small cetaceans found stranded or accidentally captured in southeastern brazil: bioindicators of essential and non-essential trace elements in the environment.essential (cu, mn, se and zn) and non-essential (cd and hg) elements were analyzed in the hepatic tissue of 22 individuals of seven different species of small cetaceans (feresa attenuata; orcinus orca; pontoporia blainvillei; sotalia guianensis; stenella frontalis; steno bredanensis; tursiops truncatus) accidentally caught in fishing nets or found stranded along the northern coast of the state of rio de janeiro, brazil, between 2001 and 2010. atlantic spotted dolphin (s. frontalis) showed the hi ...201323993648
dental pathology in dolphins (cetacea: delphinidae) from the southern coast of brazil.pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. for cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. this is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology ...201121790069
organochlorine compound accumulation in delphinids from rio de janeiro state, southeastern brazilian coast.the present study investigated organochlorine compound levels (pcbs, ddts and hcb) in blubber samples of six delphinid species from rio de janeiro state, southeastern brazilian coast. the species analyzed inhabit the continental shelf (one killer whale, one false killer whale, two bottlenose dolphins, three rough-toothed dolphins, and four long-beaked common dolphins) and open ocean (four fraser's dolphins). pcbs represented the greatest proportion of the sum of all measured organochlorines (fro ...201222771469
mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the delphinidae with an emphasis on the globicephalinae.previous dna-based phylogenetic studies of the delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies) for some of the species within this group. using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this f ...201121392378
congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in cetaceans from taiwan waters.during 2000 to 2001, a total of 73 blubber samples from 13 species of stranded or accidentally captured cetaceans were collected from taiwan coastal waters for polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) analysis. after homogenization, saponification, liquid-liquid extraction, and silica-gel solid-phase extraction, pcb concentrations were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. total concentrations of 19 pcb congeners (sigmapcbs) were between 0.23 microg/g lipid weight of risso's dolphin to 33.73 ...200415499506
persistent organic pollutants in two dolphin species with focus on toxaphene and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.assessing trends of persistent organic pollutants (pops) in marine mammals is difficult due to age, gender, and metabolism influences on accumulation. to help elucidate these effects in dolphins, pop concentrations were determined in the atlantic white-sided dolphin, lagenorhynchus acutus, a pelagic delphinid inhabiting north atlantic waters, and in the rough-toothed dolphin, steno bredanensis, a pelagic delphinid inhabiting tropical and subtropical waters. the specific objectives of this study ...200515757328
cytochrome p4501a1 expression in blubber biopsies of endangered false killer whales (pseudorca crassidens) and nine other odontocete species from hawai'i.odontocetes (toothed whales) are considered sentinel species in the marine environment because of their high trophic position, long life spans, and blubber that accumulates lipophilic contaminants. cytochrome p4501a1 (cyp1a1) is a biomarker of exposure and molecular effects of certain persistent organic pollutants. immunohistochemistry was used to visualize cyp1a1 expression in blubber biopsies collected by non-lethal sampling methods from 10 species of free-ranging hawaiian odontocetes: short-f ...201425134676
trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the israeli mediterranean this paper we present the concentrations of hg, cd, se, pb, cu, mn, zn and fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the israeli mediterranean coast (imc), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one risso's dolphin. most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. concentrations of hg and cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum conc ...201424680714
a tool for real-time acoustic species identification of delphinid whistles.the ability to identify delphinid vocalizations to species in real-time would be an asset during shipboard surveys. an automated system, real-time odontocete call classification algorithm (rocca), is being developed to allow real-time acoustic species identification in the field. this matlab-based tool automatically extracts ten variables (beginning, end, minimum and maximum frequencies, duration, slope of the beginning and end sweep, number of inflection points, number of steps, and presence/ab ...200717614515
histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the western gulf of mexico.pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the texas coast of the gulf of mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). one hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. of these, 72 were atlantic bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus). other species included were the melon-headed whale (peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin ...200818621384
trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)c) and nitrogen (δ(15)n) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: sotalia guianensis, stenella frontalis, tursiops truncatus, steno bredanensis, pseudorca crassidens, delphinus sp., lagenodelphis hosei, stenella attenuata, stenella longirostris and grampus griseus. we also compared the δ(13)c and δ(15)n values among four populations of s. guianensis. variation in ca ...201324358155
long-term seasonal and interannual patterns of marine mammal strandings in subtropical western south atlantic.understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. we used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of south america. this region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off brazil. generalized additive models were used to evaluate the tempo ...201626814667
renal lesions in cetaceans from brazil.this study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. the animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 anim ...201525824116
mechanical properties of dental tissues in dolphins (cetacea: delphinoidea and inioidea).(1) mammalian teeth play a major role in food acquisition and processing. while most mammals are heterodont and masticate their food, dolphins are homodont with simplified tooth morphology and negligible mastication. understanding mechanical properties of dental tissues in dolphins is fundamental to elucidate the functional morphology and biomechanics of their feeding apparatus. this paper aims to study the hardness and elastic modulus of enamel and dentine in dolphins. (2) teeth of 10 extant sp ...201323290354
pbdes in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal areas of são paulo, brazil, southwestern information is available in the literature on the levels of brominated flame retardants in the southern hemisphere. this study presents concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in the blubber of small cetaceans from the coast of são paulo (brazil), southwestern atlantic. pbde levels were highest in stenella frontalis (770 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by steno bredanensis (475 ng g(-1) lipid), sotalia guianensis (65.6 ng g(-1) lipid), tursiopstruncatus (64.2 ng g(-1) lipid) an ...201122014918
corrosions-anatomy of the intrahepatic vascular systems of a rough toothed porpoise, steno bredanensis. 19751239155
helminths of rough-toothed dolphins, steno bredanensis lesson 1828, from florida waters. 19751185446
cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the vitória-trindade chain, western south atlantic ocean.oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. to fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the vitória-trindade seamounts. we observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (megaptera novaeangliae, n = 9 groups), the fin whal ...201425055095
morphology of the complex laryngeal gland in the atlantic bottlenose dolphin, tursiops truncatus.a complex lymphoepithelial gland is a constant feature in the larynx of atlantic bottlenose dolphins, tursiops truncatus, based on study of 56 animals. larynges were removed from fresh, non-decomposed beach-stranded animals for gross examination and histological sampling. a large lymphoepithelial gland occurs in the rostro-ventral mucosa of the larynx, overlying the cricoid cartilage. it presents as a well-defined, elevated, and heavily trabeculated area. histological examination reveals a pseud ...19999892423
radiographic assessment of dental pathology and abnormalities in dolphins.this study proposes a simple standardized method for the production of analog x-ray images of dolphin teeth, and to explore its potential use as a complementary technique in the evaluation of dental pathology in small cetaceans. we investigated exposure times that produced the best results, and whether radiographs helped in the diagnosis of macroscopic abnormalities. teeth of six species of dolphins (delphinidae: tursiops truncatus, steno bredanensis, sotalia guianensis, delphinus sp., stenella ...201728770682
whistle comparison of four delphinid species in southeastern brazil.the present study evaluates variations in frequency and duration parameters of whistles of four dolphin species (sotalia guianensis, steno bredanensis, stenella frontalis, and tursiops truncatus), recorded in the rio de janeiro state coast, southeastern brazil. a total of 487 whistles were analyzed. acoustic parameters of the whistles were classified to species by discriminant function analysis. overall classification score was 72.5%, with the highest classification score obtained for whistles o ...201627250196
hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.the causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. we report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significa ...201021072206
levels of persistent organic pollutants and residual pattern of ddts in small cetaceans from the coast of são paulo, brazil.the state of são paulo is the most developed area in brazil and was impacted by persistent organic pollutants for several decades. this study investigated organochlorines in five species of small cetaceans (pontoporia blainvillei, stenella frontalis, sotalia guianensis, tursiops truncatus and steno bredanensis) found dead along the coast of são paulo between 1997 and 2003. ddts (15.9 μg g(-1) lipid; mean for all pooled individuals) and pcbs (8.08 μg g(-1)) exhibited the highest concentrations in ...201020699191
'eavesdropping' in wild rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis)?several authors suggest that dolphins use information obtained by eavesdropping on echoes from sonar signals of conspecifics, but there is little evidence that this strategy is used by dolphins in the wild. travelling rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis) either exhibit asynchronous movements or an extremely synchronized swimming behaviour in tight formations, which we expect to facilitate eavesdropping. therefore, we determined, whether either one or more dolphins were echolocating in subg ...200617148311
persistent organic pollutants in rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis) sampled during an unusual mass stranding event. 200414725888
marine mammals in the mediterranean sea: an overview.despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the mediterranean sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. species currently recognised as regular in the mediterranean-the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus; cuvier's beaked whale, ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, delphinus delphis; long-finned ...201727770981
genetic analysis of anisakis typica (nematoda: anisakidae) from cetaceans of the northeast coast of brazil: new data on its definitive hosts.anisakids from 5 different species of cetacean, kogia breviceps, peponocephala electra, stenella clymene, stenella longirostris and steno bredanensis, were submitted to genetic analysis. adults and larvae fixed in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid or in 70% ethanol for periods ranging from 10 months to 10 years were isolated from 9 cetaceans stranded on ceará coast, northeast brazil. the 18s rdna gene, its1, and specific anisakis typica its regions were amplified by pcr. 18s rdna and its1 region conf ...201121324600
additional records of metazoan parasites from caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.studies of marine mammal parasites in the caribbean are scarce. an assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from puerto rico and the virgin islands, but extending to other areas of the caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. the present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including globicephala macrorhynchus, kogi ...200919582477
metazoan parasites of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of brazil.this study represents the first survey of the parasitic fauna of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of brazil. parasites were collected from 82 animals rescued from the states of ceará to bahia, including the archipelago of fernando de noronha. a total of 14 species of cetaceans were evaluated: sotalia guianensis, stenella sp., stenella clymene, stenella longirostris, stenella coeruleoalba, stenella frontalis, megaptera novaeangliae, peponocephala electra, steno bredanensis, kogia breviceps, k ...201020638793
genetic identification of novel poxviruses of cetaceans and pinnipeds.novel poxviruses were identified in skin lesions of several species of cetaceans and pinnipeds using polymerase chain reaction targeting dna polymerase and dna topoisomerase i genes of members of the subfamily chordopoxvirinae. with the exception of parapoxviruses, no molecular data of marine mammal poxviruses were available to infer genetic and evolutionary relatedness to terrestrial vertebrate poxviruses. viruses were assigned to a cetacean poxvirus 1 (cpv-1) group based on nucleotide and amin ...200616328132
total mercury, methyl mercury, and selenium levels in the red meat of small cetaceans sold for human consumption in japan.we surveyed the total mercury (t-hg) and methyl mercury (m-hg) levels in red meat products (n = 160) from small cetacean species sold for human consumption in markets throughout japan from 2000 to 2003. genetic identification showed that the red meat products originated from nine species: false killer whale, bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, striped dolphin, rough-toothed dolphin, risso's dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin, baird's beaked whale, and dall's porpoise. t-hg and m-hg c ...200516124305
use of human recombinant erythropoietin for the treatment of nonregenerative anemia in a rough-toothed dolphin (steno bredanensis).erythropoietin, a glycoprotein growth hormone that is produced primarily in the kidneys, promotes mitosis and survival of erythroid progenitors. the recent synthesis of the human form of the hormone by recombinant technology has provided a new therapeutic option, which is being used in both human and veterinary medicine for treatment of various anemias. a mature male rough-toothed dolphin, steno bredanensis, was treated with human recombinant erythropoietin in an attempt to resolve a nonregenera ...200010982125
post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of italy between 1990 and 1993.detailed pathological and virological examinations were carried out on 25 cetaceans found stranded between 1990 and 1993 on the coasts of six italian regions (latium, tuscany, apulia, abruzzo, veneto and sicily). there were 16 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), three bottlenosed dolphins (tursiops truncatus), three risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), one rough-toothed dolphin (steno bredanensis), one fin whale pup (balaenoptera physalus), and one minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata). ...19957631479
molecular systematics of south american dolphins sotalia: sister taxa determination and phylogenetic relationships, with insights into a multi-locus phylogeny of the delphinidae.the evolutionary relationships among members of the cetacean family delphinidae, the dolphins, pilot whales and killer whales, are still not well understood. the genus sotalia (coastal and riverine south american dolphins) is currently considered a member of the stenoninae subfamily, along with the genera steno (rough toothed dolphin) and sousa (humpbacked dolphin). in recent years, a revision of this classification was proposed based on phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome ...200818053749
mercury, selenium and stable isotopes in four small cetaceans from the southeastern brazilian coast: influence of feeding strategy.dolphins are good bioindicators of the contamination status of marine ecosystems, since their dietary and habitat plasticity in both coastal and offshore ecotypes provide information on the trace elements levels originated from natural and anthropogenic sources. in this context, this study aimed to investigate provides mercury (hg), selenium (se) levels, trophic ecology and feeding environments of four small cetaceans (tursiops truncatus, steno bredanensis, sotalia guianensis and pontoporia blai ...201627593348
bone marrow biopsy from the flipper of a find macroscopically palpable bone marrow cavities in dolphins is difficult because of their extremely retrogressive limbs and pelvis and because they do not contain abundant modular cavities (as in terrestrial mammals) that can serve as sites for bone marrow biopsies. three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of dolphin skeletons suggests that bone marrow could be harvested from the humerus and radius. in this report, post-mortem paracentesis of the humerus from a captive rough-toothed ...201019553147
elemental composition of liver and kidney tissues of rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis).on december 14, 1997, 62 rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis) stranded on cape san blas, on the florida coast of the gulf of mexico. approximately 30 animals died either on the beach or in rehabilitation facilities. two were successfully rehabilitated and released. liver, kidney, blubber, and muscle tissues were collected from 15 animals that died on the beach. portions of the liver and kidney from each dolphin were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively co ...200312712283
organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the pacific and south atlantic oceans, november 1968-june 1976.organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. collections were made from november 1968 through june 1976 at localities in the eastern tropical pacific and along the coasts of california, hawaii, japan, and uruguay, relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for dde and pcbs in two dolphin species. sigma ddt and pcb residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five souther ...19806785716
characterization of anterior segment ophthalmologic lesions identified in free-ranging dolphins and those under human care.cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. the cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. one hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from differ ...201627010265
the rough-toothed dolphin, steno bredanensis, in the eastern mediterranean sea: a relict population?only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an atlantic origin, yet the mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the sicilian channel and most within the bounds of the levanti ...201727770986
characteristics of whistles from rough-toothed dolphins (steno bredanensis) in rio de janeiro coast, southeastern brazil.there is no information about the whistles of rough-toothed dolphins in the south atlantic ocean. this study characterizes the whistle structure of free-ranging rough-toothed dolphins recorded on the rio de janeiro coast, southeastern brazil, and compares it to that of the same species in other regions. a total of 340 whistles were analyzed. constant (n = 115; 33.8%) and ascending (n = 99; 29.1%) whistles were the most common contours. the whistles recorded had their fundamental frequencies betw ...201222559388
the creative porpoise: training for novel behavior.two rough-toothed porpoises (steno bredanensis) were individually trained to emit novel responses, which were not developed by shaping and which were not previously known to occur in the species, by reinforcing a different response to the same set of stimuli in each of a series of training sessions. a technique was developed for transcribing a complex series of behaviors on to a single cumulative record so that the training sessions of the second animal could be fully recorded. cumulative record ...196916811388
[physical characteristics of certain acoustic signals of the delphinid steno bredanensis, lesson]. 19664955670
high accumulation of pcdd, pcdf, and pcb congeners in marine mammals from brazil: a serious pcb problem.blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (drcs). samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (southeast and southern brazilian regions). dioxin-like pcbs accounted for over 83% of the total teq for all cetaceans. non-ortho coplanar pcbs, for franciscanas (82%), an ...201323827355
an assessment of pcb and pbde contamination in two tropical dolphin species from the southeastern brazilian coast.pcbs and pbdes were determined in two dolphin species, sotalia guianensis and steno bredanensis, from an upwelling system off the central-northern coast of rio de janeiro, brazil. pcb levels varied from 0.040 to 0.75 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.022 to 1.32 μg g(-1)lw in liver samples from s. guianensis. in s. bredanensis, values varied from 0.085 to 11.3 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.024 to 18.6 μg g(-1) lw in livers. pcb-138, -153 and -180 were the major pcb congeners detected in both ...201526506024
higher expression of renal sulfoglycolipids in marine mammals.patterns and contents of major acidic glycosphingolipids in the kidney of three marine mammalian species, the steller sea lion (pinnipedia), the rough-toothed dolphin and the broad-beaked dolphin (odontoceti), were examined, and compared with those of terrestrial mesic mammals. the profile of major acidic glycosphingolipids was not significantly different between the terrestrial and marine mammals: predominant gangliosides were gm3 and gd3, and major sulfoglycolipids were sm4s and sm3. on the ot ...200818470608
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