phylogenetic reconstruction of south american felids defined by protein electrophoresis.phylogenetic associations among six closely related south american felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. we analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. phenograms were constructed using th ...19947932791
disparate phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic variation in four closely related south american small cat species.tissue specimens from four species of neotropical small cats (oncifelis geoffroyi, n = 38; o. guigna, n = 6; leopardus tigrinus, n = 32; lynchailurus colocolo, n = 22) collected from throughout their distribution were examined for patterns of dna sequence variation using three mitochondrial genes, 16s rrna, atp8, and nadh-5. patterns between and among o. guigna and o. geoffroyi individuals were assessed further from size variation at 20 microsatellite loci. phylogenetic analyses using mitochondr ...199910703553
reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the leopardus genus.reproductive endocrine patterns were characterized in female ocelots (leopardus pardalis; n = 3), tigrinas (leopardus tigrinus; n = 2), and margays (leopardus wiedii; n = 2) housed in captivity in southern brazil. females were maintained as singletons and exposed to natural fluctuations in photoperiod. cyclic changes in ovarian steroids were monitored by analyzing estrogen and progestogen metabolites in fecal samples collected five times weekly for 14 to 18 months. based on intervals between fec ...200111429781
serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in são paulo state, brazil.feline leukemia virus (felv), gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus, are members of the family retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (felis catus). cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. to investigate the prevalence of felv an ...200312723802
serologic evidence of nonfatal rabies exposure in a free-ranging oncilla (leopardus tigrinus) in cotapata national park, bolivia.a clinically healthy free-ranging oncilla (leopardus tigrinus) was live-trapped in boliva in 2000. based on serology, we concluded that this animal was exposed to feline panleukopenia virus, toxoplasma gondii, and rabies virus. the rabies virus-neutralizing antibody titer (>70 iu/ml) in this oncilla was unusual for an asymptomatic animal exposed to street virus and at a level expected in animals exposed to a large amount of virus, clinically affected, or vaccinated. based on a subsequent 18 mo o ...200415650107
ticks (acari: ixodida) on wild carnivores in brazil.the present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from july 1998 to september 2004 in brazil. additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in brazil. during field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 puma concolor (puma), 26 panthera onca (jaguar), 12 procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 speothos venati ...200516082932
rapid habituation of scan behavior in captive marmosets following brief predator encounters.scan behavior in 10 captive predator-naive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix penicillata) was investigated prior, during and following brief predator encounters (taxidermized oncilla cat -- leopardus tigrinus) versus neutral stimulus exposures (stuffed toy). for each stimulus, three 9 min home-cage trials were conducted > or = 72 h apart. each trial was divided into three consecutive 3 min intervals: pre-exposure baseline observation, stimulus exposure, and post-exposure observation p ...200616246505
ovarian response to repeated administration of alternating exogenous gonadotropin regimens in the ocelot (leopardus pardalis) and tigrinus (leopardus tigrinus).exogenous gonadotropins are used to stimulate ovarian follicular growth and ovulation in mammalian species, including wild cats. however, successes in application of assisted reproduction techniques in nondomestic felids have been sparse. our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of alternating gonadotropin regimens on ovarian responses. five adult female ocelots and four adult female tigrinus were treated four to six times, using alternating ecg/hcg and pfsh/plh at 4-month intervals. lapa ...200616472853
isolation of malassezia spp. from cerumen of wild felids.the objective of this study was to determine the presence of different species of the genus malassezia in the healthy external auditory canal of wild felids maintained in captivity. one hundred and thirty-two adult animals (264 samples of cerumen), 77 males (58.3%) and 55 females (41.7%), were studied: large felids (55 animals) - 26 lions (panthera leo), 13 tigers (panthera tigris), 6 leopards (panthera pardus), 6 jaguars (panthera onca), 2 cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), 2 pumas (puma concolor); s ...200616772235
first evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and ehrlichia exposure in brazilian free-ranging felids.serum samples from 18 pumas (puma concolor), one ocelot (leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv 1), calicivirus (fcv), coronavirus (fcov), parvo-virus (fpv), ehrlichia canis, anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and bartonella henselae. serum samples also were tested, by western blot and elisa, for feline leukemia v ...200616870878
plasma hormones in neotropical and domestic cats undergoing routine manipulations.many neotropical felines are threatened with extinction and information on their physiology is required to assist in conservation. their reproduction in captivity is poor, particularly for the smaller species. several factors may be responsible, but stress is probably the most important. we assayed cortisol, lh, fsh, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone in single blood samples obtained under sedation from seven neotropical species and, for comparison, in stressed and unstressed d ...200717014874
neutralizing antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 in captive wild felids of brazil.feline herpesvirus type 1 infection affects domestic cats, causing mainly upper respiratory tract diseases. although this infection has been described in captive and free-ranging wild felids from europe, asia, north america, and africa, no information is available on its occurrence among wild felids of brazil. in this study, 250 serum samples of six species of brazilian captive wild felids (leopardus tigrinus, leopardus wiedii, herpailurus yaguarondi, puma concolor, leopardus pardalis, and panth ...200517312763
measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, t4; triiodothyronine, t3) in captive nondomestic felids.the aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, t4; triiodothyronine, t3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (panthera onca), n = 49; puma (puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (herpailurus yaguaro ...200717469287
genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in leopardus pardalis, leopardus wiedii and leopardus tigrinus.the microsatellite loci fca045, fca077, fca008, and fca096 are highly variable molecular markers which were used to determine the genetic diversity in 148 captive leopardus sp. the pcr-amplified products of microsatellite loci were characterized in abi prism 310 genetic analyzer. allele numbers, heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, exclusive allele number, and shared alleles were calculated. sixty-five alleles were found and their sizes ranged from 116 to 216 bp in four microsatelli ...200717624861
influence of cooling rate on the ability of frozen-thawed sperm to bind to heterologous zona pellucida, as assessed by competitive in vitro binding assays in the ocelot (leopardus pardalis) and tigrina (leopardus tigrinus).we evaluated the influence of two cooling rates (from 25 to 5 degrees c) on post-thaw function of frozen sperm in ocelots (leopardus pardalis; n=3 males) and tigrinas (leopardus tigrinus; n=4 males). seven normospermic (>70% normal sperm) electroejaculates from each species were diluted with a 4% glycerol freezing medium, divided into two aliquots, and assigned to one of two cooling rates: fast or slow (0.7 or 0.16 degrees c/min, respectively). sperm motility index (smi) and percentage of sperm ...200817977588
the first report of hepatozoon sp. (apicomplexa: hepatozoidae) in neotropical felids from order to investigate the occurrence of hepatozoon infection in neotropical felids from brazil, blood from the jugular or cephalic vein was taken from 29 non-domestic felids including ocelot (leopardus pardalis), little spotted cat (leopardus tigrinus), margay (leopardus wiedii), and jaguarondi (puma yagouaroundi) from the northeast region of brazil. hepatozoon infection was confirmed by light microscopy and molecular techniques. the results showed five naturally infected felids. partial seque ...200818243562
efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (mammalia) in a disturbed area of southeastern brazil.capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. we compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (herpailurus yagouaroundi (e. geoffroyi, 1803), leopardus tigrinus (schreber, 1775), nasua nasua (linnaeus, 1766), cerdocyon thous (linnaeus, 1766), eira barbara (linnaeus, 1758), and galictis cuja (molina, 1782)). the use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77%) an ...200718457140
molecular detection of cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic brazilian wild captive felids.cytauxzoon spp. dna was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic brazilian wild captive felids. in 2006, 72 edta blood samples from seven wild felids species: puma concolor (puma), leopardus pardalis (ocelot), puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), leopardus wiedii (margay), leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18s rrna gene segment in order to verify the pre ...200919204356
[occurrence of platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of bahia, brazil].this paper reports the occurrence of eggs of platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats herpailurus yagouaroundi, puma concolor and leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the park zoobotânico getúlio vargas in salvador, bahia, brazil. it is the first record of this parasite in p. onca and l. tigrinus.200819265585
effect of housing and environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity, behavior and reproductive cyclicity in the female tigrina (leopardus tigrinus) and margay (leopardus wiedii).the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different captive housing conditions on reproductive cyclicity and adrenocortical activity in adult females of two small-sized felid species, the tigrina (leopardus tigrinus; n = 3) and margay (leopardus wiedii; n = 2). females were housed as singletons and subjected to three enclosure conditions over successive time periods: phase i-large, enriched enclosures for 3 months; phase ii-small, empty enclosures for 5.5 months; phase iii-the s ...200719360593
survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from southern brazil.a total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one leopardus geoffroyi, 14 leopardus pardalis, 17 leopardus wiedii, 22 leopardus tigrinus, and three puma yagouaroundi) from the itaipu binacional wildlife research center (refúgio bela vista, southern brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one l. geoffroyi, eight l. pardalis, 14 l. wiedii, 20 l. tigrinus, and one p. yagouaroundi. total dna and rna were extracted from blood and feces, respe ...200919569487
standardization of some electrocardiographic parameters of captive leopard cats (leopardus tigrinus).thirty-three captive leopard cats, leopardus tigrinus, were anesthetized with xylazine (1-2 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg), and electrocardiograph (ecg) tests were recorded in all leads with 1 cm = 1 mv sensibility and 25 mm/sec speed repeating dii lead at 50 mm/sec speed with the same sensibility. results expressed by mean and standard deviation were: heart rate (hr) = 107 +/- 17 (bpm); p-wave = 0.048 +/- 0.072 (s) x 0.128 +/- 0.048 (mv); pr interval = 0.101 +/- 0.081 (s); qrs compound = 0.053 ...200919746854
detection of bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.although antibodies to bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, dna has been detected in only one species, leopardus wiedii. the aim of this study was to determine whether dna of bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 leopardus geoffroyi, 17 l. wiedii, 22 leopardus tigrinus, 14 leopa ...201019913372
first report of strongyloides sp. (nematoda, strongyloididae) in leopardus tigrinus (carnivora: felidae) in the municipality of botucatu, state of são paulo, brazil.the present study reports the first case of infection by strongyloides sp. in leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of botucatu, state of são paulo, brazil. feces of the infected l. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (felis catus domesticus) was experimentally infected with three thousand infective l3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals w ...200920040198
serological survey of toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from southern brazil.toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. members of the felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of t. gondii igg antibodies in 57 neotropic ...201020472340
molecular detection of hepatozoon spp. in brazilian and exotic wild carnivores.hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide variety of animals. the infection occurs through the ingestion of a hematophagous arthropod definitive host. herein, we assessed the presence of hepatozoon spp. in 165 captive wild felids and 100 captive wild canids using molecular techniques. we found that 6 felids (4 little spotted cats, 1 jaguarondi, and 1 puma) and 5 canids (2 bush dogs, 1 fox, 1 crab-eating fox, and 1 maned wolf) were positive for hepatozoon spp. hepatozoon spp. ...201020630658
serological detection of viral infections in captive wild cats from costa rica.serum samples from a total of 44 wildcats, 28 margays (leopardus wiedii), 10 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), four jaguaroundis (herpailurus yaguaroundi), one oncilla (leopardus tigrina), and one jaguar (panthera onca) were obtained between january 2001 and august 2002 from the profelis centre for rehabilitation of wild felids, located in the northwestern region of costa rica. forty three samples were tested for antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and p27 antigen of feline leukem ...201121547230
mesocestoides sp. (eucestoda, mesocestoididae) parasitizing four species of wild felines in southern brazil.leopardus colocolo, leopardus geoffroyi, leopardus tigrinus and puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in southern brazil and examined for parasites. cestodes were identified as mesocestoides sp. the parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (l. colocolo and l. tigrinus), 60% (p. yagouaroundi) and 50% (l. geoffroyi). rodents and lizard ...201121722494
influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. this study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after tr ...201122044295
Stages and duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, Schreber, 1775).Six adult Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla) were studied to characterize stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its relative frequency and duration, as well as morphometric parameters of the testes. Testicular fragments were obtained (incisional biopsy), embedded (glycol methacrylate), and histologic sections examined with light microscopy. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was categorized into eight stages (based on the tubular morphology method). The duration of one seminiferous epi ...201122153265
toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. however, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. we compared the prevalence of igg anti-toxoplasma antibodies by elisa and of parasitaemia by a real time pcr assay, in 500 professional sold ...201122178449
hemoplasmas in wild canids and felids in brazil.hemotropic mycoplasmas, epicellular erythrocytic bacterial parasites lacking a cell wall, are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in blood samples of neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids from brazilian zoos were recorded using molecular techniques. blood samples were collected from 146 brazilian wild felids, 19 exotic felids, 3 european wolves (canis lupus), and from 97 brazilian wild canids from zoos in the bra ...201122946419
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes.this study aimed to isolate and genotype t. gondii from brazilian wildlife. for this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by pcr based on 18s rrna sequences. a total of 15 t. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three dasypus novemcinctus, one euphractus sexcinctus), three collared anteaters (tamandua tetradactyla), three whited-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari), one spotted paca (cuniculus paca), one oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), on ...201425426424
natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.the objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of mato grosso do sul and são paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (leopardus ti ...201323778826
molecular and serological detection of babesia spp. in neotropical and exotic carnivores in brazilian zoos.large and small piroplasms have been observed in the blood smears of various wild carnivores, but few studies utilizing molecular characterization have been done. the goal of this present study was to investigate the presence of babesia sp. by molecular and serologic techniques in exotic and neotropical carnivores maintained in captivity at brazilian zoos. blood and sera samples were collected from 146 brazilian wild felids, 21 exotic felids, 1 genet (genetta tigrina), 3 european wolves (canis l ...201122946386
serologic survey of brucellosis in captive neotropical wild carnivores in northeast brazil.abstract. this study reports the detection of antibodies against brucella abortus and b. canis in wild neotropical carnivores kept in captivity in three zoos in northeastern brazil. a total of 42 serum samples were examined, 17 from coatis (nasua nasua), eight from crab-eating raccoons (procyon cancrivorus), three from crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous), three from hoary foxes (lycalopex vetulus), two from little spotted cats (leopardus tigrinus), five from tayras (eira barbara), two from great ...201222779245
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico.antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in mexico city, mexico, using the modified agglutination test (mat). overall, antibodies to t. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (leopardus par ...201324063119
toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild small felids from brazil: molecular detection and genotypic characterization.brazil harbors the largest number of wild neotropical felid species, with ten of the twelve species recorded in the american continent. although these animals are considered to be definitive hosts for toxoplasma gondii, there are few descriptions of the parasite in these species. here, we performed a molecular detection of t. gondii by amplification of the marker its-1 from tissue samples obtained from 90 free-ranging wild small neotropical felids from rio grande do sul - brazil. of the sampled ...201323932730
effect of different semen extenders for the storage of chilled sperm in tigrina (leopardus tigrinus).to enhance the conservation of endangered populations, the present study aimed to evaluate whether tigrinas (leopardus tigrinus) sperm could be conserved under refrigeration for short periods while maintaining sufficient quality for use in assisted-reproductive techniques (i.e., cryopreservation, in vitro fertilization). for this purpose, semen samples from 15 tigrinas individuals were submitted to conventional and functional tests after different cooling periods (4 °c; 0, 12, and 24 hours postc ...201728043345
molecular detection of tick-borne bacterial agents in brazilian and exotic captive carnivores.the present study aims to detect and characterize by molecular techniques, the presence of tick-borne pathogens in wild captive carnivore blood samples from brazil. blood was collected from 76 brazilian felids, 23 exotic felids, 3 european wolves (canis lupus), and 97 brazilian canids maintained in captivity in zoos located in são paulo and mato grosso states, brazil. dna of each sample was used in pcr reactions for ehrlichia, anaplasma, and rickettsia identification. the blood from 10/100 (10%) ...201222749737
renal ultrasonographic evaluation in the oncilla (leopardus tigrinus).ultrasonography is currently used in veterinary medicine to examine the anatomy and physiology of internal organs and to establish normal standards for exotic animal species. specifically, the kidneys may be evaluated and measured in length, width, and height. the kidneys in 33 oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), including 20 males and 13 females, were opportunistically located, characterized, and measured by ultrasound using a 7.5-mhz linear transducer at two different zoologic facilities in são paul ...200415526891
molecular detection of viral agents in free-ranging and captive neotropical felids in brazil.we describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (fhv-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (cppv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [fcov]), feline leukemia virus (felv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and canine distemper virus (cdv) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from brazil. samples from 2 jaguars ( panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( leopardus tigrinus) were positive for fhv-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( puma conc ...201728677421
daily rhythmicity of behavior of nine species of south american feral felids in captivity.the authors analyzed the daily activity rhythms of the domestic cat and of eight of the ten feral felid species that are indigenous to south america. all species showed daily rhythmicity of activity in captivity under a natural light-dark cycle. the robustness of the rhythmicity varied from species to species, but the grand mean of 34% was within the range of robustness previously described for mammalian species ranging in size from mice to cattle. there was not a sharp division between diurnal ...201728842189
serologic survey for leptospira spp. in captive neotropical felids in foz do iguaçu, paraná, brazil.leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of worldwide distribution and is endemic in tropical countries, where rodents and other wild mammals are abundant and may act as reservoirs. leptospirosis has become a concern in captive wild animals, due mostly to their exposure to contaminated urine or environment. although domestic cats (felis catus) have been reported refractory to leptospirosis, serology and disease in captive wild felids is still unclear. in this study 57 adult, clinically healthy feli ...201222779223
using niche-modelling and species-specific cost analyses to determine a multispecies corridor in a fragmented landscape.misiones, argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of upper paraná atlantic forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. these factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between prote ...201728841692
ocelot and oncilla spermatozoa can bind hen egg perivitelline membranes.we evaluated the capacity of ocelot and oncilla spermatozoa to bind to the perivitelline membranes (pvms) of hen eggs in a sperm binding assay (s-pvm). in addition, a device that improves the standardization of the assay was developed. the number of sperm bound to the pvm in fresh (t1) and frozen-thawed (t2) semen from both species was compared to the sperm quality observed in routine tests. the pvm was stretched on a circular silicone device to create a standardized area for analysis. in both t ...201526526118
using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat to expand knowledge and assist felid conservation in misiones, argentina.many carnivores require large ranges to meet their ecological and energetic needs; however, anthropogenic changes threaten species and their habitats. camera traps have been used to effectively collect data on carnivores in a variety of habitat types; however, a single survey effort is typically limited to species that have similar body size, habitat use and movement patterns, and individual identification of animals is not always possible. we evaluated whether scat detection dogs could effectiv ...201425236691
comparison between dexmedetomidine-s-ketamine and midazolam-s-ketamine in immobilization of oncilla (leopardus tigrinus).established immobilization protocols are required for safe procedures on wildlife and zoo animals. this study evaluated the cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) with s-ketamine (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with s-ketamine (5 mg/kg) in 12 specimens of oncilla (leopardus tigrinus) at quinzinho de barros municipal zoo park in sorocaba, são paulo, brazil, between january and march 2010. each animal underwent both protocols, totaling 24 anesthetic p ...201627010260
the role of melanism in oncillas on the temporal segregation of nocturnal activity.the occurrence of coat colour polymorphisms in populations may promote the ecological success of species by permitting a wider spectrum of use of different subsets of available resources. we conducted an analysis of temporal segregation by comparing night brightness with nocturnal activity of spotted and melanistic oncillas (leopardus tigrinus). melanistic oncillas were more active during bright nights and spotted oncillas and other species were more active during dark nights. each colour morph ...201425627377
time budget and activity patterns of oncilla cats (leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.researchers have reported on the diet of leopardus tigrinus and ecological aspects, but studies of behavior are scarce. the aims of this study were to describe the time budget and activity patterns of 10 captive leopardus tigrinus individuals. the group had an activity budget of 66% resting, 20.66% moving, 6.08% vigilant, 3.12% feeding, and 4.14% other activities during 720 hr of observations. the activity budgets of the males and females did not differ significantly; however, males ate more tha ...201424484312
meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats.the aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and ct studies. the hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. twelve intact little spotted cats (leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9-3.05 kg were studied. these animals, which were living in the quinzinho de barros municipal zoo, had no symptoms or known dis ...201323506083
pathologies of oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (acanthocephala, oligacanthorhynchidae) in leopardus tigrinus (carnivora, felidae) in southern brazil, oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (westrumb, 1821) schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. in the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (leopardus tigrinus schreber, 1775) were collected in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil. chronic lesions caused by o. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. only males parasites (n = ...201523070447
small spotted bodies with multiple specific mitochondrial dnas: existence of diverse and differentiated tigrina lineages or species (leopardus spp: felidae, mammalia) throughout latin america.we analysed two sets of mitochondrial (mt) dna data from tigrinas (traditionally, leopardus tigrinus) we sampled in costa rica, venezuela, colombia, ecuador, peru, bolivia, northwestern and northeastern argentina and southern brazil. additionally, the analysis included some genbank sequences from southern, central and northeastern brazil. the first mt set (mt atp8+mt 16s rrna with 41 tigrina) revealed the existence of seven different tigrina-like haplogroups. they could represent, at least, 4-6 ...201729157065
cellular characterization and effects of cryoprotectant solutions on the viability of fibroblasts from three brazilian wild cats.preserving genetic material in cryogenic conditions presents a viable alternative for the protection of species' gene variability. however, there is an enormous need to establish and test cryopreservation protocols that are suitable for each diverse cell type to guarantee technical success in the long run. considering this, fibroblasts from jaguar (panthera onca), oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), and pampas cat (leopardus colocolo) were subjected to cell characterization and then cryopreservation i ...202033035068
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