from whole cells of six strains of clostridium chauvoei and five strains of c. septicum and were compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and immunoblot analysis. sds-page profiles of the 11 strains were nearly identical, although there were slight variations in molecular mass in adjacent bands. in immunoblot analysis with two antisera against c. chauvoei and three against c. septicum, the antigens of all strains te ...19938473867
detection of clostridium chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of sheep by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique.a peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique was used to detect clostridium chauvoei in tissue sections from sheep inoculated intramuscularly with a pure culture of this microorganism. samples of various tissues were taken for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. a primary antiserum against c. chauvoei for use in the pap technique was produced in rabbits. formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of muscle samples were positively and specifically stained by the pap technique. t ...19958619282
a serological potency assay for clostridium chauvoei. 19968785971
identifying and purifying protective immunogens from cultures of clostridium chauvoei. 19968785972
effect of antiflagellar serum in the protection of mice against clostridium chauvoei.specific antiflagellar serum of clostridium chauvoei showed a powerful protective effect which prevented bacterial growth in the liver, but not in infected muscle, against intramuscular challenge with calcium chloride-activated spores in normal mice. no protective effect was observed in mice with polymorphonuclear leucocytes depleted by cyclophosphamide treatment. the antiflagellar serum had approximately the same protective effect in mice with macrophages blocked selectively by carrageenan as i ...19846420346
clostridium chauvoei as the cause of malignant edema in a horse. 19806901555
immunogenicity of an extract of clostridium chauvoei in guinea pigs. 19979310667
identification of clostridium chauvoei in cultures and clinical material from blackleg using identification system for clostridium chauvoei, using pcr amplification of the 16s rrna gene (rrs) with specific oligonucleotide primers and subsequent restriction digestion of the amplification product is described. the specific oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the rrs gene sequences of c. chauvoei by comparing it to the dna sequences of the rrs genes of its most closely related species clostridium septicum and clostridium carnis. a subsequent restriction digestion of the 960 b ...19979355263
quantitation of commercial equine tetanus antitoxin by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent the usa, the potency of commercially prepared equine tetanus antitoxin is determined by the method outlined in the code of federal regulations, title 9, part 113.451. in the current test, commercial equine tetanus antitoxin is tested by a toxin neutralization test in guinea pigs. the in vivo test measures antitoxin content through effectiveness of protection of guinea pigs injected with diluted mixtures of antitoxin and a standard toxin. a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, design ...199910397316
a paralytic-like disease of the ostrich (struthio camelus masaicus) associated with clostridium chauvoei infection.two adult masai ostriches in a zoological collection became recumbent. the birds could not raise the neck or the head, had difficulties in breathing, and died eight and 13 days, respectively, after the first clinical signs appeared. on post mortem examination the heart had a globous appearance accompanied by gelatinous atrophy. the lungs were hyperaemic and oedematic, while the intestines had prominent haemorrhages in their mucosa. the liver and kidney were enlarged, and the former had also necr ...19938465505
veterinary vaccines: in-vitro--international veterinary industry test replacement organisation.the international veterinary industry test replacement organisation (in-vitro) was established in 1995 with the aim of developing, validating and harmonising in vitro alternatives to replace in vivo methods for in-process and potency testing of veterinary clostridial vaccines. the emphasis has been on the reduction of animal usage in the clostridium chauvoei potency assay and its eventual replacement by an in vitro assay. replacement of the toxin neutralisation assay for cl. tetani by an interna ...199910566800
effect of booster vaccination with a multivalent clostridial bacterin-toxoid on sudden death syndrome mortality rate among feedlot determine whether booster vaccination with a multivalent clostridial bacterin-toxoid would affect the sudden death syndrome (sds) mortality rate among feedlot cattle.19979301747
cloning and expression of a gene encoding the flagellin of clostridium chauvoei.clostridium chauvoei is a causative agent of blackleg and the major protective antigen of the organism is the flagellar protein. using an escherichia coli expression library of the c. chauvoei okinawa strain, we isolated the flic gene encoding the flagellin protein. dna sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 413 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 43819da. comparison of the sequence with those of flagellins from other bacteria showed considerable homology in the ...200011000532
rapid identification and differentiation of pathogenic clostridia in gas gangrene by polymerase chain reaction based on the 16s-23s rdna spacer cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) is mostly caused by clostridium chauvoei, c septicum, c novyi and c sordellii. a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) system using common primers designed from multiple alignment of the 16s rrna and 23s rrna genes of clostridium species was developed to identify pathogenic clostridia. the pcr was performed with total dna from 26 strains which included seven different clostridia species. these bacteria were differentiated at ...200011124102
characterization of flagellin from clostridium chauvoei.differential centrifugation and cesium chloride-equilibrium centrifugation were used to purify the flagella from the strain okinawa of the formalin-fixed clostridium chauvoei. sds-page profile of purified flagella showed that a major protein band with a molecular mass of 46 kda, corresponding to the flagellin monomer, and at least two minor protein bands with molecular masses of approximately 73 and 100 kda were found. the amino acid composition of c. chauvoei flagellin was similar to the flagel ...199910418877
rapid and direct detection of clostridium chauvoei by pcr of the 16s-23s rdna spacer region and partial 23s rdna sequences.clostridium chauvoei causes blackleg, which is difficult to distinguish from the causative clostridia of malignant edema. therefore, a single-step pcr system was developed for specific detection of c. chauvoei dna using primers derived from the 16s-23s rdna spacer region and partial 23s rdna sequences. the specificity of the single-step pcr system was demonstrated by testing 37 strains of clostridia and 3 strains of other genera. a 509 bp pcr product, which is a c. choauvoei-specific pcr product ...200011193343
clostridial antibody response from injection-site lesions in beef cattle, long-term response to single or multiple doses, and response in newborn beef calves.experiments were conducted to compare clostridial antibody response of beef heifers that do and do not develop injection-site lesions, evaluate long-term antibody response of a single- and multiple-dose toxoid, and evaluate the ability of a clostridial toxoid to elicit an active antibody response in newborn calves. in exp. 1, 37 weaned heifers were vaccinated (d 0) with a clostridial vaccine (alpha-7, 2 ml, s.c.). serum samples were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, and 112 to determine clostridial ...200111721834
amplification of the 16s-23s rdna spacer region for rapid detection of clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum.amplification of the 16s-23s rdna spacer region by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for the rapid detection of clostridium chauvoei and c septicum. to assess its specificity, pcr was performed with total dna from 42 strains of clostridia and three strains of other genera. pcr products specific to c chauvoei or to c septicum were generated from homologous cultures only. clostridium chauvoer-specific or c septicum-specific amplicons were also generated from tissues of cows experimentally i ...200111798300
phylogenetic analysis and pcr detection of clostridium chauvoei, clostridium haemolyticum, clostridium novyi types a and b, and clostridium septicum based on the flagellin gene.the flagellin genes (flic) of clostridium chauvoei, clostridium haemolyticum, clostridium novyi types a and b, and clostridium septicum were analysed by pcr amplification and dna sequencing. the five clostridium species have at least two copies of the flagellin gene (flic) arranged in tandem on the chromosome. the deduced n- and c-terminal aminoacid sequences of the flagellin proteins (flics) of these clostridia are well conserved but their central region aminoacid sequences are not. phylogenic ...200211900959
immunogenic protein variations of clostridium chauvoei cellular antigens associated with the culture growth phase.the immunoprotective capacity of four clostridium chauvoei strains at different growth stages is reported. in all the strains tested, the cells coming from the stationary phase were those with the highest immunoprotective capacity and, depending on the strain, this protective capacity diminished or even disappeared in other phases. protein profiles were similar in all the strains and few proteins were differentially expressed during growth as shown by sds-page. for strain 17, a local strain, a c ...200211985962
pcr detection of clostridium chauvoei in pure cultures and in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify specific segments of the 16s ribosomal rna gene of clostridium chauvoei, a major pathogen of ruminants. three sets of primers were used to produce amplicons of 159, 836 and 959 base pairs (bp), respectively. the pcr was evaluated by testing clinically important strains of clostridium, including 21 strains of c. chauvoei, five strains each of clostridium septicum and clostridium perfringens and two strains each of clostridium novyi, clostrid ...200312458172
[cell cultures as a system for distinguishing between strains ofclostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum isolated in northeastern mexico].clostridium chauvoei and c. septicum have similar characteristics as far as results from biochemical methods and gas chromatography (gc) are concerned. a total of 267 samples collected from sick or dead animals in the fields from northeast mexico, were bacteriologically analysed and differentiated by the gc technique. from these strains, 16 belong to the group of c. chauvoei/c. septicum. studies on the effect of toxin on cell cultures of the lines ebl, 3t3, bhk21-bsr/pk5/88, cho-k1 and mdck were ...199910932771
aureomycin in the treatment of experimental clostridium chauvoei infection in sheep. 195313010082
rapid detection and identification of clostridium chauvoei by pcr based on flagellin gene sequence.we developed a one-step polymerase chain reaction (pcr) system that specifically detects clostridium chauvoei. oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 516-bp fragment of the structural flagellin gene. the specificity of the pcr was investigated by analyzing 59 strains of clostridia, and seven strain of other genera. a 516-bp fragment could be amplified from all the c. chauvoei strains tested, and no amplification was observed by using dnas from the other strains tested, including clos ...200111182502
phylogenetic positions of clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum based on 16s rrna gene sequences.the sequences of the 16s rrna genes (rrs genes) of clostridium chauvoei, the causative agent of blackleg in cattle, and the phenotypically related organism clostridium septicum were determined. after amplification of 1,507-bp pcr fragments from the corresponding rrs genes, the sequences were determined in a single round of sequencing by using conserved region primers. a sequence similarity analysis of the sequences revealed the close phylogenetic relationship of c. chauvoei and c. septicum in cl ...19968863454
antigenic formulae for clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei. 195913642182
complexity of toxins from clostridium septicum and clostridium chauvoei. 195813598715
outbreak of clostridial myocarditis in calves.this paper describes the epidemiological and pathological features of an outbreak of clostridial myocarditis in calves due to clostridium chauvoei. four of seven two-month-old hereford calves died in the course of a week. their gross postmortem lesions were similar and consisted of irregular dark red areas of myocardial necrosis through the full thickness of the atrial and ventricular myocardium. no lesions were observed in skeletal muscle. the heart muscle had extensive multifocal areas of acut ...200312585599
pathogenesis and pathology of blackleg in ruminants: the role of toxins and neuraminidase. a short review.there is no consensus on the pathogenesis of blackleg infection that occurs in ruminants, but toxins and neuraminidase produced by clostridium chauvoei are believed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the disease. this paper provides an update on the role of toxins and neuraminidase in the pathogenesis and pathology of the disease. the use of neuraminidase inhibitors to manage clinical blackleg infections is therefore an alternative therapeutic protocol that should be thoroughly in ...200314714738
[extraction of toxin of clostridium chauvoei from microbial bodies]. 195114857460
the inhibition of clostridium chauvoei (jakari strain) neuraminidase activity by methanolic extracts of the stem barks of tamarindus indicus and combretum fragrans.the inhibition of neuraminidase from clostridium chauvoei (jakari strain) with partially purified methanolic extracts of some plants used in ethnopharmacological practice was evaluated. extracts of two medicinal plants, tamarindus indicus and combretum fragrans at 100-1000 microg/ml, both significantly reduced the activity of the enzyme in a dose-dependent fashion (p < 0.001). the estimated ic50 values for tamarindus indicus and combretum fragrans were 100 and 150 microg/ml respectively. initial ...200415558950
studies on clostridium chauvoei vaccine in kenya. 195713416416
[deoxyribonuclease activity detection in clostridium chauvoei strains].beta toxin of c. chauvoei has desoxiribonuclease (dnase) activity which is regarded as one of its virulence factors. the production of dnase was detected in strains isolated from bovines, using as controls c. chauvoei atcc 10092, and c. perfringens type a and c. septicum, both laboratory isolates. the enzyme activity was made evident on a dna substrate observing the macroscopic degradation. a simple methodology was developed using a commercial medium for dnase test, with the incorporation of ste ...200516178463
relationship between outbreaks of blackleg in cattle and annual rainfall in zaria, nigeria. 200616428667
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