survey of cryptosporidium spp. and giardia spp. infections in various animals at a zoo in japan.a total of 284 fecal samples of 89 species (43 mammalian species and 46 avian species) were examined for cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from 1999 to 2002. each sample was collected at the zoo located at osaka in japan and examined by microscopy after performing the sucrose flotation method and by two immunofluorescent assay kits for detection of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts. cryptosporidium spp. was found only in a raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), and giardia spp. ...200517323580
characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in mongolia 2005 through 2007.since the emergence of h5n1 high pathogenicity (hp) avian influenza virus (aiv) in asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. in accordance with this a surveillance program for aiv in wild birds was conducted in mongolia from 2005-2007. an important feature of mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore aiv detection in wild birds would not likely be ...200919891786
first detection of cryptosporidium baileyi in ruddy shelduck (tadorna ferruginea) in china.fecal samples from ruddy shelduck, tadorna ferruginea, were screened microscopically for cryptosporidium oocysts. five samples out of 148 ones (3.38%) were confirmed to be positive. dna was extracted individually from positive samples and used for pcr amplification of ssu rdna and hsp70 gene loci. the obtained pcr products were cloned in e. coli (tg1 strain) using pmd18-t vector and sequenced using standard methods. microscopical and molecular analyses identified the obtained isolates as cryptos ...201020203436
variability in pathobiology of south korean h5n1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection for 5 species of migratory waterfowl.the pathobiology of h5n1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (hpai) virus infection in wild waterfowl is poorly understood. this study examined the pathobiology of a/chicken/korea/is/06 (h5n1) hpai in 5 migratory waterfowl species--mute swans (cygnus olor), greylag geese (anser anser), ruddy shelducks (tadorna ferruginea), mandarin ducks (aix galericulata), and mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos)--following intranasal inoculation or contact exposure, from which all birds became infected. in mute s ...201020382820
flying over an infected landscape: distribution of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 risk in south asia and satellite tracking of wild waterfowl.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus persists in asia, posing a threat to poultry, wild birds, and humans. previous work in southeast asia demonstrated that hpai h5n1 risk is related to domestic ducks and people. other studies discussed the role of migratory birds in the long distance spread of hpai h5n1. however, the interplay between local persistence and long-distance dispersal has never been studied. we expand previous geospatial risk analysis to include south and southeast as ...201121267626
winter pairs of ruddy shelducks at lashihai lake, southwest has been suggested that pairing behavior during winter in migratory ducks represents a trade-off between costs (defense of the female) and benefits (early access to females). to investigate the benefits and costs for both sexes in wintering pairs of ruddy shelducks (tadorna ferruginea), we compared time budgets for paired males and females, and surveyed the sex ratio of the birds wintering at lashihai lake, southwest china. the behavior of the paired ruddy shelducks was monitored for 5 activi ...201223621471
wild bird surveillance for avian paramyxoviruses in the azov-black sea region of ukraine (2006 to 2011) reveals epidemiological connections with europe and africa.despite the existence of 10 avian paramyxovirus (apmv) serotypes, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and ecological factors affecting virus transmission. to better understand the relationship among these factors, we conducted apmv wild bird surveillance in regions of ukraine suspected of being intercontinental (north to south and east to west) flyways. surveillance for apmv was conducted in 6,735 wild birds representing 86 species and 8 different orders during 2006 to 201 ...201424973063
experimental infection of bar-headed geese (anser indicus) and ruddy shelducks (tadorna ferruginea) with a clade 2.3.2 h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.since 2005, clade 2.2 h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses have caused infections and morbidity among numerous species of wild waterfowl in eurasia and africa. however, outbreaks associated with clade 2.3.2 viruses have increased since 2009, and viruses within this clade have become the dominant strain of the h5n1 hpai virus detected in wild birds, reaching endemic status in domestic birds in select regions of asia. to address questions regarding the emergence and expansion of c ...201323735616
eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza h5n1 along the central asian flyway.a unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 outbreaks has emerged along the central asia flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. we assessed the potential for two hosts of hpai h5n1, the bar-headed goose (anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this 'thoroughfare'. we used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with gps satellite transm ...201222347393
surveillance of influenza a virus and its subtypes in migratory wild birds of nepal.nepal boarders india and china and all three countries lie within the central asian flyway for migratory birds. novel influenza a h7n9 caused human fatalities in china in 2013. subclinical infections of influenza a h7n9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian h7n9 viral intrusion into nepal. surveillance of influenza a virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the food and agricultural organization (f ...201526176773
antibodies to influenza a virus in wild birds across mongolia, 2006-2009.wild waterbirds sampled july 2006-september 2009 in mongolia were tested for antibodies to avian influenza (ai) virus with the use of a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. antibodies were detected in 25% (572/2,282) of tested birds representing 26 species, and all antibody-positive samples were from 12 species in the orders anseriformes and charadriiformes. the highest antibody prevalence was in ruddy shelducks (tadorna ferruginea; 61.7%; n=261; 95% confidence inte ...201222740544
avian hemosporidian parasite lineages in four species of free-ranging migratory waterbirds from mongolia, 2008.avian hemosporidian parasites have been detected in asia, but little information is known about the hemosporidian parasite lineages that circulate in waterbirds that migrate along the east asian and central asian migratory flyways to breed in mongolia. to gather baseline data on hemosporidian parasite presence in mongolian waterbirds, 151 blood-spot samples (81 hatch year [hy] and 70 after hatch year [ahy]) from bar-headed goose (anser indicus), ruddy shelduck (tadorna ferruginea), great cormora ...201627243330
the complete mitochondrial genome of aix galericulata and tadorna ferruginea: bearings on their phylogenetic position in the anseriformes.aix galericulata and tadorna ferruginea are two anatidae species representing different taxonomic groups of anseriformes. we used a pcr-based method to determine the complete mtdnas of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the complete mtdna alignment of these and 14 other anseriforme species, to clarify anseriform phylogenetics. phylogenetic trees were also estimated using a multiple sequence alignment of three mitochondrial genes (cyt b, nd2, and coi) from 68 typical species ...201425375111
description of diorchis thracica n. sp. (cestoda, hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck tadorna ferruginea (pallas) (anseriformes, anatidae) in bulgaria.diorchis thracica n. sp. (cestoda, cyclophyllidea, hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck tadorna ferruginea (pallas) (aves, anseriformes, anatidae), collected in the vicinities of radnevo, stara zagora region, bulgaria. the new species is differentiated from other members of diorchis clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. main ...201526063303
movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the central asian flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1.highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where hpai h5n1 outbreaks regularly occur. we studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 qinghai lake outbreak. we defined their migration with br ...201324022072
mapping migratory flyways in asia using dynamic brownian bridge movement models.identifying movement routes and stopover sites is necessary for developing effective management and conservation strategies for migratory animals. in the case of migratory birds, a collection of migration routes, known as a flyway, is often hundreds to thousands of kilometers long and can extend across political boundaries. flyways encompass the entire geographic range between the breeding and non-breeding areas of a population, species, or a group of species, and they provide spatial frameworks ...201525709838
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