intraspecies variations in nutritionally variant streptococci: rrna gene restriction patterns of streptococcus defectivus and streptococcus adjacens.the rrna gene restriction patterns of two species of nutritionally variant streptococci, streptococcus defectivus and streptococcus adjacens, were determined, and the results were compared with the electrophoretic migration profiles of penicillin-binding proteins. reference strains belonging to various streptococcal species were used as controls. our results correlated with the results of dna-dna hybridization experiments and confirmed the delineation of these two species. moreover, they demonst ...19911720653
inverse correlation in nutritionally variant streptococci between the production of bacteriolytic activity and sensitivity to a streptococcus pyogenes bacteriocinlike inhibitory substance.nineteen strains of nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) were tested for bacteriolytic activity and for their production of and sensitivity to streptococcal bacteriocinlike inhibitory substances (blis). none appeared to produce blis. an inverse relationship was found between the sensitivity to blis and the production of bacteriolytic activity against micrococcus luteus. all but one of the 14 streptococcus defectivus isolates were sensitive to the blis of s. pyogenes p5, and these isolates we ...19911890190
analysis of adherence of streptococcus defectivus and endocarditis-associated streptococci to extracellular matrix.pathogenesis of nutritionally variant streptococcal (nvs) endocarditis initiates with bacterial attachment to and colonization of the damaged heart valve surface. underlying extracellular matrix (ecm) exposed to the environment during damage to cardiac endothelium provides additional receptors that could be involved in bacterial adherence. the ability of nvs and endocarditis-associated streptococci to bind ecm was investigated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system that incorporate ...19911997435
transfer of streptococcus adjacens and streptococcus defectivus to abiotrophia gen. nov. as abiotrophia adiacens comb. nov. and abiotrophia defectiva comb. nov., respectively.we performed this study to determine the 16s rrna sequences of the type strains of streptococcus adjacens and streptococcus defectivus and to calculate the phylogenetic distances between these two nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) and other members of the genus streptococcus. s. adjacens and s. defectivus belonged to one cluster, but this cluster was not closely related to other streptococcal species. a comparative analysis of the sequences of these organisms and other low-g+c-content gra ...19957547302
analysis of enzymatic activities for differentiation of two species of nutritionally variant streptococci, streptococcus defectivus and streptococcus adjacens.strains of nutritionally variant streptococci, streptococcus defectivus (n = 10) and streptococcus adjacens (n = 20), were studied for the production of glycosidic and proteolytic enzyme activities. s. defectivus strains produced neuraminidase and alpha-fucosidase, while s. adjacens strains produced only neuraminidase. the s. adjacens strains produced a very wide range of proteolytic activities with the ability to hydrolyze the majority of aminopeptidase substrates tested, while s. defectivus st ...19957650191
human endocarditis due to nutritionally variant streptococci: streptococcus adjacens and streptococcus defectivus.streptococcus adjacens and s. defectivus are two recently individualized species of viridans streptococci. both species were previously designated as nutritionally variant streptococci and characterized by their growth as small satellite colonies supported by 'helper' bacteria, or requiring complex media enriched with cysteine or with pyridoxal. structural abnormalities were observed under these conditions and balanced growth can be obtained only with a semi-chemically defined medium, in which t ...19957671920
degradative enzymes of oral streptococci.members of the streptococcus sanguis group (ssg) and streptococcus milleri group (smg) were screened for their ability to produce glycosidase, arylamidase (peptidase), protease, dextranase and glycosyltransferase activities. species within each group produced unique patterns of activity. the most commonly produced glycosidases were beta-d-glucosidase, beta-d-galactosidase, n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and n-acetyl-beta-d-galactosaminidase and the least commonly produced glycosidase activity w ...19957786231
identification of the surface component of streptococcus defectivus that mediates extracellular matrix adherence.bacterial attachment to host tissue is considered to be a crucial primary step in pathogen infection. previous studies have shown that streptococcus defectivus adheres specifically to cell-secreted extracellular matrix (ecm). though generally not exposed in vivo, this host tissue is exposed at endothelial cell junctions and sites of tissue injury. in this report, we identify a ca. 200-kda surface protein of s. defectivus involved in ecm adherence. nitrous acid-derived mutant strains that were un ...19938225574
isolation and properties of bacteriolytic enzyme-producing cocci from the human bacteriolytic enzyme producing organisms were isolated from various sites of the mouth. all were non-hemolytic, gram-positive, and chain-forming cocci. ninety-one strains, like the reference strains of streptococcus defectivus and s. adjacens, were dependent on pyridoxal for growth and produced a chromophore. the rapid id32 strep system speciated these isolates as s. defectivus, s. adjacens or gemella morbillorum. the remaining 10 bacteriolytic isolates were pyridoxal-indepen ...19968900055
identification of abiotrophia adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva by 16s rrna gene pcr and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.abiotrophia adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva, previously referred to as nutritionally variant streptococci, streptococcus adjacens and streptococcus defectivus, respectively, are causes of infective endocarditis. we describe a method of identifying these two species and also of distinguishing them from 15 other major etiological pathogens of infective endocarditis by means of 16s rrna gene pcr amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (pcr-rflp). the 16s rrna ...19979316889
characterization of emb, a gene encoding the major adhesin of streptococcus defectivus.streptococcus defectivus is one of the nutritionally variant streptococci, a class of viridans group streptococci first isolated from patients with endocarditis and otitis media. in previous studies, nvs-47, a clinical isolate of s. defectivus, was shown to bind to the extracellular matrix. a high-molecular-weight surface protein was identified and proposed to be responsible for mediating this binding. in the present study, the gene encoding this protein was identified by transposon mutagenesis ...19999864195
iatrogenic meningitis due to abiotrophia defectiva after myelography. 199910028098
abiotrophia species as a cause of endophthalmitis following cataract extraction.microorganisms of the genus abiotrophia, members of the oral flora, are known as important causes of bacterial endocarditis. in this study, we report two individual cases of acute vitreous infection caused by abiotrophia adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva approximately a week after cataract extraction. abiotrophia isolates were recovered by cultivation of vitreous humor on chocolate agar and identified via conventional and api 20 strep identification systems. an 83-year-old male patient (a) and ...199910203522
abiotrophia elegans strains comprise 8% of the nutritionally variant streptococci isolated from the human mouth.ninety-one isolates of nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) that were previously isolated from the human mouth were regarded as consisting of 7 streptococcus defectivus isolates, 78 streptococcus adjacens isolates, and 6 gemella morbillorum isolates. however, recent references to the taxonomic reclassification of nvs, from s. defectivus to abiotrophia defectiva and from s. adjacens to abiotrophia adiacens, and the newly introduced species abiotrophia elegans as a third abiotrophia species, e ...199910405400
endocarditis caused by abiotrophia species.two cases of endocarditis with nutritionally variant streptococci are presented. such strains have recently been included in the new genus abiotrophia. a total of 12 additional abiotrophia strains, including the type strains of abiotrophia defectiva and abiotrophia adiacens, were characterized in order to comment on their microbiological characteristics.199910447338
characterization of a novel gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus from horses: description of eremococcus coleocola gen. nov., sp. nov.two strains of an unknown gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccus originating from the reproductive tract of horses were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the two strains constitute a new subline within the lactic-acid group of bacteria, close to, but distinct from, abiotrophia defectiva, globicatella sanguinis and close relatives. the unknown bacterium was readily distinguished fro ...199910555316
extracellular-matrix-binding proteins as targets for the prevention of staphylococcus aureus infections.staphylococcal infections cause a number of serious diseases, ranging from acute septicaemia to chronic problems such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem and has re-ignited interest in vaccines and in passive immunization with antibodies. natural infections and vaccines based on whole bacteria lead to poor antibody responses, but recent research using animal models of several staphylococcal diseases reveals that vaccines based on recombinant stap ...199910562719
[abiotrophia related endocarditis: contribution of molecular biology].former nutritionally-deficient (variant) streptococci were recently separated from other streptococci viridans to constitute a new abiotrophia genus, subdivided into two species, abiotrophia defectiva (ex-streptococcus defectivus) and abiotrophia adjacens (ex-streptococcus adjacens).199910629690
characterization of the tn916-like transposon tn3872 in a strain of abiotrophia defectiva (streptococcus defectivus) causing sequential episodes of endocarditis in a child.clinical blood isolates from three sequential episodes of endocarditis occurring over a 6-month period in a child with a malformative cardiopathy were investigated. all isolates identified as abiotrophia defectiva were resistant to erythromycin-clindamycin and to tetracycline-minocycline, due to the presence of sequences homologous to the erythromycin resistance gene ermb and to the tetracycline resistance gene tet(m), respectively. these resistance genes were located on a chromosomally borne co ...200010681362
the genus abiotrophia (kawamura et al.) is not monophyletic: proposal of granulicatella gen. nov., granulicatella adiacens comb. nov., granulicatella elegans comb. nov. and granulicatella balaenopterae comb. nov.the genus abiotrophia currently includes four species, abiotrophia defectiva, abiotrophia adiacens, abiotrophia balaenopterae and abiotrophia elegans. recent 16s rrna gene sequencing studies have demonstrated that the genus is not monophyletic and is in need of taxonomic revision. phylogenetically, the genus abiotrophia consists of two distinct lines, a. defectiva, the type species of the genus, and a robust group consisting of a. adiacens, a. balaenopterae and a. elegans. therefore, it is forma ...200010826824
infiltrative keratitis associated with extended wear of hydrogel lenses and abiotrophia defectiva.infiltrative keratitis is a common complication associated with extended wear of hydrogel lenses. causative bacteria are often isolated from the lens at the time of an event. we report a case where three repeated occurrences of infiltrative keratitis were associated with contamination of the contact lenses by abiotrophia defectiva.200011095068
antimicrobial susceptibility of abiotrophia adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva.the susceptibilities of 27 abiotrophia adiacens (proposed reclassification granulicatella adiacens comb.nov., collins & lawson, 2000) and 12 abiotrophia defectiva isolates were tested by microdilution in pyridoxal hydrochloride and lysed horse blood supplemented mueller-hinton broth. according to nccls interpretative criteria for streptococcus spp. not streptococcus pneumoniae, the susceptibilities of a. adiacens and a. defectiva were, respectively: penicillin, 55% and 8%; amoxicillin, 81% and 9 ...200011109021
serological properties of abiotrophia and granulicatella species (nutritionally variant streptococci).serological variations were examined among 12 type or reference strains and 91 oral isolates of vitamin b6-dependent abiotrophia and granulicatella spp. rabbits were immunized with whole cells of 12 selected strains and 10 typing antisera were obtained, which were unreactive with the lancefield group a to g antigen preparations. the reactivity of the antisera and autoclaved cell surface antigen extracts was tested by double diffusion in agar gel and a capillary precipitin test. these typing anti ...200011220686
bacterial endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva (nutritionally variant streptococci). 200011256786
infective endocarditis in a child due to abiotrophia defectivus. 200211976472
endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva in children.abiotrophia defectiva, formerly designated as the member of nutritionally variant streptococci, is a part of normal oral flora and may be a cause of culture-negative endocarditis. we report a case of infective endocarditis caused by a. defectiva involving the mitral valve in a 12-year-old girl. she received antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks and was symptom-free 6 months after discharge. we also reviewed the pediatric cases of nutritionally variant streptococcal endocarditis published in the engli ...200212237606
total knee arthroplasty infection due to abiotrophia defectiva.the first documented case of knee alloarthroplasty infection due to abiotrophia defectiva, formerly known as nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) and streptococcus defectivus, is presented. the microbiology of this bacterium is discussed and clinical features of previously reported cases of infections by nvs are reviewed briefly.200212435072
granulicatella adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva bacteraemia characterized by 16s rrna gene sequencing.traditionally, the identification, epidemiology and spectrum of clinical diseases caused by granulicatella adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva are dependent upon their phenotypic characterization. during a 6-year period (july 1995-june 2001), seven and two alpha-haemolytic streptococci were identified as g. adiacens and a. defectiva, respectively, by 16s rrna gene sequencing. three patients with haematological malignancies and neutropenic fever had primary bacteraemia. three patients with valvula ...200312543919
usefulness of the microseq 500 16s ribosomal dna-based bacterial identification system for identification of clinically significant bacterial isolates with ambiguous biochemical profiles.due to the inadequate automation in the amplification and sequencing procedures, the use of 16s rrna gene sequence-based methods in clinical microbiology laboratories is largely limited to identification of strains that are difficult to identify by phenotypic methods. in this study, using conventional full-sequence 16s rrna gene sequencing as the "gold standard," we evaluated the usefulness of the microseq 500 16s ribosomal dna (rdna)-based bacterial identification system, which involves amplifi ...200312734240
molecular analysis of bacterial flora associated with chronically inflamed maxillary sinuses.chronic maxillary sinusitis is a chronic inflammatory condition in which the role of microbial infection remains undefined. bacteria have been isolated from chronically inflamed sinuses; however, their role in the chronicity of inflammation is unknown. the objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria are present in clinical samples from chronic maxillary sinusitis and to assess the diversity of the flora present. washes and/or tissue samples from endoscopic sinus surgery on 11 patie ...200312808082
inhibition of fibronectin binding of some bacterial cells by subtle ph increase within the physiological range.the fibronectin (fn)-binding ability of microorganisms is considered to be involved in their pathogenicities. granulicatella adiacens, a member of the oral flora and a causative agent of culture-negative infective endocarditis, showed nearly maximum binding to immobilized fn at ph 7.2 but greatly reduced binding at a slightly higher ph 7.4 and almost no binding at ph 7.6 in the presence of physiological concentration of nacl (0.15 m). a similar ph-sensitive fn-binding property was noted with esc ...200314499992
rpob gene sequence-based identification of aerobic gram-positive cocci of the genera streptococcus, enterococcus, gemella, abiotrophia, and granulicatella.we developed a new molecular tool based on rpob gene (encoding the beta subunit of rna polymerase) sequencing to identify streptococci. we first sequenced the complete rpob gene for streptococcus anginosus, s. equinus, and abiotrophia defectiva. sequences were aligned with these of s. pyogenes, s. agalactiae, and s. pneumoniae available in genbank. using an in-house analysis program (svarap), we identified a 740-bp variable region surrounded by conserved, 20-bp zones and, by using these conserve ...200414766807
aortitis in a child with abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.abiotrophia defectiva, one of several nutritionally variant streptococcus species, is an uncommon but important cause of endocarditis in children. we describe an unusual case complicated by extensive aortitis with pits in the ascending aorta and the proximal aortic arch.200415194844
16s rdna pcr analysis of infectious keratitis: a case discuss the value of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the management of bacterial infectious keratitis.200415291943
brain abscesses caused by abiotrophia defectiva: complication of immunosuppressive therapy in a patient with connective-tissue disease.we report the case of a patient who developed brain abscesses caused by abiotrophia defectiva. the patient was treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide for connective-tissue disease (lupus-sjögren's overlap syndrome). a few cases of central nervous system infections due to abiotrophia species have been previously reported in immunocompetent patients following neurosurgical procedures, suggesting possible introduction of this organism at the time of surgery. this case report is the first repo ...200415307580
infective endocarditis: a review of the best treatment options.despite significant advances in antimicrobial therapy and an enhanced ability to diagnose and treat complications, infective endocarditis is still associated with substantial morbidity and mortality today, and its incidence has not decreased over the past decades. this apparent paradox may be explained by a progressive change in risk factors, leading to an evolution in its epidemiological and clinical features. in fact, new risk factors for endocarditis have emerged, such as intravenous drug abu ...200415330728
infective endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva: a report of two cases.endocarditis due to abiotrophia sp. is rare and often associated with negative blood cultures. the rates of treatment failure, infection relapse and mortality are higher than in endocarditis caused by other viridans streptococci.200515700433
[postoperative endophthalmitis due to abiotrophia defectiva]. 200516159549
microbial risk indicators of early childhood caries.the aim of this study was to use molecular identification methods, such as 16s rna gene sequence and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, for identification of the bacteria associated with dental caries and with dental health in a subset of 204 twins aged 1.5 to 7 years old. a total of 448 plaque samples (118 collected from caries-free subjects and 330 from caries-active subjects) were used for analysis. we compared the bacteria found in biofilms of children exhibiting severe dental carie ...200516272513
bloodstream and endovascular infections due to abiotrophia defectiva and granulicatella species.abiotrophia and granulicatella species, previously referred to as nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs), are significant causative agents of endocarditis and bacteraemia. in this study, we reviewed the clinical manifestations of infections due to a. defectiva and granulicatella species that occurred at our institution between 1998 and 2004.200616426445
abiotrophia defectiva: a rare cause of infective endocarditis.a case of abiotrophia defectiva-caused infective endocarditis is described. the patient was successfully treated with penicillin combined with gentamicin. due to the fastidious nature of the agent, there is a need for special media for isolation and moreover, there is a need for a future development of susceptibility assays applicable to the organism.200617008245
adherence of abiotrophia defectiva and granulicatella species to fibronectin: is there a link with endovascular infections?during a 6-year period, we isolated three abiotrophia defectiva, six granulicatella adiacens and two g. 'para-adiacens' strains from clinical specimens. all a. defectiva strains were isolated from immunocompetent patients with endovascular infections, whereas the granulicatella spp. strains were isolated from immunosuppressed patients with primary bacteremia. as the capacity of bacteria to adhere to the host extracellular matrix (ecm) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endovascular infec ...200617064277
septic arthritis caused by abiotrophia defectiva. 200617139646
characterization of the bacteriolytic activity of nutritionally variant streptococci.the bacteriolytic activity of nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs), fastidious microaerophilic bacteria, which are members of the genera abiotrophia and granulicatella, was characterized in a renaturating sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. bacteriolytic profiles appeared quite different for the three species of nvs examined. granulicatella adiacens or abiotrophia defectiva each presented at least seven lytic bands, four of which were in common, while the other three were species- ...200717889570
infective endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci.infective endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) has a higher rate of complications than endocarditis caused by other streptococci. the bacteriologic failure rate and the mortality rate are high. however, current knowledge on this disease derives from previous patient data from 1987. recent case reports showed successful antibiotic treatment in the absence of surgery. here, we report the clinical outcome of infective endocarditis caused by nvs in our hospital.200718030177
infective endocarditis with abiotrophia defectiva: the first australian experience.a 40-year old indigenous woman with a history of mitral valve replacement was admitted to the royal darwin hospital, northern territory, for an elective cone biopsy of the cervix. during the admission, she had recurrent fever and joint pain of the left knee. blood was cultured, and she was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. abiotrophia defectiva was identified from the culture, and a transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed endocarditis of the mitral valve prosthesis. a review of the engli ...200818304019
aortic valve endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva: a rare etiology.abiotrophia defectiva is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. besides an association with often negative blood cultures and difficult treatment, high rates of relapse and higher mortality than endocarditis caused by other viridans streptococci are known features of this entity. we report on the surgical and medical management of the aortic valve endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva in a 19-year-old patient. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient to have down ...200818421556
abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis and associated hemophagocytic syndrome--a first case report and review of the this manuscript we describe the first association in the literature between abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis and the hemophagocytic syndrome. there are multiple important clinical points of information that must be highlighted from this case. a. defectiva is an aggressive organism with a high level of resistance to antibiotic pharmacotherapy with a high predilection for embolic complications and valvular destruction despite treatment with sensitive antibiotics. a. defectiva endocarditis has ...200818539495
helcococcus ovis, an emerging pathogen in bovine valvular endocarditis.the initial isolation of helcococcus ovis from a valvular thrombus prompted us to investigate the prevalence of this bacterium in bovine valvular endocarditis. specimens from 55 affected hearts were examined by culture using columbia blood agar and cross streaking the inoculated plate with a staphylococcus aureus strain. as confirmed by 16s rrna gene sequencing, h. ovis was isolated with an unexpectedly high frequency of 33%, predominantly as heavy growth and pure culture. the majority of h. ovi ...200818716228
evaluation of the microseq 500 16s rdna-based gene sequencing for the diagnosis of culture-negative bacterial meningitis.gene amplification using 16s rdna primers has been proposed as a strategy for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the microseq 500 16s ribosomal dna test (applied biosystems) from patients with suspected bacterial meningitis and csf negative-culture in comparison to traditional methods. twelve purulent culture-negative csf samples were collected between january 2005 and january 2007. for dna extraction, 500 microl of csf samples were tr ...200818843888
hair sheep blood, citrated or defibrinated, fulfills all requirements of blood agar for diagnostic microbiology laboratory tests.blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. in the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to hiv and hepatitis. thi ...200919578541
infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by streptococcus abiotrophia report the first case of streptococcus abiotrophia defectiva-associated crystalline keratopathy.201020508513
use of groesl as a target for identification of abiotrophia, granulicatella, and gemella species.we determined the groesl sequences of three species of nutritionally variant streptococci (abiotrophia defectiva, granulicatella adiacens, and granulicatella elegans) and three gemella species (gemella morbillorum, gemella haemolysans, and gemella sanguinis). the nucleotide sequence similarities between the groes and groel genes of the above genera were 41.7 to 85.9% and 63.7 to 84.3%, respectively. the intraspecies similarities of groesl sequences for the isolates of abiotrophia and granulicate ...201020686088
clonal analysis of the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.severe early childhood caries is a microbial infection that severely compromises the dentition of young children. the aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.201020861633
subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.endocarditis caused by abiotrophia accounts for 5% of all cases of infective endocarditis (roberts et al, rev infect dis. 1979;1:955-66) and 5% to 6% of all cases of streptococcal endocarditis (bouvet, eur heart j. 1995;16(suppl b):24-7; brouqui et al, clin microbiol rev. 2001;14:177-207). this endocarditis is associated with a high rate of embolization and treatment failure (bouvet, eur heart j. 1995;16(suppl b):24-7). neurological complications occur in 20% to 40% of all cases of infective end ...201121030855
[rare endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva. case report and literature review].endocarditis by abiotrophia defectiva is rare but associated with high rates of complications and mortality. the microbiological identification is challenging. two cases without preexisting valvulopathy and one case with mitral-aortic involvement are described in the literature. a case of this subacute form of endocarditis, with normal mitral and aortic valves, is reported. surgery was necessary, and mitral repair and aortic homograft implantation were performed with good 3-month results. in cas ...201021033338
clinical and microbiological studies of children and adolescents receiving orthodontic treatment.this case-controlled study examined clinical and microbiological parameters in brazilian children and adolescents receiving orthodontic treatment using fixed orthodontic appliances or removable orthodontic appliances.201021344829
destructive abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis. 201121404910
abiotrophia defectiva knee prosthesis infection: a case report.abstract:201121896178
identification and characterization of a fibronectin-binding protein from granulicatella adiacens.the interaction of microorganisms with fibronectin plays an important role in infective endocarditis. granulicatella adiacens is a member of the oral microbiota, formerly known as nutritionally variant streptococci, and is often isolated from endocarditis patients. in the present study we identified a surface protein, designated cha, which binds to fibronectin, by a plaque hybridization procedure using the csha sequence as probe, which encodes a fibronectin-binding molecule of streptococcus gord ...201122053963
genetic heterogeneities and phenotypic characteristics of strains of the genus abiotrophia and proposal of abiotrophia para-adiacens sp. nov.the genus abiotrophia represents a heterogeneous group of fastidious cocci that show a dependence on pyridoxal hydrochloride analogs for growth. the genetic heterogeneity in the genus abiotrophia was examined by dna-dna hybridization, pcr assay of genomic dna sequences, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence homology analyses of the pcr-amplified 16s rrna gene. nine type or reference strains of abiotrophia defectiva, abiotrophia adiacens, and abiotrophia elegans and 36 oral ab ...200010655334
differential utilization of basic proline-rich glycoproteins during growth of oral bacteria in saliva.although saliva is widely recognized as a primary source of carbon and nitrogen for growth of the dental plaque biofilm community, little is known about how different oral bacteria utilize specific salivary components. to address this question, 32 strains representing 16 genera commonly isolated from early plaque biofilms were compared for growth over two transfers in stimulated (by chewing parafilm) whole saliva that was stabilized by heat treatment and dialysis. the cell densities, measured by ...201627316966
performance of etest for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of abiotrophia defectiva and granulicatella species.the etest on chocolate mueller-hinton agar was compared to broth microdilution (bmd) for 125 isolates of nutritionally variant streptococci. vancomycin etests yielded 31.1% essential agreement (ea) and 20.0% categorical agreement (ca). penicillin etests yielded 86.0% ea and 85.6% ca, whereas ceftriaxone etests yielded 73.6% ea and 68.0% ca.201627280419
erratum for alberti et al., antimicrobial susceptibilities of abiotrophia defectiva, granulicatella adiacens, and granulicatella elegans. 201627217443
differential antimicrobial susceptibilities of granulicatella adiacens and abiotrophia defectiva.mics of 25 abiotrophia defectiva and 109 granulicatella adiacens isolates were determined by broth microdilution. using clsi breakpoints, the susceptibilities of a. defectiva and g. adiacens isolates were, respectively, 24% and 34% to penicillin, 92% and 22% to ceftriaxone, 48% and 3% to cefepime, 72% and 87% to meropenem, 92% and 10% to cefotaxime, 100% and 97% to levofloxacin, 92% and 80% to clindamycin, and 24% and 50% to erythromycin. all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. in the penic ...201627216060
[abiotrophia defectiva: an unusual cause of endocarditis].this article reports one of the rare cases of abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis with no underlying valvular condition. a sixty-three years old man was hospitalized because of complicated respiratory sepsis with acute heart failure. hemocultures and echocardiogram enabled the diagnosis of a. defectiva endocarditis. the clinical course was favorable under combined aminoglycoside and cephalosporin. the patient ultimately required valvular replacement. a. defectiva is a micro-organism part of the n ...201627506070
a case of infective endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva in korea.abiotrophia defectiva, a nutritionally variant streptococci can cause bacteremia, brain abscess, septic arthritis and in rare cases, infective endocarditis, which accounts for 5-6% of all cases. a. defectiva is characteristically difficult to diagnose and the mortality, morbidity and complication rates are high. here, we discuss a case of infective endocarditis caused by a. defectiva. a 62-year-old female had previously undergone prosthetic valve replacement 6 years prior to admission. she devel ...201627659438
ecomment. challenges in approaching infective endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva. 201626708568
antimicrobial susceptibilities of abiotrophia defectiva, granulicatella adiacens, and granulicatella elegans.nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs) are fastidious gram-positive cocci comprised of the species abiotrophia defectiva, granulicatella adiacens, and granulicatella elegans. nvs are an important cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis (ie) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ast) was performed for 14 antimicrobials using the broth microdilution mic method described in the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m45 guide ...201526666926
salivary microbiota and caries occurrence in mutans streptococci-positive school compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (ms)- positive children with mixed dentition.201627759406
infective endocarditis - a word of caution on non-typical bacteria.a previously healthy 52-year-old man presented to our department with remitting and relapsing fever for more than 6 weeks. during complex staged work-up, we revealed that he suffered from an abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis of the mitral valve with mitral regurgitation and vegetation requiring mitral valve replacement. he recovered well postoperatively and is currently being followed at our outpatient cardiology clinic.201627906422
abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis complicated by ventricular tachycardia.a 78-year-old man was admitted to the authors' hospital with a short history of shortness of breath and pyrexia. he had long-standing moderate mitral regurgitation and stable coronary artery disease. blood cultures grew abiotrophia defectiva coccobaccili. transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of mitral valve endocarditis that necessitated treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for six weeks. at nine days after admission the patient developed several episode ...201627989096
postkeratoplasty keratitis caused by abiotrophia defectiva: an unusual cause of graft infection.abiotrophia defectiva is a nutritional variant of streptococci. we describe a case of microbial keratitis due to a. defectiva in a patient who had undergone penetrating keratoplasty and was on corticosteroid therapy for recent graft rejection. isolation of this organism confirmed this to be an opportunistic infection.201526180481
[infective endocarditis by abiotrophia defectiva diagnosed by mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) in argentina].we report the case of a 63-year-old woman with congestive heart failure due to a bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis. the patient had a febrile syndrome with positive blood cultures for abiotrophia defectiva, transesophageal echocardiogram revealed the presence of paravalvular abscess, which was treated by a successful valve replacement. the patient received appropriate antibiotic therapy with intravenous vancomycin, leading to a successful response. the use of maldi-tof ms as a rap ...201628146195
peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to abiotrophia defectiva: a case report.abiotrophia defectiva is a fastidious aerobic gram-positive bacterium which is part of the normal flora of the human oral cavity. it is an unusual cause of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.201628270927
infective endocarditis with atypical clinical feature and relapse by abiotrophia defectiva.a case of infective endocarditis caused by an uncommon agent abiotrophia defectiva with atypical manifestations is presented. a 42-year-old woman previously had rheumatic heart disease, presented with the symptoms of fever and chills that resolved within 3 days under antibiotherapy. she was diagnosed with endocarditis due to a. defectiva. despite culture-directed antibiotics being administered in the first admission, her symptoms and also blood culture growth relapsed 3 weeks later. she was succ ...201728373788
abiotrophia defectiva bleb-associated endophthalmitis confirmed with 16s ribosomal rna recognized complication of trabeculectomy with visually devastating potential is blebitis. we present a case of a 74-year-old woman with a culture and polymerase chain reaction-positive abiotrophia defectiva bleb-associated endophthalmitis. abiotrophia defectiva is a rare but possible cause of endophthalmitis secondary to blebitis and should be considered in culture-negative cases. prompt identification, hence directed eradication, of the causative organism in such visually threatening cases ...201523970342
a case of isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva.a 17-year-old man with a history of dental caries was admitted to our hospital because of 1-week high fever. there was no history of previous cardiac disease. he denied drug abuse. blood culture was positive for abiotrophia defectiva. echocardiography demonstrated large vegetation attached to the anterior cusp of the tricuspid valve with moderate regurgitation. although he was treated with antibiotics for more than 3 weeks, he had chest pain due to septic pulmonary emboli on chest computed tomog ...200717368587
[abiotrophia defectiva]. 201627314997
(18)f-fdg-pet scanning confirmed infected intracardiac device-leads with abiotrophia defectiva.abiotrophia species are relatively slow growing pathogens, which may be present as commensal flora. however, invasive infections are frequently reported, like endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and many other types of infection. in this case report we describe a 65-year-old male patient with an intracardiac device- (icd-) lead infection caused by abiotrophia defectiva. diagnosis was confirmed by (18)f-fdg-pet scanning. this is remarkable, since abiotrophia defectiva is a slow growing ...201627110408
meningitis caused by abiotrophia defectiva: case report and literature review.the genus abiotrophia comprises fastidious gram-positive bacteria previously classified as nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs). the isolation of nvs from the central nervous system (cns) is very rare. we describe a case of meningitis due to abiotrophia defectiva in a patient who underwent a total hip arthroplasty 4 days previously. it is possible that the organism could be introduced through the spinal anesthesia. we also review all cases of cns infections caused by nvs.201322915347
bullous impetigo associated with abiotrophia defectiva in an immunocompetent adult.infection of humans by abiotrophia defectiva, a nutritionally variant streptococcus, most commonly takes the form of endocarditis, though a variety of other manifestations ranging from central nervous system abscesses to orthopaedic infections have been seen. we report here what we believe is the first case of bullous impetigo associated with this organism.201222493280
infective endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva and granulicatella spp. complicated by infectious intracranial cerebral aneurysms: a report of three cases and review of the literature.nutritionally variant streptococci, now classified as abiotrophia defectivaor granulicatella spp., are thought to account for 2 % of all infective endocarditis cases but estimates of their frequency are complicated by changes in nomenclature and difficulties in obtaining positive microbiology cultures. their growth characteristics and difficulty undertaking antibiotic susceptibility testing may impede optimal antibiotic treatment decisions. we describe three patients with definite infective endo ...201627046228
mitral valve endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva in a 14th week pregnant woman.infective endocarditis during pregnancy carries a high mortality risk, both for the mother and for the foetus and requires a multidisciplinary team in the management of complicated cases. we report our experience with a 39-year old patient, affected by an acute active mitral endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva at the 14th gestational week, strongly motivated to continue the pregnancy. our patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement with a normothermic high-flow cardiopulmonary ...201626487436
metagenomic analysis for detecting pathogens in culture-negative infective endocarditis.pathogen identification is important for proper diagnosis and optimal treatment of infective endocarditis (ie). blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for detecting pathogens responsible for ie. however, these tests only detect culturable pathogens, and have low sensitivity, especially in patients previously treated with antibiotics. culture-negative ie is still a major clinical problem and a diagnostic challenge. recently, metagenomic analysis using next generation sequencing has been u ...201526360016
aortic valve endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva: case report and literature overview.abiotrophia defectiva or nutritionally variant streptococcus (nvs) are a rare but important cause of infectious endocarditis, with high rates of bacteriological failure and mortality. we report the case of a 74-year-old man admitted for fever, fatigue and general malaise in the absence of any underlying cardiac, immunosuppressive illness and previous dental manipulations. transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed bacterial vegetation and significant aortic stenosis and regurgitat ...201526359407
abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis.a previously healthy 27-year-old jamaican man presented to the university hospital of the west indies with recurrent joint pain, remitting and relapsing fever, and shortness of breath. he was subsequently found to have abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis. this was the first time this organism had been isolated at our institution. despite culture directed antibiotics, his clinical course was quite severe with mitral regurgitation and congestive cardiac failure requiring mitral valve replacement. h ...201425519863
a case report and literature overview: abiotrophia defectiva aortic valve endocarditis in developing countries.a fatal case of aortic valve endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva was reported in brazil. an overview of cases of endocarditis and other human infections related to a. defectiva in developing countries was also accomplished.201424510585
comparison of maldi-tof ms and vitek 2 system for laboratory diagnosis of granulicatella and abiotrophia species causing invasive infections.granulicatella and abiotrophia spp. were known as nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs). such strains have caused major diagnostic difficulties due to fastidious culturing and unspecific colony morphology. the present study is aimed at comparing the performance of laboratory available diagnostic methods for nvs isolates and determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. fourteen clinical invasive isolates, consisting of 10 granulicatella adiacens, 1 granulicatella elegans, an ...201324034902
first case of multiple discitis and sacroiliitis due to abiotrophia defectiva. 200515599782
a woman with infectious endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva.a 74-year-old woman with recurrent fever and multiple joint pain was admitted to hokkaido university hospital. trans-esophageal echocardiogram revealed bacterial vegetation and destruction of the aortic valve. although few bacteria grew in regular blood agar, gram-positive coccobacillus was specifically grown in chocolate blood agar and brucella agar, and it was identified to be abiotrophia defectiva. infectious endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva was diagnosed, she was treated with diu ...200415575256
abiotrophia defectiva causing infectious crystalline keratopathy and corneal ulcer after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report.infectious crystalline keratopathy is commonly caused by streptococcus viridans and other gram positive organisms. we present the first case of infectious crystalline keratopathy that developed into a corneal ulcer and grew abiotrophia defectiva which responded well to topical and systemic antimicrobial therapy and did not require re-grafting. a 78-year-old man underwent penetrating keratoplasty for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. he presented 1.5 years later with infectious crystalline kerato ...201323514629
abiotrophia defectiva endophthalmitis with retinal involvement and infiltrative keratitis: case report and review of the literature.we report the exceptional case of a severe intraocular abiotrophia defectiva infection which developed after cataract surgery. retinal involvement as a complication of a. defectiva endophthalmitis or the combination of acute-onset endophthalmitis with infiltrative keratitis caused by this pathogen has not been described. moreover, our report represents the first documented ocular a. defectiva infection in germany. a. defectiva was identified using biotyping and 16s ribosomal rna gene sequence an ...201020411400
a patient with lemierre syndrome.lemierre syndrome, also known as postanginal sepsis, is a severe complication of an acute oropharyngeal infection that results in septic thrombophlebitis of the ipsilateral internal jugular vein with subsequent septicemia, often complicated by metastatic infections (syed et al., laryngoscope 117:1605-1610, 2007). we present the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old boy with lemierre syndrome, caused by streptococci (abiotrophia defectiva), complicating a subcutaneous neck abscess. the patient ...201020187290
[bacteremia due to abiotrophia defectiva in a febrile neutropenic pediatric patient].the presence of granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. the aim of this study is to describe a case of a.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 degrees c) neutropenic (200 gb/mm3) boy. a.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples. although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as t ...200717702254
intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by abiotrophia defectiva in a neutropenic child.bacteraemia and endocarditis are the most frequently reported clinical infections due to abiotrophia defectiva species. this species has been rarely implicated in infections in neutropenic patients. we report a rare case of long-term venous catheter-related infection caused by a. defectiva that occurred in a febrile child who had neutropenia and langerhans' cell histiocytosis.201323378563
[a case with abiotrophia defectiva isolated from postoperative blood culture of a patient with diffuse peritonitis].we have recently detected abiotrophia defectiva (a. defectiva) from postoperative blood culture of a patient with diffuse peritonitis. pleomorphic gram positive rod appearance and no growth on a standard sheep blood agar led us to suspect aerotolerant anaerobe. from the test results of simplified identification kit for anaerobes, we tentatively reported clostridium tertium (c. tertium) to the clinician. however, the analysis of 16srrna sequence proved it to be a. defectiva. when gram positive co ...201223198534
evaluation of the immune response in protection against experimental streptococcus defectivus endocarditis.immune protection from endocarditis caused by streptococcus defectivus was examined by using a rabbit model. previously we had demonstrated that immunization with nutritionally variant streptococci (nvs, now referred to as streptococcus, species defectivus and adjacens) protected rabbits against endocarditis when they were challenged with the homologous strain. however, when high-titer immune globulin was transferred to nonimmunized rabbits, no protection was achieved. in the present study, immu ...19912019795
abiotrophia defectiva infection of a total hip arthroplasty diagnosed by 16s rrna gene sequencing.we describe a case of a total hip arthroplasty infection caused by abiotrophia defectiva, identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. removal of the prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in a good clinical outcome. 16s rrna gene sequencing can be a useful tool in diagnosing infection with this fastidious microorganism that can easily be misidentified using phenotypic identification methods.201121392927
endocarditis caused by abiotrophia defectiva.a 35-year-old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (ar) presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. transoesophageal echocardiogram (tee) revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (av). blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as abiotrophia defectvia (a.defectiva). a diagnosis of infective endocarditis (ie) due to a.defectiva was made. treatment, with penici ...200721503231
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